ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0211.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: advanced vehicle safety; standard airbag; nanobag; frontal sled test
Online: 13 December 2021 (15:57:43 CET)
Objective: The future mobility challenges leads to considering new safety systems to protect vehicle passengers in non-standard and complex seating configurations. The objective of this study is to assess the performance of a brand new safety system called nanobag and to compare it to the traditional airbag performance in the frontal sled test scenario. Methods: The nanobag technology is assessed in the frontal crash test scenario and compared with the standard airbag by numerical simulation. The previously identified material model is used to assemble the nanobag numerical model. The paper exploits an existing validated human body model to assess the performance of the nanobag safety system. Using both the new nanobag and the standard airbag, the sled test numerical simulations with the variation of human bodies are performed in 30 km/h and 50 km/h frontal impacts. Results: The sled test results for both the nanobag and the standard airbag based on injury criteria shows a good and acceptable performance of the nanobag safety system compared to the traditional airbag. Conclusion: The results show that the nanobag system has its performance compared to the standard airbag, which means that thanks to the design, the nanobag safety system has a high potential and extended application for multi-directional protection against impact.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0629.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: road safety; advanced driver assistance; safe system approach; LMIC
Online: 25 November 2020 (10:06:33 CET)
Abstract: Traffic collisions cause a huge problem of public health in low and middle income countries.. The safe system approach is generally considered as the leading concept on the way to road safety. Based on the fundamental premise that humans make mistakes, the overall traffic system should be ‘forgiving’. Sustainable safe road design is one of the key elements of the safe system approach. However, the road design principles behind the safe system approach are certainly not leading in today’s infrastructure developments in most LMICs. Cities are getting larger and road networks are expanding. In many cases, existing through-roads in local communities are up-graded, resulting in heavy traffic loads and high speeds on places, that are absolutely not suited for this kind of through-traffic. Furthermore a safe system would require that functional design properties of cars and roads would be conceptually integrated, which is not the case at all. Although advanced driver assistance systems are on their way of development for quite a long period, their potential role in the safe system concept is mostly unclear and at least strongly underexposed. The vision on future cars is dominated by the concept of automation. This paper argues that the way to self-driving cars, should take a route via the concept of guidance, i.e. vehicles that guide drivers, both on self-explaining roads and on more or less unsafe roads. Such an in-vehicle support system may help drivers to choose transport mode, route and speed, based on criteria related to safety and sustainability. It is suggested to develop a driver assistance system using relatively simple and cheap technologies, particularly for the purpose of use in LMICs. Such a GUIDE (Generic User Interface for Driving Evolution) may make roads self-explaining - not only by their physical design characteristics - but also by providing in-car guidance for drivers. In future the functional characteristics of both cars and roads should be conceptualized into one integrated safe system, in which the user plays the central role. As such GUIDE may serve as the conceptual bridge between vehicle and roadway characteristics. It is argued that GUIDE is necessary to bring a breakthrough in road safety developments in LMICs and also give an acceleration towards zero fatalities in HICs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0075.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: hydrated multi-dimensional nanoparticles; advanced electronics
Online: 6 June 2022 (09:10:17 CEST)
The paper considers new effects of the nanoscale state of matter, which open up prospects for the creation of electronic devices using new physical principles. The contact of chemically homogeneous different sizes hydrated nanoparticles of yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide (ZrO2 – x %mol Y2O3, x=0, 3, 4, 8; YSZ) with particle sizes of 7.5 nm and 7,5 nm; 7.5 nm and 9 nm; 7.5 nm and 11 nm; 7.5 nm and 14 nm in the form of compacts obtained using high hydrostatic pressure (HP-compacts of 300MPa) was studied at direct and alternating current. A unique size effect of the nonlinear (semiconductor) dependence of the electrical properties (in the region U <2.5 V, I ≤ 2.7 mA) of the contact of different-sized YSZ nanoparticles of the same chemical composition is revealed, which indicates the possibility of creating semiconductor structures of a new type based on chemically homogeneous nanostructured systems. The electronic structure of the near-surface regions of nanoparticles of a special type of oxide materials and the possibility, on this basis, to obtain specifically rectifying properties of the contacts were studied theoretically. Models of surface states of the Tamm type are constructed, but considering the Coulomb long-range action. The discovered variance and its dependence on the curvature of the surface of nanoparticles made it possible to study the conditions for the formation of a contact potential difference in cases of nanoparticles of the same radius (synergistic effect), different radii (doped and undoped variants), as well as to discover the possibility of describing a group of powder particles from material within the Anderson model. The established effect makes it possible to solve the problem of diffusion instability of semiconductor heterojunctions and opens up prospects for creating electronics devices with a fundamentally new level of properties for use in various fields of the national economy and breakthrough critical technologies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0275.v3
Online: 14 May 2018 (10:46:26 CEST)
Antisocial behavior is a behavior disorder inherited according to the inheritance of X-linked chromosome. This disorder derives from mutations in the MAOA gene. One of the mutations results in the MAOA-L allele activity. The MAOA-L allele activity can cause antisocial behavior in both healthy and unhealthy people. Antisocial behavior from healthy males can originate from maltreatment during childhood. Currently, MAOA inhibitor can reverse antisocial behavior to normal behavior in animal models. However, this disorder cannot be treated permanently; to treat it permanently in the future, technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9, iPSCs and ssODN are required. These technologies have succeeded to correct erroneous segments in the F8 gene and F9 gene. Both genes occupy the X chromosome. The MAOA gene also occupies the X chromosome. Therefore, it is reasonable to state that CRISPR/Cas9 and iPSCs technique for instance can be beneficial tools to edit the MAOA gene to treat antisocial behavior. CRISPR/Cas9 can be used in combination with iPSCs or ssODN for instance. This combination can greatly help the permanent healing of antisocial behavioral disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0243.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: MTS; MTO; logistics strategy; advanced industrial engineering
Online: 18 July 2022 (03:25:16 CEST)
Strategic management sets the direction of a company for several years ahead. Managers and business owners who create strategy must anticipate and have the ability to see systemically—the paper deals with creating a logistics strategy for a company operating in the industrial sector. The first section summarises the theoretical background for strategy and logistics and current trends affecting logistics processes. The second chapter analyses the current state of the art in logistics strategy development and summarizes its problem areas. The central part of the paper is the proposal of a methodology for logistics strategy development in the industrial area by a progressive approach. The methodology is divided into 5 phases - preparatory, analytical, formulation, implementation, and evaluation and control phases. The methodology is partially validated. The created variants of the logistics strategy include the introduction of such elements that will lead to the gradual development of the Industry 4.0 trend in the given company. This is mainly the first variant called "automation," which includes the introduction of an automatic tractor for material import, the introduction of an automatic system for transport and storage of work in progress, and the introduction of a new logistics information system that will make greater use of already established barcodes (transparency, data in real-time).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0300.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: nursing home; advanced fire prevention; emergency response training
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:43:18 CEST)
Background: In long-term care facilities, there are many residents who do not have the ability to seek shelter by themselves in the case of an emergency. Thus, it is extremely important that the staff of nursing homes are equipped with correct disaster prevention concepts, emergency survival responses, and hazard mitigation measures. Purpose: Discuss the intervention effectiveness of different fire prevention and emergency response trainings at nursing homes and the relationship and predictivity of awareness to self-efficacy. Method: Recruit staff from two nursing homes through purposive sampling, using a two-team pre-and post-test design to collect results from 41 individuals in the experiment group and 40 individuals in the control group. The research tool is the “Nursing Home Fire Prevention and Emergency Response Awareness and Self-Efficacy Scale,” to compare the effectiveness of advanced and general fire safety trainings. Result: After receiving improved advanced fire safety training, the total score and the result of the experiment group on fire prevention and emergency response awareness and self-efficacy had both performed better than the control group who received general fire safety training (p < .001); fire prevention and emergency response awareness has significant and positive correlation with self-efficacy (r=.601, p < .001), and awareness is a significant predictor variable to self-efficacy (p < .001). Conclusion/Practical Application: This study finds that the key to improving learning effectiveness includes adding fire science concept chapter when creating fire safety training material in order to strengthen basic awareness; fire safety training should comprehensively introduce all related duty responsibilities of staff fire defense formation, in turn enabling mutual responsive support for the needs of the site; also, to become familiarized with the knowledge requires appropriate frequency of training and enhancing the staff’s awareness to fire prevention and emergency response, which is the most important key of learning effectiveness.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0621.v1
Online: 25 June 2021 (12:13:47 CEST)
as the growth and popularity of technology has become simultaneous ascend in both impacts and numbers of cyber criminals thanks to the web. For many years, the organization has strived in ways of preventing any attacks from cyber-criminal with advanced techniques. Cybercriminals and intruders are developing a more advanced way to breach the security surface of an organization. Advanced Persistent Threats are also known as APT are new and a lot more sophisticated version for multistep attack scenarios that are known and are targeted just to achieve a goal most commonly undercover activities. this report, there will cover everything I know that tells us about APT with more word and brief explanations
