ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0032.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: inverse acoustic problem; helicopter rotor; Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation; aerodynamic constraint; Thikhonov method
Online: 5 February 2018 (11:34:30 CET)
An inverse aeroacoustic problem for a helicopter rotor combined with aerodynamic constraint is proposed based on Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation in subsonic. The rotor noise includes thickness noise and loading noise when quadrupole noise is neglected. Thickness noise is related to geometry and motion conditions. Loading noise is related to the pressure on the wall. Therefore, the equation between pressure on the wall and far-field noise can be established, thus the pressure on the wall can be obtained by solving this equation. Since this equation is an ill-posed, the singular value decomposition combined with the regulation method is applied and the aerodynamic constraint is taken into account. The direct noise prediction is verify firstly and then the inverse problem is solved. The reconstruction pressure is compared to the input data. The result is in good agreement with the input value. At the same time, the influence of interference noise is also considered. Under low signal-to-noise ratio, the reconstruction result is also reasonable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0257.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Betz Limit; Aerodynamic Efficiency; Biomimicry
Online: 19 September 2022 (03:47:02 CEST)
This paper describe a procedure to measure experimentally the power coefficient, Cp, of winged seeds, and apply this technique to seeds from the Norway maple (Acer platanoides). We measure Cp=56.9±2% at a tip speed ratio of 3.21±0.06. Our results are in agreement with previously published CFD simulations that indicate that these seeds – operating in low-Reynolds number conditions – approach the Betz limit (Cp=59.3%) the maximum possible efficiency for a wind turbine. In addition, this result is not consistent with the recent theoretical work of Okulov & Sørensen, which suggests that a single-bladed turbine with a tip-speed ratio of 3.2 can achieve a power efficiency of no more than 30%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Natural ventilation; Wind tunnel; Air pressure; Aerodynamic coefficients.
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:14:30 CEST)
The close proximity of different buildings heights can cause disturbances in the working of the smoke and ventilation ducts of lower buildings, threatening the health and even the lives of residents. To define the influence of high-rise building on the work of the ducts of the neighbouring double-storied building, experimental investigations in the wind tunnel were conducted. On this basis, empirical equations and graphs were developed leading to determining the aerodynamic coefficients considering different wind directions and the height of ducts. The direction of the wind reveals a greater influence than the height of the ducts. Properly using deflectors or increasing the height of the duct ensures maintaining static rarefaction in the area of smoke and ventilation ducts. The creation of rarefaction ensures the reliability of the natural ventilation system and the safety of the health of residents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0496.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Aerodynamic Lift; Boundary Layer Theory; Triple Deck Theory
Online: 9 November 2021 (14:52:31 CET)
An explanation of aerodynamic lift still is under controversial discussion as can be seen, for example, in a recent published article in Scientific American . In contrast to an approach via integral conservation laws we here review an approach via the classical Kutta-Condition and its relation to boundary layer theory. Thereby we summarize known results for viscous correction to the lift coefficient for thin aerodynamic profiles and try to remember the work on triple-deck or higher order Boundary Layer theory, its connection to interactive boundary layer theory, viscous/inviscid coupling as implemented to well-known engineering code Xfoil. Finally we compare its findings to simple 2D numerical solution of full Navier Stokes equations (CFD)models. As a conclusion, a clearer definition of terms like understanding and explanation applied to the phenomenon of aerodynamic lift will be given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0225.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: boundary layer transition; wind turbine; thermography; aerodynamic glove
Online: 19 April 2019 (11:58:41 CEST)