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Grief; Advance Care Planning; Advanced Cancer, Family Caregivers
Online: 7 April 2021 (17:51:17 CEST)
Cancer patients and their family caregivers experience various losses when patients become terminally ill, yet little is known about the grief experienced by patients and caregivers and factors that influence grief as patients approach death. Additionally, few, if any, studies have explored associations between advance care planning (ACP) and grief resolution among cancer patients and caregivers. To fill this knowledge gap, the current study examined changes in grief over time in patients and their family caregivers and whether changes in patient grief are associated with changes in caregiver grief. We also sought to determine how grief changed following completion of advance directives. The sample included advanced cancer patients and caregivers (n=98 dyads) from Coping with Cancer III, a federally funded, multi-site prospective longitudinal study of end-stage cancer care. Participants were interviewed at baseline and at follow-up roughly 2 months later. Results suggest synchrony, whereby changes in patient grief were associated with changes in caregiver grief. We also found that patients who completed a living will (LW) experienced increases in grief, while caregivers of patients who completed a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order experienced reductions in grief, suggesting that ACP may prompt “grief work” in patients while promoting grief resolution in caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0655.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: delayed-choice; causality; retrocausality; advanced action; numerical simulation
Online: 26 November 2020 (07:34:49 CET)
The conventional explanation of delayed-choice experiments seems to violate our causal intuition. This apparent violation is caused by a misinterpretation of the conventional formulation of quantum mechanics. I reanalyze these experiments using advanced and time-symmetric formulations of quantum mechanics. All three formulations give the same experimental predictions, but the advanced and time-symmetric formulations violate our causal intuition that effects only happen after causes. I explore reasons why our causal intuition may be wrong at the quantum level. I also suggest how conventional causation might be recovered in the classical limit, and speculate on cosmological boundary conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0622.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Complex Regression, Least-Squares Techniques, Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)
Online: 23 April 2021 (09:46:32 CEST)
This paper uses the complex regression analysis method to establish the customer’s load regression models, which consider economic indicators, temperature and rainfall. Furthermore, the proposed models are used to study the forecasting feasibility of the future energy sales and summer peak load demand. At first, this paper used least-squares techniques to derive regression models for considering economic indicators and temperature of 34 customer energy sales and total energy sales. Besides, the AMI high voltage customer demand data and system generating capacity for 24 hours were adopted to forecast summer peak load. The above-mentioned data analysis tool is used by EViews software to achieve, in order to verify the feasibility of the research framework. The study found that although its forecasting model accuracy is low only when mixed with temperature and high voltage demands. So, when mixed with high voltage demand data and system generating capacity for 24 hours to forecast peak load, the average error is ± 0.87% and in the majority of its energy sales forecasting model of average error is ±3%. This result can provide power company as future reference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0478.v1
Online: 31 May 2020 (16:11:51 CEST)
Background: At present, the treatments for patients with advanced lung cancer focus on chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of multiple treatments. Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to compare the various chemotherapy-based combination therapies and find the best one for patients with advanced lung cancer. Methods: Based on database (PubMed, EMBASE and Medline) for randomized controlled trials of advanced lung cancer with combination therapy from 2008 to 2020, we searched literatures with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR) and adverse as outcome indicators and established a Bayesian mesh meta-analysis for multiple treatment strategies. Then, we combined the results of four outcome indicators to find out the best chemotherapy-based combination therapy strategy for patients with advanced lung cancer, further, we tried to screen out the best drugs of which were commonly used now. Results: It contained a total of 51 studies, including five combination therapies: Chemotherapy/Chemotherapy plus placebo (CT), chemotherapy plus one targeted therapy drug (CT+T), chemotherapy plus two targeted therapy drugs (CT+T+T), chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy (CT+I) or chemotherapy combined with biotherapy (CT+B). In terms of four outcome indicators, CT+I showed the best therapeutic benefits. In the comparison of immunotherapy drugs, pembrolizumab showed the best effect. Conclusion: Our results showed that, among the multiple chemotherapy-based combination therapy strategies, chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy is the best choice for patients with advanced lung cancer, and pembrolizumab combined with chemotherapy has the best effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0335.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: big data; maturity model; temporal analytics; advanced business analytics
Online: 18 August 2018 (11:05:24 CEST)
The main aim of this paper is to explore the issue of big data and to propose a conceptual framework for big data, based on the temporal dimension. The Temporal Big Data Maturity Model (TBDMM) is a means for assessing organization’s readiness to fully profit from big data analysis. It allows the measurement of the current state of the organization’s big data assets and analytical tools, and to plan their future development. The framework explicitly incorporates a time dimension, providing a complete means for assessing also the readiness to process temporal data and/or knowledge that can be found in modern sources, such as big data ones. Temporality in the proposed framework extends and enhances the already existing maturity models for big data. This research paper is based on a critical analysis of literature, as well as creative thinking, and on the case-study approach involving multiple cases. The literature-based research has shown that the existing maturity models for big data do not treat the temporal dimension as the basic one. At the same time, dynamic analytics is crucial for a sustainable competitive advantage. This conceptual framework was well received among practitioners, to whom it has been presented during interviews. The participants in the consultations often expressed their need of temporal big data analytics, and hence the temporal approach of the maturity model was widely welcomed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0537.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: CO2 storage; carbonate fractures; ENOS; operating parameters; advanced modelling
Online: 27 July 2018 (10:50:50 CEST)
CO2 geological storage in deep saline aquifers was recently developed at industrial scale mainly in sandstone formations. Experiences on CO2 injections in carbonates aquifers for permanent trapping are quite limited, mostly from US projects such as AEP Mountaineer, Michigan and Williston Basin. The behavior of fractures in carbonates plays a key role in those reservoirs in which porous matrix permeability is very poor, which drives the CO2 plume migration through the fracture network where hydromechanics and geochemical effects take place due to injection. Hontomín (Spain) is the actual on-shore injection pilot in Europe (EP Resolution of 14 January 2014), whose reservoir is comprised of fractured carbonates. Existing experiences from field scale tests conducted on site have supported to better understand the behavior of this type of reservoirs for CO2 geological storage. Innovative CO2 injection strategies are being carried out in ENOS Project (EU H2020 Programme, http://www.enos-project.eu). First results based on field tests conducted at Hontomín, and the advanced modelling developed so far will be analyzed and discussed in this article, as well as, the description of future works. The evolution of operating parameters such as flow rate, pressure and recovery term during the tests confirm the CO2 migration through the fractures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0410.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: solar windows; advanced glazings; diffractive elements; light trapping; photovoltaics
Online: 23 July 2018 (10:18:54 CEST)
We report on the study of energy-harvesting performance in medium-size (400 cm2) glass-based semitransparent solar concentrators employing edge-mounted photovoltaic modules. Systems using several different types of glazing system architecture and containing embedded diffractive structures are prepared and characterized. The technological approaches to the rapid manufacture of large-area diffractive elements suitable for use in solar window-type concentrators are described. These elements enable the internal deflection and partial trapping of light inside glass-based concentrator windows. We focus on uncovering the potential of pattern-transfer polymer-based soft lithography for enabling both the improved photon collection probability at solar cell surfaces, and the up-scaling of semitransparent solar window dimensions. Results of photovoltaic characterization of several solar concentrators employing different internal glazing-system structure and diffractive elements produced using different technologies are reported and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: ovalbumin, allergy; advanced glycation; fructose; fructositis; receptor for advanced glycation end products; inflammation; asthma; chlorogenic acid; Ilex paraguariensis; high fructose corn syrup
Online: 28 February 2017 (10:41:10 CET)
One mechanism by which fructose could exert deleterious effect in metabolism and inflammation is via its potency vis-à-vis de Maillard reaction. We employed simulated stomach and duodenum digestion of ovalbumin to test the hypothesis that indeed AGEs are formed by fructose during simulated digestion of an ubiquitous food protein with intrinsic allergenic potential and under model physiological conditions. Methods: OVA was subjected to simulated gastric and intestinal digestion using standard models, in presence of fructose or glucose (0-100 mM). Peptide fractions were analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy and intensity at Excitation: λ370 nm, Emission: λ 440nm. Results: AGE adducts form between fructose and OVA which can be found in peptide fractions (< 5 kDa) at times (30 min) and concentration ranges (10 mM) plausibly found in the intestines, whereas no reaction occurs with glucose. The reaction is inhibited by chlorogenic acid at concentrations compatible with those found in the gut. The reaction is inhibited by AG, a specific antiglycation agent. Conclusion: Our proof of principle study shows that fructose-AGE formation on an ubiquitous allergenic protein indeed occurs in one hour and thereby may pave the way for the study of yet another mechanism by which the excess fructose in our Western diets is contributing to disease: intestinal AGE formation, absorption and RAGE engagement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0433.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: advanced industrial engineering; strategy; management; business performance; key performance indicators
Online: 28 July 2022 (08:43:32 CEST)
The paper deals with the design of a systematic procedure for implementing strategy changes into internal business processes for a project-oriented production type of organization. In the first part of the contribution, a summary of the theoretical starting points for the field of strategic management and change management is presented. In the second part, the contribution deals with the analysis of the current situation in the area of the impact of the change of strategy on the management of business processes. In the last part, the proposal of the procedure for implementing strategy changes into internal business processes and the verification results are presented. The proposed procedure includes steps where the selection and verification of key performance indicators at individual levels of management plus the quantification of the impact of the change in strategy on the processes takes place. The management can thus monitor and evaluate the chosen processes in accordance with the fulfilment of the chosen strategy of the company. The last chapter presents the verification of the proposal for the systematic introduction of changes into the processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0291.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Advanced Oxidation Process, Antibacterial resistance, Disinfection, Persistence, ROS, Stress response
Online: 13 August 2020 (06:15:17 CEST)
Different water treatment regiments are revealed to have potential in enriching antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB). Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) based disinfection techniques have been studied widely in the recent times due to their advantages over conventional treatment methods. However, bacterial response and adaptations against the hostile environments of AOPs is not clearly understood yet. Based on the existing knowledge on the ways in which bacteria surpass the antibiotic treatment, here we propose few important aspects of bacterial adaptation which could be true for AOPs as well since both antibiotics and AOPs generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) during their modes of action. We discuss the plausible role of ROS in the selection of ARB and bacterial heterogeneity as a strategy to bypass the lethal action of AOPs. Understanding bacterial adaptation during disinfection plays a vital role in devising strategies to outclass the bacterial survival. Hence, more importance should be given to such studies in the near future for the successful implementation of AOPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0016.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: solar windows; advanced glazings; low-emissivity spectrally-selective coatings; photovoltaics
Online: 2 May 2018 (08:23:36 CEST)
A study of photovoltaic solar window technologies is reported, focusing on their structural features, functional materials, system development, and suitability for use in practical field applications, e.g. public infrastructures and agricultural installations. Energy generation performance characteristics are summarized and compared to theory-limit predictions. Working examples of pilot-trial solar window-based installations are described. We also report on achieving electric power outputs of about 25 Wp/m2 from clear and transparent large-area glass-based solar windows.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0369.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: carbamazepine; adsorption; clay minerals; organoclays; advanced oxidation processes; photocatalysis; water reuse
Online: 27 May 2022 (04:42:22 CEST)
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the most common emerging contaminants released to the aquatic environment through domestic and pharmaceutical wastewater. Due to its high persistence through conventional degradation treatments, is considered a typical indicator for anthropogenic activities. This study tested the removal of CBZ through two different clay-based purification techniques: adsorption of relatively large concentrations (20-500 μmol L-1) and photocatalysis of lower concentrations (<20 μmol L-1). The sorption mechanism was examined by FTIR measurements, exchangeable cations released, and colloidal charge of the adsorbing clay materials. Photocatalysis was performed in batch experiments under various conditions. Despite the neutral charge of carbamazepine, the highest adsorption was observed on negatively charged montmorillonite-based clays. Desorption tests indicate that adsorbed CBZ is not released by washing. The adsorption/desorption processes were confirmed by ATR-FTIR analysis of the clay-CBZ particles. A combination of synthetic montmorillonite or hectorite with low H2O2 concentrations under UVC irradiation exhibits efficient homo-heterogeneous photodegradation at μM CBZ levels. The two techniques presented in this study suggest solutions for both industrial and municipal wastewater, possibly enabling water reuse.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0351.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Flexible sensors; additive manufacturing; 3D printing; self-healing; nanocomposites; advanced manufacturing
Online: 17 August 2021 (08:30:46 CEST)
The use of flexible sensors has tripled over the last decade due to the increased demand in various fields including health monitoring, food packaging, electronic skins and soft robotics. Flexible sensors have the ability to be bent and stretched during use and can still maintain their electrical and mechanical properties. This gives them an advantage over rigid sensors that lose their sensitivity when subject to bending. Advancements in 3D printing have enabled the development of tailored flexible sensors. Various additive manufacturing methods are being used to develop these sensors including inkjet printing, aerosol jet printing, fused deposition modelling, direct ink writing, selective laser melting and others. Hydrogels have gained much attention in the literature due to their self-healing and shape transforming. Self-healing enables the sensor to recover from damages such as cracks and cuts incurred during use and this enables the sensor to have a longer operating life and stability. Various polymers are used as substrates on which the sensing conductive material is placed. Polymers including polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polyvinyl acetate (PVA), and Kapton are extensively used in flexible sensors. The most widely used nanomaterials in flexible sensors are carbon and silver, however, other nanomaterials such as iron, copper, manganese dioxide and gold are also used to provide controlled levels of conductivity or other functional properties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0236.v1
Online: 15 April 2020 (09:50:21 CEST)
Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic is currently accelerating. Patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) may require treatment in locations where resources are limited and the prevalence of infection is high. Patients with LA-NSCLC frequently present with comorbidities that increase the risk for severe morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. These risks may be further increased by treatments for LA-NSCLC. Observation: We present expert thoracic oncology multidisciplinary (radiation oncology, medical oncology, surgical oncology) consensus of alternative strategies for the treatment of LA-NSCLC during a pandemic. The overarching goals of these approaches are to reduce the number of visits to a healthcare facility, reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure, and attenuate the immunocompromising effects of lung cancer therapies. Patients with resectable disease can be treated with definitive non-operative management if surgical resources are limited or the risks of perioperative care are high. Non-operative options include chemotherapy, chemoimmunotherapy, and radiation therapy with sequential schedules. The order of treatments may be based on patient factors and clinical resources. Whenever radiation therapy is delivered without concurrent chemotherapy, hypofractionated schedules are appropriate. For patients who are confirmed to have COVID-19, usually cancer therapies may be withheld until symptoms have resolved with negative viral test results. Conclusions and Relevance: The risk of severe treatment-related morbidity and mortality is significantly elevated for patients undergoing treatment for LA-NSCLC during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adapting alternative treatment strategies as quickly as possible may save lives and should be implemented through communication with the multidisciplinary cancer team.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0237.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: advanced high strength steels; hydrogen quenching; continuous annealing; microstructure; mechanical properties
Online: 23 August 2019 (04:48:06 CEST)
By using hydrogen quench continuous annealing technology, Stelco Inc. has developed a suite of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) grades with tensile strength greater than 1000MPa to meet standard automotive specifications and for unique customer requirements. These grades were optimized by correlating chemical composition and processing parameters with microstructures and mechanical properties. Dual-Phase 980 (Stelco trademarked STELMAXTM 980DP), Multi-Phase 1180 (STELMAXTM 1180MP), Martensitic Steel 1300 (STELMAXTM 1300M) and 1500 (STELMAXTM 1500M) products met strength and formability requirements with excellent flatness and surface quality. Hydrogen quench continuous annealing technology not only ensures all developed AHSS grades have consistent mechanical properties across the entire strip length (from strip head to tail) and width (from edge to edge), but also produces high product yield compared with other continuous annealing processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: advanced high strength steel; yield function; hardening model; springback; deformation mode
Online: 8 March 2017 (04:51:37 CET)
The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of constitutive equations on the prediction accuracy for springback in cold stamping with various deformation modes. In this study, two types of yield functions—Hill’48 and Yld2000-2d—were considered to describe yield behavior. Isotropic and kinematic hardening models based on the Yoshida–Uemori model were also adopted to describe hardening behavior. Various material tests (such as uniaxial tension, tension- compression, loading-unloading, and hydraulic bulging tests) were carried out to determine the material parameters of the models. The obtained parameters were implemented in the finite element (FE) simulation to predict springback, and the results were compared with experimental data. U-bending and T-shape drawing were employed to evaluate the springback prediction accuracy. Obviously, the springback prediction accuracy was greatly influenced by constitutive equations. Therefore, it is important to choose appropriate constitutive equations for accurate description of material behaviors in FE simulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0095.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Advanced oxidation processes; Fenton reaction; sustainable agro-industrial sector; sewer connection permit
Online: 5 January 2021 (13:53:12 CET)
This study investigated the efficacy of advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the reduction of pollution loads in mixed agro-food industrial wastewaters (dairy and slaughterhouse) in Nablus city, Palestine. Bench-scale Jar tests using an advanced oxidation process (AOP) were performed as a pretreatment stage. Initial results on direct applications of Fenton’s process on mixed agro-food wastewater (COD: 15400-18200 mg/l) were unsatisfactory. Hence, the performance of the Fenton process was applied on three mixed wastewater samples with different pre-treatment trials: (A) coagulant (FeCl3.6H2O) addition, (B) settling (2h), and use of flocculent (lime Ca(OH)2) in sample (C). Preceded with lime, Fenton`s process (Sample C) was most effective in the removal of organic carbon and nitrogen (89% COD; 80% TKN). The removal efficiency in inorganic loads (91% TSS; 62% TS) were achieved under H2O2/COD (w/w ratio 2:1), H2O2/Fe+2 (w/w ratio 10:1) and acidic conditions (pH = 3). The adoption of AOP technology by agro-food industries could ensure compliance with municipal by-laws and acquire connection permits to sewerage networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0122.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: renewables; energy saving and generation; built environments; solar windows; advanced glazings; photovoltaics