Knowledge about laminar-turbulent transition on operating multi-megawatt wind turbine blades needs sophisticated equipment like hot-films or microphone arrays. Contrarily thermographic pictures can easily be taken from the ground and temperature differences indicate different states of the boundary layer. The accuracy however, still is an open question, so that an aerodynamic glove known from experimental research on aero-planes was used to classify the boundary-layer state of a 2 megawatt wind turbine blade operating in the orthern part of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. State-of-the-art equipment for measurering static surface pressure was used for monitoring the lift distribution. To distinguish laminar and turbulent parts of the boundary layer (suction side only) 48 microphones were applied together with ground-based thermographic cameras from two teams. Additionally, an optical camera mounted on the hub was used to survey vibrations. During start-up (from 0 to 9 rpm) extended, but irregularly shaped regions of a laminar boundary layer were observed which had the same extension measured both with microphones and Thermography. When an approximately constant rotor rotation (9 rpm corresponding to approximately 6 m/s wind-speed) was achieved, a flow transition was visible at the expected position of 40 % chord length on the rotor blade, which was fouled with dense turbulent wedges and an almost complete turbulent state on the glove was detected. In all observations, quantitative determination of the flow transition positions from thermography and microphones agree well within their accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0690.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: near space; Joule heat; solar radiation; aerodynamic; temperature correction
Online: 21 April 2023 (08:32:51 CEST)
Near space environment is the airspace at an altitude of 20 km-100 km, where complex conditions such as low temperature, low pressure, high wind speed and solar radiation exist. As one of the important meteorological parameters, temperature is crucial for space activities, but the influence of the complex environment makes the error of conventional temperature measurement methods large. Therefore, a new microbridge temperature sensor was designed that can reduce solar radiation and achieve a fast response. And through simulation analysis, the three factors influencing the temperature errors of Joule heat, solar radiation heat and aerodynamic heat were investigated. And the influence of temperature error is reduced by optimizing the installation position of the sensor. Through the temperature error model, the error value in the actual measurement value is removed, to realize the high accuracy detection of near-space temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0382.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: flexible fibre; flow medium; aerodynamic shape; drag; scaling laws
Online: 27 May 2022 (10:46:59 CEST)
The study of a flexible body immersed in a flowing medium is one of best way to find its aerodynamic shape. This Letter revisited the problem first studied by Alben, Shelley and Zhang (Nature 420, 479-481, 2002). The aerodynamic shape of the fibre is found by simpler approach and universal drag scaling laws of the flexible fibre in flowing medium are proposed by using dimensional analysis. The Alben scaling laws is being generalized and confirmed to be universal. Our study show that the Alben number is a measurement of maximum curvature of the fibre forced by dynamic pressure. A complete Maple code is provided for finding aerodynamic shape of the fibre in the flowing medium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0181.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: annular cooling fan; outer ring; structure parameters; aerodynamic performance
Online: 15 May 2019 (10:05:43 CEST)
We studied the effect of the structure parameters of engine annular cooling fan with outer ring on the aerodynamic performance by means of experiments and model simulation in fluent®. Firstly, based on the experiment, a computational model is developed to calculate and analyze the aerodynamic performance of the tested annular fan. The model is validated by comparing the test results with the calculated data. Besides, the aerodynamic performance differences between two types of fans (common fan without outer ring and annular fan with outer ring) are discussed. Based on the computational model, the relation between aerodynamic performance and the outer ring structure parameters are investigated. The results show that the relative parameter on the axial direction has great influence on the aerodynamic performance; while the effect of radial relative parameter is minor. In addition, the outer ring with arc chamfer structure in the downstream side can improve its static pressure efficiency effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0028.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: aerodynamic efficiency; surface fow; wrinkled/contoured surface; surface flow
Online: 3 July 2018 (07:43:28 CEST)