Online: 11 August 2019 (02:40:57 CEST)
We report on the field testing datasets and performance evaluation results obtained from a commercial property-based visually-clear solar window installation site in Perth-Australia. This installation was fitted into a refurbished shopping centre entrance porch, and showcases the potential of glass curtain wall-based solar energy harvesting in built environments. In particular, we focus on photovoltaic (PV) performance characteristics such as the electric power output, specific yield, day-to-day consistency of peak output power, and the amounts of energy generated and stored daily. The dependencies of the generated electric power and stored energy on multiple environmental and geometric parameters are also studied. An overview of the current and future application potential of high-transparency, visually-clear solar window-based curtain wall installations suitable for practical building integration is provided.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: pest recognition; Tangerine; advanced deep learning; minimum classification error; Inception Module; CNN
Online: 7 November 2018 (13:09:30 CET)
To improve the tangerine crop yield, the work of recognizing and then disposing of specific pests is becoming increasingly important. The task of recognition is based on the features extracted from the images that have been collected from websites and outdoors. Traditional recognition and deep learning methods, such as KNN (k-nearest neighbors) and AlexNet, are not preferred by knowledgeable researchers, who have proven them inaccurate. In this paper, we exploit four kinds of structures of advanced deep learning to classify 10 citrus pests. The experimental results show that Inception-ResNet-V3 obtains the minimum classification error.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: advanced glycation end products; glyoxal; hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase; methyl glyoxal; RCS-trapping
Online: 28 May 2018 (13:28:19 CEST)
Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) represent a set of substances that contribute directly to the triggering and/or aggravation of pathologies associated with ageing. AGEs are produced by the reaction between reducing sugars (or α-dicarbonyl compounds) proteins and amino acid residues. Current methodologies require an incubation period of 1-3 weeks to generate AGEs. In this study the reaction time for the formation of AGEs (48 and 3 hours) is significantly reduced by coupling and adapting procedures already existing in the literature to the free radical generation system called the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay. The capacity of different classes and chemical compounds (aminoguanidine, chlorogenic acid, rutin, extracts of Hancornia speciosa Gomes) were evaluated to inhibit the protein glycation process, acting as capturing agents of α-dicarbonyl species. Aminoguanidine, rutin and the leaf extracts of Hancornia speciosa Gomes show a high capacity to act as α-dicarbonyl compound scavengers (RCS-trapping) and resulting in the inhibition of AGEs formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air pollution control; biosecurity; animal diseases; ultraviolet light; advanced oxidation; filtration; environmental technology
Online: 11 October 2021 (14:05:44 CEST)
This study evaluated the use of filtration and UV-A photocatalysis for the reduction of particulate matter (PM) and airborne bacterial pathogens in swine barns. Two MERV filters (8 and 15) were used to mitigate PM concentrations measured at the PM 1, PM 2.5, respirable PM, and PM 10 ranges. Filtration was also used to generate different levels of airborne pathogens to be treated by UV-A. Results show that MERV 8 and 15 filters effectively reduced PM concentrations (96-98%) in air exhausted from a swine barn (p ranged from < 0.01 to 0.04). UV-A photocatalysis did not mitigate PM concentrations. UV-A photocatalysis treatment reduced measured colony-forming units (CFUs) by 15-95%. The CFU percent reduction was higher when airborne PM concentration was low. The numeric results suggested a real mitigation effect despite p-values that did not meet the usual statistical cut-off of <0.05 for significance due to the large variability of the CFU control samples. Normalization of measured airborne pathogen concentrations by smaller PM size range concentrations led to emerging significant treatment differences for CFUs. A significant decrease (~60% reduction; p < 0.03) in the concentration of viable airborne bacteria was shown for all PM below the 10-micron range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0608.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air pollution control; air quality; environmental technology; advanced oxidation; odor; volatile organic compounds
Online: 24 December 2020 (08:58:47 CET)
Livestock production systems generate nuisance odor and gaseous emissions affecting local communities and regional air quality. Also, there are concerns about the occupational health and safety of farm workers. Proven mitigation technologies that are consistent with the socio-economic challenges of animal farming are needed. We have been scaling up the photocatalytic treatment of emissions from lab-scale, aiming at farm-scale readiness. In this paper, we present the design, testing, and commissioning of a mobile laboratory for on-farm research and demonstration of performance in real farm conditions. The mobile lab is capable of treating up to 1.2 m3·s-1 of air with TiO2-based photocatalysis and adjustable UV-A dose based on LED lamps. We summarize the main technical requirements, constraints, approach, and performance metrics for the mobile laboratory, such as the effectiveness (measured as the percent reduction) and cost of photocatalytic treatment of air. The commissioning of all systems with standard gases resulted in ~9% and 34% reduction of NH3 and butan-1-ol, respectively. We demonstrated that as the percent reduction of standard gases increased with increased light intensity and treatment time. These results show that the mobile laboratory was ready for on-farm deployment and evaluating the effectiveness of UV treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0313.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: mechanical properties of advanced materials; magneto-rheological (MR); elastomer; stress relaxation; mathematical model
Online: 15 October 2020 (08:31:22 CEST)
Materials characterised by magnetorheological properties are non-classic engineering materials. A significant increase in the interest of scientific community in materials from this group can be observed over the recent several years. The results of research presented in this article are oriented on the examination of said materials’ mechanical properties. In order to do so, stress relaxation tests were conducted on cylindrical samples of magnetorheological elastomers loaded with compressive stress for various values of magnetic induction (B1 = 0 mT, B2 = 32 mT, B3 = 48 mT, and B4 = 64 mT) and temperature (T1 = 25° C, T2 = 30° C, and T3 = 40° C). The results of these tests indicate that the stiffness of examined samples increases along with the increase of magnetic field induction and decreases along with the increase of temperature. On this basis, it has been determined that: the biggest stress amplitude change caused by the influence of magnetic field was σ0ΔB = 12.7% and the biggest stress amplitude change caused by the influence of temperature was σ0ΔT = 11.3%. As a result of applying a mathematical model, it has been indicated that the stress relaxation in the examined magnetorheological elastomer for the adopted time range (t = 3600 s) has a hyperbolic decline nature. The collected test results point to examined materials being characterised by extensive rheological properties, which leads to a conclusion that it is necessary to conduct further tests in this scope.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0229.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Nanomaterials; Nanotoxicology; Immunotoxicity; Genotoxicity; Epigenetics; Advanced in vitro models; In silico; Life Cycle Assessment
Online: 17 May 2022 (11:05:10 CEST)
The use of nanomaterials has been increasing in recent times, and they are widely used in industries such as cosmetics, drug, food, water treatment and agriculture. The rapid development of new nanomaterials demands a set of approaches to evaluate the potential toxicity and risks related to them. In this regard, nanosafety has been using and adapting already existing methods (toxicological approach), but the unique characteristics of nanomaterials demand new approaches (nanotoxicology) to fully understand the potential toxicity, immunotoxicity and (epi)genotoxicity. Also, new technologies, such as organ-on-chip and sophisticated sensors, are under development and/or adaptation. All the information generated is used to develop new in silico approaches trying to predict the potential effects of newly developed materials. The overall evaluation of how from the production to final disposition chain of nanomaterials is evaluated under Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which is becoming an important element of nanosafety considering sustainability and environmental impact. In this review we give an overview of all these elements of nanosafety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air pollution control; air quality; volatile organic compounds; odor; environmental technology; advanced oxidation; UV
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:08:29 CET)
It is essential to mitigate gaseous emissions that result from poultry and livestock production to increase industry sustainability. Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and greenhouse gases (GHGs) have detrimental effects on the quality of life in rural communities, the environment, and climate. This study's objective was to evaluate the photocatalytic UV treatment of gaseous emissions of odor, odorous VOCs, NH3, and other gases (GHGs, O3 – sometimes considered as by-products of UV treatment) from stored swine manure on a pilot-scale. The manure emissions were treated in fast-moving air using a mobile lab equipped with UV-A and UV-C lights and TiO2-based photocatalyst. Treated gas airflow (0.25 to 0.76 m3/s) simulates output from a small ventilation fan in a barn. Through controlling the light intensity and airflow, UV dose was tested for techno-economic analyses. The treatment effectiveness depended on the UV dose and wavelength. Under UV-A (367 nm) photocatalysis, the percent reduction of targeted gases was up to i) 63% of odor, ii) 51%, 51%, 53%, 67%, and 32% of acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, p-cresol, and indole, respectively, iii) 14% of nitrous oxide (N2O), iv) 100% of O3, and 26% generation of CO2. Under UV-C (185+254 nm) photocatalysis, the percent reductions of target gases were up to i) 54% and 47% for p-cresol and indole, respectively, ii) 25% of N2O, iii) 71% of CH4, and 46% & 139% generation of CO2 & O3, respectively. The results proved that the UV technology was sufficiently effective in treating odorous gases, and the mobile lab was ready for farm-scale trials. The UV technology can be considered for the scaled-up treatment of emissions and air quality improvement inside livestock barns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0777.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Advanced oxidation processes; Fenton reaction; agro-industrial wastewater; municipal by-laws; sewer connection permit
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:21:22 CET)
This study investigated the reduction of organic loads from mixed agro-food industrial wastewaters (dairy and slaughterhouse) of Nablus city using advanced oxidation process (AOP), a high- rate chemical oxidation reaction. Bench-scale Jar tests using an advanced oxidation process (AOP) were performed as a pretreatment stage. Direct applications of classical Fenton’s process on mixed raw agro-food wastewater samples (COD: 15400-18200 mg/l) revealed unsatisfactory results. The performance of the Fenton process was evaluated using three mixed samples with different pre-treatment trials: (A) coagulant (FeCl3.6H2O) addition, (B) settling (2h) allowed, and use of flocculent (lime Ca(OH)2) in sample (C). Compared with other partial treatments, sample (C), Fenton`s process lime preceded, was the most effective in the removal of organic (89% COD; 80% TKN) and inorganic loads (91% TSS; 62% TS) under H2O2/COD (w/w ratio 2:1), H2O2/Fe+2 (w/w ratio 10:1) and acidic conditions (pH =3). Obtained results comply with Nablus municipal by-law (COD below 2000 mg/l), which help decision-makers within the agro-food industries install pollution reduction systems. Investment in the Fenton-based peroxidation process, allow agro-food industries to obtain connection permits to sewage networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0002.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: adaptive security; evolutionary game; Internet of Things; Smart grid; advanced metering infrastructure; smart home
Online: 2 November 2020 (08:08:12 CET)
We applied evolutionary game theory to extend a resource constrained security game model for confidentiality attacks in an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), which is a component of IoT-enabled Smart Grids. The AMI is modelled as a tree structure where each node aggregates the information of its children before encrypting it and passing it on to its parent. As a part of the model, we developed a discretization scheme for solving the replicator equations. The aim of this work is to explore the space of possible behaviours of attackers and to develop a framework where the AMI nodes adaptively select the most profitable strategies. Using this model, we simulated the evolution of a population of attackers and defenders on various cases resembling the real life implementation of AMI. We discuss in depth how to enhance security in AMI using evolutionary game theory either by a priori analysis or as a tool to run dynamic and adaptive infrastructure defence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0337.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: advanced high-strength forging steel; hot-forging; microstructure; retained austenite characteristics; mechanical properties; applications
Online: 29 October 2019 (10:59:30 CET)
This paper presents the microstructural and mechanical properties of low and medium carbon advanced high-strength forging steels developed based on the third generation advanced high-strength sheet steels, in conjunction with those of conventional high-strength forging steels. Hot-forging followed by an isothermal transformation process considerably improved the mechanical properties of the forging steels. The improvement mechanisms of the mechanical properties were summarized by relating to the matrix structure, the strain-induced transformation of metastable retained austenite and/or a mixture of martensite and austenite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0102.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Advanced turbulence statistics, piezo-electric flow sensor, atmospheric boundary layer16 stability, laminar-turbulent transition
Online: 6 June 2018 (17:49:05 CEST)
To gain insight into the differences between onshore and offshore atmospheric turbulence, 2 pressure fluctuations were measured for offshore wind under different environmental conditions. 3 A durable piezo-electric sensor was used to sample turbulent pressure data at 50 kHz. Offshore 4 measurements were performed at 100 m height on Germany’s FINO3 offshore platform in the 5 German Bight together with additional meteorological data provided by Deutscher Wetterdienst 6 (DWD). The statistical evaluation revealed that the stability state in the atmospheric boundary has a 7 large impact on turbulent fluctuations. Therefore, we used higher statistical properties (described 8 by so-called shape factors) to the stability state. Data was classified to be either within the unstable, 9 neutral or stable stratification. We found that in case of stable stratification, the shape factor is 10 mostly close to zero, indicating that a thermally stable environment produces closer-to Gaussian 11 distributions. Non-Gaussian distributions were found in unstable and neutral boundary layer states 12 and an occurrence probability was estimated. Possible impact on laminar-turbulent transition on the 13 blade is discussed with application of so-called laminar aerofoils on wind turbine blades. Use of a 14 cut-off frequency to separate load and aerodynamic turbulence is proposed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: advanced glycation end products; fructose; glucose; lipogenesis; sphingolipids; NLRP3; Nrf2; mitochondrial dysfunction; oxidative stress
Online: 14 February 2017 (08:38:14 CET)
The rapid increase in metabolic diseases occurred in the last three decades in both industrialized and developing countries has been related to the rise in sugar-added foods and sweetened beverages consumption. An emerging topic in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases related to modern nutrition is the role of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs). AGEs can be ingested with high temperature processed foods, but also endogenously formed as consequence of a high dietary sugars intake. Animal models of high sugars consumption, in particular fructose, have reported AGEs accumulation in different tissues in association with peripheral insulin resistance and lipid metabolism alterations. The in vitro observation that fructose is one of the most rapid and effective glycating agent when compared to other sugars has prompted the investigation of the in vivo fructose-induced glycation. In particular, the widespread employment of fructose as sweetener has been ascribed by many experimental and observational studies for the enhancement of lipogenesis and intracellular lipid deposition. Indeed, diet-derived AGEs have been demonstrated to interfere with many cell functions such as lipid synthesis, inflammation, antioxidant defences, and mitochondrial metabolism. Moreover, emerging evidences also in humans suggest that this impact of dietary AGEs on different signalling pathways can contribute to the onset of organ damage in liver, skeletal and cardiac muscle, and brain, affecting not only metabolic control, but global health. Indeed, the here reviewed most recent reports on the effects of high sugars consumption and diet-derived AGEs on human health suggest the need to limit the dietary sources of AGEs, including added sugars, to prevent the development of metabolic diseases and related comorbidities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0570.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Advanced glycation end-products; contact dermatitis; granuloma annulare; insulin; lipoatrophy; lipohypertrophy; necrobiosis lipoidica; skin autofluorescence
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:24:01 CET)
Skin involvement is an overlooked aspect in the management of paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. A comprehensive search of published literature using the PubMed database was carried out using the following key terms: “children”, “pediatric/paediatric patients”, “skin”, “skin disorders”, “type 1 diabetes”. Dermatological side effects are frequently observed among diabetic children and adolescents. Insulin-induced lipodystrophies and allergic contact dermatitis caused by insulin pumps or glycaemic sensors are the most common skin reactions in these patients. Furthermore, several diabetes-associated skin diseases such as necrobiosis lipoidica, granuloma annulare, vitiligo, and bullosis diabeticorum may already be present in paediatric age. Paediatric diabetes specialists should pay attention to their patients’ skin so as to recognize these disorders, identify the potential causes, and choose the most suitable treatment. Finally, the evaluation of skin concentrations of advanced glycation end-products using non-invasive diagnostic techniques may be used to assess the risk of chronic complications of diabetes as early as adolescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0477.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: advanced glycation end products; skin autofluorescence; pentosidine; d-ROMs; BAP; BAP/d-ROMs ratio; athlete; runner
Online: 30 September 2022 (07:30:22 CEST)
Chronic oxidative stress in long-distance runners adversely affects conditioning. Therefore, it is important to objectively assess and monitor oxidative stress but measuring oxidative stress can be invasive or require skill to measure. Therefore, this study aimed to verify whether skin autofluorescence (SAF), a noninvasive, rapid, and easily calculable metric for calculating advanced glycation end products (AGEs), is useful as an oxidative stress biomarker. The subjects were 50 young Japanese male long-distance runners (aged 20.2 ± 1.2 years); 35 average male university students (aged 19.8 ± 1.1 years) served as controls. The interactions and relationships between SAF and plasma pentosidine and oxidative stress markers (reactive oxygen metabolite-derived compounds [d-ROMs], biological antioxidant potential [BAP], and the BAP/d-ROMs ratio) in runners were examined, and SAF in the runners and controls was compared. The results suggest that plasma pentosidine in runners is associated with oxidative stress markers and that plasma pentosidine can assess oxidative stress. However, SAF was not validated as an oxidative stress marker because it was not associated with oxidative stress marker. In future, clarifying the factors affecting SAF may clarify the relationship between SAF, plasma pentosidine, and oxidative stress markers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0001.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Artificial intelligence; machine learning; data science; advanced analytics; intelligent computing; automation; smart systems; industry 4.0 applications
Online: 1 February 2022 (10:26:21 CET)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a leading technology of the current age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0 or 4IR), with the capability of incorporating human behavior and intelligence into machines or systems. Thus AI-based modeling is the key to building automated, intelligent, and smart systems according to today's needs. To solve real-world issues various types of AI such as analytical, functional, interactive, textual, and visual AI can be applied to enhance the intelligence and capabilities of an application. However, developing an effective AI model is a challenging task due to the dynamic nature and variation in real-world problems and data. In this paper, we present a comprehensive view on "AI-based Modeling" with the principles and capabilities of potential AI techniques that can play an important role in developing intelligent and smart systems in various real-world application areas including business, finance, healthcare, agriculture, smart cities, cybersecurity and many more. We also emphasize and highlight the research issues within the scope of our study. Overall, the goal of this paper is to provide a broad overview of AI-based modeling that can be used as a reference guide by academics and industry people as well as decision-makers in various real-world scenarios and application domains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0165.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: renewables; energy saving and generation; built environments; transparent concentrators; luminescent concentrators; solar windows; advanced glazings; photovoltaics
Online: 18 February 2019 (16:52:35 CET)