The aerodynamic efficiency of a NACA 0012 AR 4 wing was affected through periodic contours aligned in the flow direction resembling a “wrinkled” texture. Streamwise and cross-stream Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) were conducted at the University of Dayton Low Speed Wind Tunnel (UD-LSWT) around Reynolds number of 135,000 on the NACA 0012 AR 4 wing with and without surface contours. Wings with 6 contour sections was designed by spline fitting two NACA 0012 airfoil profiles in the spanwise direction. Both 2D (wall-to-wall model) configuration and 3D configuration of the wings were tested to determine the effects of surface contours on the parasite and induced drag of the wing. Streamwise PIV results indicated an increase in momentum deficit in the wake of the mid-contour region due to enhanced boundary layer separation from the upper surface of the mid-contour region. The cross-stream PIV results indicated a decrease in the magnitude of azimuthal velocity, circulation and RMS quantities in the wingtip vortex with the surface contours. The reduction in the wingtip vortex properties indicates that the contours were effective in blocking the spanwise flow feeding into the wingtip vortex on the surface of the wing
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: flexible tower; nacelle attitude feedback (NAF); dynamic response; aerodynamic load
Online: 6 September 2021 (12:45:31 CEST)
Based on the two-node Euler-Bernoulli beam, the tower system is discretized by finite element method, and the cubic Hermite polynomial is taken as the shape function of the beam element, and the structural characteristic matrix of the tower system is calculated, and the wind turbine-nacelle-tower multi-degree of freedom is established Finite element numerical model. The aerodynamic load calculation formula for any nacelle attitude angle is deduced. The influence of the vibration feedback of the flexible tower on the aerodynamic load of the wind turbine is studied. The results show that when the rigidity of the tower is large, the impact of tower vibration feedback on the aeroelastic load of the wind turbine is small. For a tower system with greater flexibility, the time-varying feedback of wind-induced vibration will cause greater aeroelastic load changes, especially the overturning moment of the tower top, which will cause a greater impact on the dynamic behavior of the tower in the downwind and crosswind directions. As the flexibility of the tower system increases, the interaction between tower vibration and aerodynamic load is gradually increasing. Taking the impact of the flexible tower on the aeroelastic load of the wind turbine into account, on the one hand, helps to predict the wind more accurately. The aerodynamic load of the wind turbine improves the efficiency of wind energy utilization. On the other hand, it can more accurately analyze the dynamic behavior of the flexible structure of the wind turbine, which is extremely beneficial to the structural optimization design of the wind turbine.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0093.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; virus, bioaerosol; social distancing; aerodynamic size; infection
Online: 22 April 2020 (05:54:48 CEST)
The fast spread of COVID-19 constitutes a worldwide challenge to the public health, educational, and trade systems, affecting the overall wellbeing of human societies. The high transmission and mortality rates of this virus, and the unavailability of a vaccine or treatment, resulted in the decision of multiple governments to enact measures of social distancing. Thus, it is of general interest to consider the validity of the proposal for keeping a social distancing of at least 2 m from other persons to avoid the spread of COVID-19. The exposure to the bioaerosol can result in the deposition of the pathogen in the respiratory tract of the host causing disease and an immunological response. In the atmospheric context, the work evaluates the effect of aerodynamic diameter (size) of particles in carrying RNA copies of the novel coronavirus. A SARS-CoV-2 carrier person talking, sneezing, or coughing at distance of 2 m can still provide a pathogenic bioaerosol load with submicron particles that remain viable in air for up to 3 hours for exposure of healthy persons near and far from the source in a stagnant environment. The deposited bioaerosol creates contaminated surfaces, which if touched can act as a path to introduce the pathogen by mouth, nose, or eyes and cause disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0245.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: low-bypass-ratio transonic fan; aerodynamic optimization; vortex dynamics; secondary flow; shock wave
Online: 5 October 2023 (02:12:19 CEST)
In order to balance the conflicts among mass flow rate, total pressure ratio, adiabatic efficiency and stall margin in a low-bypass transonic fan, the optimization of the rotor blade is implemented in this study. An advanced 3D optimization design system is adopted, and flow diagnostic methods based on vorticity dynamics are employed to discuss the flow field. Results indicate that by controlling the blade camber line curvature, significant improvements in the aerodynamic performance for the fan stage are achieved, the total pressure ratio is increased by 1.90%, while the adiabatic efficiency and mass flow rate are increased by 4.45% and 5.82%, respectively. Vorticity diagnosis suggest that there exists a close link between performance parameters and vorticity parameters in the axial fan/compressor, both azimuthal vorticity and boundary vortex flux have significant influences on the stage performance. Moreover, the boundary layer separation is accompanied by the spike of entropy and static pressure, while the derivation/gradient of these flow parameters would also suffer drastic changes under the effect of shock wave. The vorticity parameters could provide detailed flow information about the on-wall flow with high accuracy, which provides the researchers with a novel method for the turbomachinery aerodynamic design and analysis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2102.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: aerodynamic performance; wind turbine; icing; rainfall; hailstorm; dust; sand; insects; humidity; sea spray