We present a review of the current state of the field for a rapidly evolving group of technologies related to solar energy harvesting in built environments. In particular, we focus on recent achievements in enabling the widespread distributed generation of electric energy assisted by energy capture in semi-transparent or even optically clear glazing systems and building wall areas. Whilst concentrating on the cutting-edge recent results achieved in the integration of traditional photovoltaic device types into novel concentrator-type windows and glazings, we compare the main performance characteristics reported with these achievable using more conventional (opaque or semi-transparent) solar cell technologies. A critical overview of the current status and future application potential of multiple existing and emergent energy harvesting technologies for building integration is provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0540.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Modified FOLFIRINOX; Severe neutropenia; Overall survival; Overall response rate; Time to treatment failure; Advanced pancreatic cancer
Online: 27 September 2018 (10:12:08 CEST)
Modified FOLFIRINOX is effective for advanced pancreatic cancer but frequently causes severe neutropenia. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of severe neutropenia on clinical outcomes in advanced pancreatic cancer patients receiving modified FOLFIRINOX. Fifty-one advanced pancreatic cancer patients who received modified FOLFIRINOX during January 2014 and May 2018 were subjects of the present study. Adverse events, including neutropenia, were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Median overall survival (OS) was determined as the primary endpoint, while median time to treatment failure (TTF), overall response rate (ORR), and the incidence of other adverse events were measured as secondary endpoints. Severe neutropenia (grade≥3) occurred in 39 patients (76.4%), in which high level of total bilirubin (>0.6mg/dL) was a significant risk as assessed by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Median duration of OS was significantly longer in patients with severe neutropenia than in those without it (15.2 months versus 7.2 months, P=0.032). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between OS and the grade of neutropenia (R=0.306, P=0.029). ORR tended to be higher, though not significantly, in patients with severe neutropenia. In contrast, the incidence rates of other adverse events were not different between the two groups. Severe neutropenia is an independent predictor of prognosis in advanced pancreatic cancer patients received modified FOLFIRNOX therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0429.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: biomass, bio-energy, bio-chemicals, advanced technologies, agricultural production, trade, land use, economic modelling, MAGNET model
Online: 23 July 2018 (15:08:09 CEST)
As the EU is moving towards a low carbon economy and seeks to further develop its renewable energy policy, this paper quantitatively investigates the impact of plausible energy market reforms from the perspective of bio-renewables. Employing a state-of-the-art biobased variant of a computable general equilibrium model, this study assesses the perceived medium-term benefits, risks and trade-offs which arise from an advanced biofuels plan, two exploratory scenarios of a more 'sustainable' conventional biofuels plan and a 'no-mandate' scenario. Consistent with more recent studies, none of the scenarios considered present significant challenges to EU food-security or agricultural land usage. An illustrative advanced biofuels plan simulation requires non-trivial public support to implement whilst a degree of competition for biomass with (high-value) advanced biomass material industries is observed. On the other hand, it significantly alleviates land use pressures, whilst lignocellulose biomass prices are not expected to increase to unsustainable levels. Clearly, these observations are subject to assumptions on technological change, sustainable biomass limits, expected trends in fossil fuel prices and EU access to third-country trade. With these same caveats in mind, the switch to increased bioethanol production does not result in significant market tensions in biomass markets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0442.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: data science; advanced analytics; machine learning; deep learning; smart computing; decision-making; predictive analytics; data science applications;
Online: 16 April 2021 (11:28:09 CEST)
The digital world has a wealth of data, such as Internet of Things (IoT) data, business data, health data, mobile data, urban data, security data, and many more, in the current age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0 or 4IR). Extracting knowledge or useful insights from these data can be used for smart decision-making in various applications domains. In the area of data science, advanced analytics methods including machine learning modeling can provide actionable insights or deeper knowledge about data, which makes the computing process automatic and smart. In this paper, we present a comprehensive view on "Data Science'' including various types of advanced analytics methods that can be applied to enhance the intelligence and capabilities of an application through smart decision-making in different scenarios. We also discuss and summarize ten potential real-world application domains including business, healthcare, cybersecurity, urban and rural data science, and so on by taking into account data-driven smart computing and decision making. Based on this, we finally highlight the challenges and potential research directions within the scope of our study. Overall, this paper aims to serve as a reference point on data science and advanced analytics to the researchers and decision-makers as well as application developers, particularly from the data-driven solution point of view for real-world problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0472.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sustainability; advanced sustainability analysis (ASA); sustainable development goals (SDGs); indicators; demonstration study; Doughnut economy; Sustainability Window; Thailand
Online: 18 December 2020 (14:51:50 CET)
The Doughnut Economy is a new approach for the inclusion of planetary boundaries and social foundation in the development of societies. The Sustainable Development Goals of the UN determine another view for development targets. The developed Sustainability Window approach provides a means for operationalisation and quantification of the Doughnut Economy. The developed method calculates minimum economic development to guarantee sustainable social development and maximum economic development not to exceed environmental sustainability. The developed method, ASA Doughnut, is illustrated with case data from Thailand. The sustainability Doughnut for Thailand has been calculated for both weak and strong sustainability criteria. It seems that strong sustainability is a too strict requirement regarding several environmental dimensions of development while the weak sustainability criteria are fulfilled. The developed method and tool is flexible and can be used for comparative analysis of different countries or regions, for dynamic analysis of sustainability development, for gap analysis of the required improvement of environmental or social efficiency, and analysis of degrowth possibilities. The selection of indicators for the analyses and their reliability is crucial for the validity of the results and usefulness in policy planning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0048.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal desalination; reverse osmosis; advanced heat transfer fluids; sustainable desalination practices; integrated solar thermal nanofluids based desalination
Online: 9 January 2020 (08:39:19 CET)
Desalination accounts for 1% of the total global water consumption and is an energy-intensive process, with the majority of operational expenses attributed to energy consumption. Moreover, at present, a significant portion of the power comes from traditional fossil fuel-fired power plants and the greenhouse gas emissions associated with power production along with concentrated brine discharge from the process, pose a severe threat to the environment. Due to the dramatic impact of climate change, there is a major opportunity to develop sustainable desalination processes to combat the issues of brine discharge, greenhouse gas emissions along with a reduction in energy consumption per unit of freshwater produced. Nanotechnology can play a vital role to achieve specific energy consumption reduction as nanofluids application increases the overall heat transfer coefficient enabling the production of more water for the same size desalination plant. Furthermore, concentrated brine discharge harms the marine ecosystems, and hence, this problem must also be solved to support the objective of sustainable desalination. Several studies have been carried out in the past several years in the field of nanotechnology applications for desalination, brine treatment and the role of renewable energy in desalination. This paper aims to review the major advances in this field of nanotechnology for desalination. Furthermore, a hypothesis for developing an integrated solar thermal and nanofluid sustainable desalination system, based on the cyclic economy model is proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0034.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: wind turbines; hydroelectric systems; nonlinear modelling; model--based control; data--driven approach; advanced control; robustness and reliability
Online: 9 August 2017 (04:42:58 CEST)
Increasingly, there is a focus on utilising renewable energy resources in a bid to fulfil increasing energy requirements and mitigate the climate change impacts of fossil fuels. While most renewable resources are free, the technology used to usefully convert such resources is not and there is an increasing focus on improving the conversion economy and efficiency. To this end, advanced control technologies can have a significant impact and is already a relatively mature technology for wind turbines. Though hydroelectric plants can use simple regulation systems, significant benefits have been shown to accrue from the appropriate use of the same control methods designed for wind turbine plants. This represents the key point of the paper. In fact, to date, the application communities connected with wind and hydraulic energies have had little communication, resulting in little cross fertilisation of control ideas and experience, particularly from the more mature wind area to hydrodynamic systems. Therefore, this paper examines the models and the application of control technology across both domains, both from a comparative and contrasting point of view, with the aim of identifying commonalities in models and control objectives, as well as potential solutions. Key comparative reference points include the articulation of the exployed models, specification of control objectives, development of high--fidelity simulators, and development of solution concepts. Not least, in terms of realistic system requirements are the set of physical and constraints under which such renewable energy systems must operate, and the need to provide reliable and robust control solutions, which respect the often remote and relatively inaccessible location of many onshore and offshore deployments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0332.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: smart water grid; advanced metering infrastructure; short-term water demand forecasting; end-use level; on-site sodium hypochlorite generator
Online: 13 April 2021 (09:20:08 CEST)