Online: 29 September 2023 (10:30:55 CEST)
This paper provides a review of the aerodynamic behavior of horizontal axis wind turbines operating in hazardous environmental conditions. Over the past decade, renewable energy use has accelerated due to global warming, depleting fossil fuel reserves, and stricter environmental regulations. Among renewable options, solar and wind energy have shown economic viability and global growth. Horizontal axis wind turbines offer promising solutions for sustainable energy demand. Since wind turbines operate in an open environment, their efficiency depends on environmental conditions. Hazard environmental conditions, such as icing, rainfall, hailstorm, dust or sand, insects’ collisions, increased humidity and sea spray, result in degraded aerodynamic performance. The outcome of the most studies is that lift is degraded and at the same time drag is increased when wind turbines operate under these conditions. The objective of this review is to improve our comprehension of the crucial aspects to take into account when designing wind turbine blades, and it offers suggestions for future research paths. It serves as a valuable resource that can inspire researchers who are dedicated to enhancing the aerodynamic performance of horizontal axis wind turbines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0262.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: Dandelion; pappus; flexible filament; wind-dispersal; aerodynamic shape; drag; Reynolds number; scaling laws
Online: 12 April 2023 (04:46:14 CEST)
The common dandelion uses a bundle of drag-enhancing bristles (the pappus) that enables seed dispersal over formidable distances; however, the scaling laws of aerodynamic drag underpinning pappus-mediated flight remains unresolved. In this paper, we study the aerodynamic shape of dandelion, derive the scaling law of resistance, determine the Vogel exponent. In particular, we find that the total drag coefficient is proportional to the -2/3 power of the dandelion pappus Reynolds number, and obtain the terminal velocity of the dandelion seed under gravitation field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1872.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: race walking; error analysis; numerical simulation; aerodynamic drag reduction; drag reduction mechanism; performance evaluation
Online: 27 June 2023 (09:21:18 CEST)
Drafting formations have been long recognized as highly effective for reducing drag and enhancing athletic performance, particularly in race walking events. The precise spacing and positioning of the race walkers are critical to optimizing the effectiveness of drafting. In this study, the drag reduction of 15 drafting formations is investigated using wind-tunnel experiments and CFD numerical simulations. The results show excellent consistency in drag reduction rate between the two methods, with differences being within 10%. This can be attributed to spacing replacing body shape differences as the primary factor influencing drag reduction. Optimal double, triple, and quadruple drafting formations produce the same results in both wind-tunnel experiments and CFD simulation, resulting in drag reductions of 67%, 66%, and 81% (wind-tunnel) and 65%, 72%, and 85% (CFD). The sources of drag differences in the two methods are discussed from various aspects. The flow field obtained through CFD analysis is used to examine the mechanism of drag reduction, revealing that drafting formations have a significant shielding effect on incoming air, which reduces the number and speed of airflow impacting the core race walker. This shielding effect is identified as the primary cause of drag reduction. Using an empirical model for mechanical power output, optimal double, triple, and quadruple drafting formations enhance sport economy (4.4-5.7%), speed (3.61-4.67%), and performance (173.8-223.3s) compared to race walking alone. The findings can serve as a reference for race walkers' positioning strategy and provide insights for considering drafting formations in various running events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0056.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Airborne wind energy; crosswind kite; induction factor; wake model; aerodynamic performance; CFD; analytical model
Online: 3 March 2022 (07:50:24 CET)
This paper presents some results from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a multi-megawatt crosswind kite spinning on a circular path in a straight downwind configuration. The unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations closed by the k−ω SST turbulence model are solved in the three-dimensional space using ANSYS Fluent. The flow behaviour is examined at the rotation plane, and the overall (or global) induction factor is obtained by getting the weighted average of induction factors on multiple annuli over the swept area. The wake flow behaviour is also discussed in some details using velocity and pressure contour plots. In addition to the CFD model, an analytical model for calculating the average flow velocity and radii of the annular wake downstream of the kite is developed. The model is formulated based on the widely-used Jensen’s model (Technical Report Risø-M; No. 2411, 1983), which was developed for conventional wind turbines, and thus has a simple form. Expressions for the dimensionless wake flow velocity and wake radii are obtained by assuming self-similarity of flow velocity and linear wake expansion. Comparisons are made between numerical results from the analytical model and those from the CFD simulation. The level of agreement was found to be reasonably good. Such computational and analytical models are indispensable for kite farm layout design and optimization, where aerodynamic interactions between kites should be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: airborne wind energy; leading-edge inflatable wing; RANS; side-slip flow; struts; aerodynamic performance
Online: 8 November 2021 (12:14:40 CET)
Steady-state Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are performed for a leading-edge inflatable wing for airborne wind energy applications. Expanding on previous work where only the inflatable leading edge tube was considered, eight additional inflatable strut tubes that support the wing canopy are now included. The shape of the wing is considered to be constant. The influence of the strut tubes on the aerodynamic performance of the wing and the local flow field is assessed, considering flow configurations with and without side-slip. The simulations show that the aerodynamic performance of the wing decreases with increasing side-slip component of the inflow. On the other hand, the chordwise struts have little influence on the integral lift and drag of the wing, irrespective of the side-slip component. The overall flow characteristics are in good agreement with previous studies. In particular, it is confirmed that at a low Reynolds number of Re=10^5, a laminar separation bubble exists on the suction side of this hypothetical rigid wing shape with perfectly smooth surface. The destruction of this bubble at low angles of attack impacts negatively on the aerodynamic performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0362.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: apartment building; aerodynamic coefficient; wind speed; air change rate; concentration of carbon dioxide; experimental measurement
Online: 15 March 2021 (08:11:30 CET)
Air change rate is an important parameter for quantification of ventilation heat losses and also affects the indoor climate of buildings. Indoor air quality is significantly associated with ventilation. If air change isn't sufficient, trapped allergens, pollutants and irritants can degrade the indoor air quality and affect the well-being of a building's occupants. Many studies on ventilation and health have concluded that lower air change rates can have a negative effect on people’s health and low ventilation may result in an increase in allergic diseases. Quantification of air change rate is complicated, since it is affected by a number of parameters, of which the one of the most variable is the air-wind flow. This study aims to determination and comparison of values of the air change rate in two methods - by quantifying of aerodynamic coefficient Cp = Cpe - Cpi – so called aerodynamic quantification of the building and the methodology based on experimental measurements of carbon dioxide in the selected reference room in apartment building.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: anderson-vertical-axis-wind-turbine; actual-power; aerodynamic-power; blockage-factor; power-coefficient; tip-speed-ratio
Online: 11 October 2019 (11:10:59 CEST)
The basic equation for estimating the aerodynamic power captured by an Anderson Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (AVAWT) is a solution of the Navier-Stokes(N-S) equations for a baroclinic, inviscid flow. In a nutshell, the pressure difference across the AVAWT is derived from Bernoulli’s equation; an upshot of the integration of the N-S momentum equation for a baroclinic inviscid flow, Euler’s momentum equation. The resulting expression for the pressure difference across the AVAWT rotor is plotted as a function of freestream speed. Experimentally determined airstream speeds at the AVAWT inlet and outlet, coupled with corresponding freestream speeds are used in estimating the aerodynamic power captured. The aerodynamic power is subsequently used in calculating the aerodynamic power coefficient of the AVAWT. The actual power coefficient is calculated from the power generated by the AVAWT at various free stream speeds and plotted as a function of the latter. Experimental results show that, at all free stream speeds and tip speed ratios, the aerodynamic power coefficient is higher than the actual power coefficient of the AVAWT. Consequently, the power generated by the AVAWT prototype is lower than the aerodynamic power captured, given the same inflow wind condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0578.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: rotating blade with a dovetail structure; fixed-interface component mode synthesis method; aerodynamic force; interface contact; dynamic characteristics