It is crucial to forecast the water demand accurately for supplying water efficiently and stably in a water supply system. In particular, accurately forecasting short-term water demand helps in saving energy and reducing operating costs. With the introduction of the Smart Water Grid (SWG) in a water supply system, the amount of water consumption is obtained in real time through an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) sensor, which can be used for forecasting the short-term water demand. The models widely used for water demand forecasting include the autoregressive integrated moving average, radial basis function-artificial neural network, quantitative multi-model predictor plus, and long short-term memory. However, there is a lack of research on assessing the performance of models and forecasting the short-term water demand by applying the data on the amount of water consumption by purpose and the pipe diameter of an end-use level of the SWG demonstration plant in each demand forecasting model. Therefore, in this study, the short-term water demand was forecasted for each model using the data collected from the AMI, and the performance of each model was assessed. The Smart Water Grid Research Group installed ultrasonic-wave-type AMI sensors in the block 112 located in YeongJong Island, Incheon, and the actual data used for operating the SWG demonstration plant were adopted. The performance of the model was assessed by using the residual, root mean square error (RMSE), normalized root mean square error (NRMSE), Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) as indices. The water demand forecast was slightly underestimated in models that employed the assessment results based on the RMSE and NRMSE. Furthermore, the forecasting accuracy was low for the NSE due to a large number of negative values; the correlation between the observed and forecasted values of the PCC was not high, and it was difficult to forecast the peak amount of water consumption. Therefore, as the short-term water demand forecasting models using only time and the amount of water consumption have limitations in reflecting the characteristics of consumers, a water supply system can be managed more precisely if other factors (weather, customer behavior, etc.) influencing the water demand are applied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: casein hydrolysate; Val-Pro-Pro; Ile-Pro-Pro; brachial ankle pulse wave velocity; advanced glycation end products; facial pigmentation
Online: 25 April 2020 (02:42:35 CEST)
Casein hydrolysate improves arterial stiffness, as estimated by brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), in untreated hypertensive subjects. Facial pigmentation is a useful biomarker for arterial stiffness. This trial evaluated whether casein hydrolysate improves facial pigmentation in association with changes in arterial stiffness. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 80 non-hypertensive Japanese participants randomly assigned to receive either active tablets containing casein hydrolysate or placebo for 48 weeks. Facial pigmentation and baPWV were measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Other biochemical atherosclerosis-related parameters were also measured, including advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Changes in facial pigmentation showed a significant difference between the groups. Change in baPWV was significantly better in the active than in the placebo group. In contrast, no significant association was seen between changes in facial pigmentation and those in baPWV. Among other atherosclerosis-related factors, changes in advanced glycation products (AGEs) were significantly decreased in the active compared to the placebo group. Further, changes in facial pigmentation were positively correlated with those in AGEs. Changes in AGEs were independently associated with changes in facial pigmentation. Casein hydrolysate improves facial pigmentation in non-hypertensive participants. Casein hydrolysate may have beneficial effects on glycation stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Advanced Parkinson’s disease; Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus; L-dopa/Carbidopa Intestinal Gel Infusion; Continuous Subcutaneous Apomorphine Infusion
Online: 4 February 2022 (07:18:08 CET)
Background: Continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (CSAI), levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusion (LCIG), and deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) have markedly changed the treatment landscape of advanced Parkinson’s disease (aPD). Despite a similar outcome of all device-aided therapies (DATs), some patients switch or combine DATs. The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the frequency and reasons for switching between or combining DATs in two movement disorders centres in Slovenia and Israel. Methods: We collected and analysed demographic and clinical data from aPD patients who switched between or combined DATs. Motor and non-motor reasons and their frequency for switching/combining were examined, as was the effect of DAT using the Global Improvement subscale of the Clinical Global Impression Scale. Non-parametric tests were used to analyse the data. Results: Of 505 aPD patients treated with DATs at both centres between January 2009 and June 2021, we identified in total 30 patients (6%), who either switched DAT (N=24: 7 LCIG-to-STN-DBS, 1 LCIG-to-CSAI, 5 CSAI-to STN-DBS, 8 CSAI-to-LCIG, 1 STN-DBS-to-LCIG, 1 LCIG-to-CSAI-to-STN-DBS, and 1 STN-DBS-to-CSAI-to-LCIG) or combined DATs (N=6: 5 STN-DBS+LCIG and 1 STN-DBS+CSAI-to-STN-DBS+LCIG). In most of these patients, inadequate control of motor symptoms was the main reason for switching or combining DATs, but non-motor reasons (related to the disease and/or DAT) were also identified. Conclusions: Switching between and combining DATs is uncommon, but in some patients brings substantial clinical improvement and should be considered in those who have either inadequate symptom control on DAT treatment or have developed DAT related complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0641.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: aging; paternal exposure; sperm; advanced paternal age; epigenetics; DNA methylation; RRBS, 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether; PBDE; BDE-47; perinatal; environment
Online: 30 October 2020 (13:37:14 CET)
Advanced paternal age at fertilization has been suggested to be a risk factor for neurodevelopmental, psychiatric and other disorders in offspring. One emerging hypothesis suggests that altered offspring phenotype is linked with age-related accumulation of epigenetic changes in the sperm of fathers. Given that paternal age is increasing in the developed world, understanding aging-related epigenetic changes in sperm is needed as well as environmental factors that modify such changes. In this study, we characterize age-dependent changes in sperm DNA methylation profiles between young pubertal (postnatal day (PNDs) 65) and mature (PND120) Wistar rats. We also analyze these changes in rats exposed perinatally to 0.2 mg/kg of ubiquitous environmental xenobiotic 2,2’,4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47). Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) libraries were prepared from caudal epididymal sperm DNA and differentially methylated regions (DMRs; ≥ 10x coverage depth, ≥ 3 CpGs per cluster, ≥ 5% methylation change, q < 0.05) were identified via MethPipe package. In control animals, 5,319 age-dependent DMRs were identified, with 99.3% DMRs hypermethylated in mature animals compared to young pubertal rats. These age-related DMRs were enriched for functional categories essential for embryonic development, such as pattern specification, forebrain and sensory organ development, Hippo and Wnt pathways. Age-related changes in sncRNA, reported in different study, target similar list of genes and biological categories.In BDE-47 exposed rats, sperm DNA methylation was higher in young pubertal and lower in mature animals when compared to controls, which resulted in a significant attenuation in the number of age-dependent DMRs (N = 189) identified in the exposed group. In conclusion, our results indicate that the natural aging process has profound effects on sperm methylation levels and this effect may be modified by environmental exposures. Moreover, our results further support the role of epigenetic mechanisms as a likely link betwen paternal age and offspring health and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0104.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: advanced nuclear fuel cycles; waste management; resource utilization; economics; performance comparison; multi-criteria decision analysis; sensitivity/uncertainty analysis; environmental footprint
Online: 30 August 2017 (12:35:24 CEST)
Is it true that the nuclear technology applied to electric energy generation offers a clean, safe, reliable and affordable i.e. sustainable alternative? Yes it is, but its impact on the environment strongly depends on the implementation bearing residual risks due to a human factor, technical failures or natural catastrophes. A full response is therefore difficult and can first be given when the wicked multi-disciplinary problems get well formulated and “solved”. These problems have multi-dimensional nature lying at the interface between: necessary R&D effort, the industrial deployment and the technology impact in view of the environmental sustainability including the management of produced hazardous waste. This enormous complexity indicates that just a description of the problem might represent a problem. The paper proposes a holistic approach to assess the nuclear energy systems potential with respect to sustainable performance applying Multi-criteria decision analysis with a suitable objective tree and a multi-level criteria structure and examines the trading-off techniques for ranking of the alternatives. The framework proposes a multi-criteria and multi-stakeholders treatment which can be used as a pre-decisional support towards an implementation of nuclear fuel cycles adapted to national preferences and priorities. Proposed approach addresses some aspects of the environmental footprint of nuclear energy systems. Advanced nuclear fuel cycles, previously investigated by the NEA/OECD expert group WASTEMAN, are analyzed as a case study. Sustainability facets of waste management, resource utilization and economics are in focus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0050.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: modelling and simulation for control; advanced control design; model–based and data-driven approaches; artificial intelligence; thermal unit nonlinear system
Online: 9 December 2016 (03:17:38 CET)
The paper presents the design and the implementation of different advanced control strategies that are applied to a nonlinear model of a thermal unit. A data–driven grey–box identification approach provided the physically meaningful nonlinear continuous–time model, which represents the benchmark exploited in this work. The control problem of this thermal unit is important since it constitutes the key element of passive air conditioning systems. The advanced control schemes analysed in this paper are used to regulate the outflow air temperature of the thermal unit by exploiting the inflow air speed, whilst the inflow air temperature is considered as an external disturbance. The reliability and robustness issues of the suggested control methodologies are verified with a Monte–Carlo analysis for simulating modelling uncertainty, disturbance and measurement errors. The achieved results serve to demonstrate the effectiveness and the viable application the suggested control solutions to air conditioning systems. The benchmark model represents one of the key issues of this study, which is exploited for benchmarking different model–based and data–driven advanced control methodologies through extensive simulations. Moreover, this work highlights the main features of the proposed control schemes, while providing practitioners and heating, ventilating and air conditioning engineers with tools to design robust control strategies for air conditioning systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0134.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: smart factory; advanced manufacturing; intelligent manufacturing; Cyber Manufacturing; Cyber Physical Systems; Internet of Things; Industry 4.0; Artificial Intelligence; data driven manufacturing