Online: 9 May 2023 (05:40:28 CEST)
Considering rotation-induced centrifugal stiffening, spin softening, and Coriolis effects, the three-dimensional finite element model of a rotating blade with a dovetail structure is built through the contact dynamics theory. The fixed-interface component mode synthesis method is then adopted to reduce the model for high computational efficiency and adequate model accuracy. The effects of the number of normal modes on the first-six-order modal characteristics of the model varying with the rotating speed are studied between the reduced and full models. Next, the influence of rotating speed and friction factor on the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the model under the action of aerodynamic force are elaborately discussed. The results show that: (1) tenon-mortise joint contact-induced nonlinearity under low rotating speeds results in the intermittent interference of contact surfaces and frequency multiplications of aerodynamic excitation frequency in the spectrum cascades, while that under high rotating speeds causes the continuous interface contact and asynchronous excitation at the tenon-mortise joint; (2) the increase of friction factor results in a lower contact pressure distribution and the right shift of the resonance peak (i.e., hard nonlinearity).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0157.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: GEM fluxes; gaseous elemental mercury; coastal area; Aegean Sea; Mediterranean Basin; aerodynamic gradient method; Monin-Obukhov similarity theory
Online: 13 August 2019 (13:23:20 CEST)
Coastal rural areas can be a source of elemental mercury, but the potential influence of their topographic and climatic particularities on gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes have not been investigated extensively. In this study gaseous elemental mercury was measured over Mediterranean coastal grassland located at Northern Greece from 2014 to 2015 and GEM fluxes were evaluated utilizing Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The GEM fluxes ranged from -50.30 to 109.695 ng m-2 h-1 with a mean value equal to 10.501 ng m-2 h-1 ± 19.14 ng m-2 h-1. Concerning the peak events, with high positive and low negative GEM fluxes, those were recorded from the morning until the evening. Rain events were a strong contributing factor for enhanced GEM fluxes. The enhanced turbulent mixing under daytime unstable conditions led to greater evasion and positive GEM fluxes while during nighttime periods the GEM evasion is lower indicating the effect of atmospheric stability on GEM fluxes. The coastal grassland with its specific characteristics influences the GEM fluxes and this area could be characterized as source of elemental mercury. This study is one of the rare efforts in the research community to estimate GEM fluxes in a coastal natural site based on aerodynamic gradient method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0289.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: tunnel entrance; crosswind; wind–train–track coupling dynamic model; transient response of aerodynamic load; sudden wind effect; traffic safety
Online: 24 January 2020 (15:07:07 CET)
Sudden variation of aerodynamic loads is the potential source of safety accidents of high-speed train (HST). As a follow-up investigation on the aerodynamic response of a HST that enters a tunnel under crosswind environment, this paper focuses on the transient response of a HST’s safety indices based on the train–track coupling interaction model. Firstly, a wind–train–track coupling dynamic model is proposed by introducing transient aerodynamic loads into the vehicle–track system. Secondly, the temporal evolution of safety coefficients indicates that the train’s safety risk increases during tunnel entry with crosswind. Results show that the derailment coefficients and wheel load reduction rate during tunnel entry are not only larger than those in open air but also those inside the tunnel due to the sudden disappearance of wind excitation at the tunnel entrance. In addition, the characteristic wind curve, which is the wind velocity against the train speed, is presented for application based on the current specification of the safety criteria threshold. The investigation will be useful in assessing the safety risk of a running train subjected to other aerodynamic attacks, such as the coupling effect of infrastructure scenario and crosswind in windy area.