Online: 9 June 2022 (04:05:14 CEST)
In a dynamic and rapidly changing world, customers’ often conflicting demands plus fluid economic requirements, often driven by geo-politics, have continued to evolve, out-striping the capability of existing production systems. With its inherent shortcomings, the traditional factory has proven to be incapable of addressing these modern-day manufacturing challenges. Recent advancements in Industry 4.0 have catalyzed the development of new manufacturing paradigms (or smart factory visions) under different monikers (e.g., Smart factory, Intelligent factory, Digital factory, Cloud-based factory etc.) would help fix these challenges. Due to a lack of consensus on a general nomenclature for these manufacturing paradigms, the term Future Factory (or Factory of the Future) is here used as a collective euphemism, without prejudice. The Future Factory constitutes a creative convergence of multiple technologies, techniques and capabilities that represent a significant change in current production capabilities, models, and practices. It is a data-driven manufacturing approach and system that harnesses intelligence from multiple information streams i.e., assets (including people), processes, and subsystems to help create new forms of production efficiency and flexibility. Serving both as a review monograph and reference companion, this paper details the meanings, characteristics, and technological underpinnings of the Future Factory. It also elucidates on the architectural models that guide the structured deployment of these modern factories with particular emphasis on three advanced communication technologies capable of speeding up advancements in the field. It not only highlights the relevance of communication between assets but also lays out mechanisms to achieve these interactions using the Administration shell. Finally, the paper also discusses the key enabling technologies that are typically embedded into bare bone factories to help improve their visibility, resilience, intelligence, and capacity, in addition to how these technologies are being deployed and to what effect. At the onset of the study, we were interested in developing a monograph which would serve as a comprehensive but concise review of general principles, fundamental concepts, major characteristics, key building blocks and implementation guidelines for the Future Factory within the overall context of the manufacturing ecosystem, in the age of Industry 4.0. Our hope is that this paper would enrich the extant literature on advanced manufacturing, help shape policy and research, and provide insights on how some of the identified pathways can be diffused into industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0129.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy; Oxidative stress; Advanced glycation end products (AGEs); Antioxidant enzymes; Vascular endothelial growth factor; B-vitamins; Vitamin-C; Vitamin- E
Online: 8 June 2022 (12:40:07 CEST)
Excessive intracellular glucose in insulin independent tissues including nerve, nephron, lens and retina invites mishandling of metabolism of glucose resulting in a background of increased oxidative stress, advanced glycation end products (AGE) formation, lipid peroxidation and failure of antioxidant defense systems in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). All these detrimental biochemical anomalies ultimately attack biological membranes and especially capillary beds of retina and glomerulus of kidney, resulting in break-down of inner blood-retinal i.e. initiation of diabetic retinopathy (DR). If these disarrays are corrected to a large extent, development of DR can be avoided or delayed. In this prospective clinical trial, 185 patients with T2DM who received B-vitamins, vitamin-C, and E along with anti-diabetic medication for five years, demonstrated a slower rate of the development of DR and reduced abnormal biochemical mediators like reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), AGE, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared to 175 T2DM individuals who were treated with only anti-hyperglycemic drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0447.v1
Subject: Keywords: out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; emergency physician; medical decision; asystole; advanced life support; Charlson comorbidity index; emergency medical service; prehospital emergency
Online: 20 July 2021 (11:48:59 CEST)
The objective of this study was to identify the key elements used by prehospital emergency physicians (EP) to decide whether or not to attempt advanced life support (ALS) in asystolic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). From 01.01.2009 to 01.01.2017, all adult victims of asystolic OHCA in Geneva, Switzerland, were retrospectively included. Patients with signs of "obvious death" or with a Do-Not-Attempt-Resuscitation order were excluded. Patients were categorized as having received ALS if this was mentioned in the medical record, or, failing that, if at least one dose of adrenaline had been administered during cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Prognostic factors known at the time of EP's decision were included in a multivariable logistic regression model. 784 patients were included. Factors favourably influencing the decision to provide ALS were witnessed OHCA (OR=2.14, 95%CI1.43–3.20) and bystander CPR (OR=4.10, 95%CI2.28–7.39). Traumatic aetiology (OR=0.04, 95%CI0.02–0.08), age >80 years (OR=0.14, 95%CI0.09–0.24) and a Charlson comorbidity index greater than 5 (OR=0.12, 95%CI0.06–0.27) were the factors most strongly associated with the decision not to attempt ALS. Factors influencing the EP’s decision to attempt ALS in asystolic OHCA are the relatively young age of the patients, few comorbidities, presumed medical aetiology, witnessed OHCA and bystander CPR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0629.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air pollution control; air quality; volatile organic compounds; nuisance smell; livestock agriculture; waste management; environmental technology; advanced oxidation; excimer; titanium dioxide
Online: 25 March 2021 (14:46:38 CET)
UV-A (ca. 365 nm wavelength, a.k.a. 'black light') photocatalysis has been investigated to comprehensively mitigate odor and selected air pollutants in the livestock environment. This study was conducted to confirm the performance of UV-A photocatalysis on the swine farm. The objectives of this research were to (1) scale-up of the UV-A photocatalysis treatment, (2) evaluate the mitigation of odorous gases from swine slurry pit, and (3) test different UV sources, (4) evaluate the effect of suspended particulate matter (PM), and (5) conduct preliminary economic analyses. We tested UV-A photocatalysis at a mobile laboratory-scale capable of treating ~0.2 - 0.8 m3·s-1 of barn exhaust air. The targeted gaseous emissions of barn exhaust air were significantly mitigated (p < 0.05) up to 40% reduction of measured odor; 63%, 44%, 32%, 40%, 66%, and 49% reduction of dimethyl disulfide, isobutyric acid, butanoic acid, p-cresol, indole, and skatole, respectively; 40% reduction of H2S; 100% reduction of O3; and 13% reduction of N2O. The PM mitigation effect was not significant. Formaldehyde levels did not change, and a 21% generation of CO2 was observed. The percent reduction of targeted gases decreased as the airborne PM increased. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analysis confirmed that UV-A treatment changed the overall nuisance odor character of swine barn emissions into weaker manure odor with 'toothpaste and 'mint' notes. The smell of benzoic acid generated in UV-A treatment was likely one of the compounds responsible for the less-offensive overall odor character of the UV-treated emissions. Results are needed to inform the design of a farm-scale trial, where the interior barn walls can be treated with the photocatalyst, and foul air will be passively treated as it moves through the barn.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: super-resolution microscopy; advanced light microscopy; quantitative microscopy; live-cell microscopy; SMLM; STORM; SIM; STED; expansion microscopy; influenza virus; viral replication
Online: 6 January 2021 (10:40:59 CET)
With an estimated 3 to 5 million human cases annually and the potential to infect domestic and wild animal populations, influenza viruses are one of the greatest health and economic burdens to our society  and pose an ongoing threat of large-scale pandemics. Despite our knowledge of many important aspects of influenza virus biology, there is still much to learn about how influenza viruses replicate in infected cells, for instance how they use entry receptors or exploit host cell trafficking pathways. These gaps in our knowledge are due, in part, to the difficulty of directly observing viruses in living cells. In recent years, advances in light microscopy, including super-resolution microscopy and single-molecule imaging, have enabled many viral replication steps to be visualised dynamically in living cells. In particular, the ability to track single virions and their components, in real time, now allows specific pathways to be interrogated providing new insights to various aspects of the virus-host cell interaction. In this review, we discuss how state-of-the-art imaging technologies, notably quantitative live-cell and super-resolution microscopy, are shedding new nanoscale and molecular insights into influenza virus replication and revealing new opportunities for developing antiviral strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0126.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: advanced glycation end products (AGEs); enzymatic hydrolysis; glycation; methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1); seeds; seed ageing; seed quality; sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)
Online: 11 December 2018 (10:40:15 CET)
Seeds represent the major source of food protein, impacting on both human nutrition and animal feeding. Therefore, seed quality needs to be appropriately addressed in the context of viability and food safety. Indeed, long-term and inappropriate storage of seeds might result in enhancement of protein glycation, which might affect their quality and longevity. Glycation of seed proteins can be probed by exhaustive acid hydrolysis and quantification of the glycation adduct Nɛ-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This approach, however, does not allow analysis of thermally and chemically labile glycation adducts, like glyoxal-, methylglyoxal- and 3-deoxyglucosone-derived hydroimidazolones. Although enzymatic hydrolysis might be a good solution in this context, it requires aqueous conditions, which cannot ensure reconstitution of seed protein isolates. Because of this, the complete profiles of seed AGEs are not characterized so far. Therefore, here we propose the approach, giving access to quantitative solubilization of seed proteins in presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and their quantitative enzymatic hydrolysis prior to removal of SDS by reversed phase solid phase extraction (RP-SPE). Using MG-H1 as a case example, we demonstrate the applicability of this method for reliable and sensitive LC-MS-based quantification of chemically labile AGEs and its compatibility with bioassays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0366.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Magnesium nanoparticles; Laser scan speed, Wearables; Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid; Advanced manufacturing; Flexile sensors; Powder metallurgy; Surface science; Nanoparticle size distributions; Picosecond laser
Online: 25 October 2021 (15:46:16 CEST)
Magnesium nanoparticles of various mean diameters (53 – 239 nm) were synthesized herein via Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid (PLAL) from millimeter sized magnesium powders within iso-propyl alcohol. It was observed via a 3x3 full factorial DOE that the processing parameters can control the nanoparticle distribution to produce three size-distribution types (bimodal, skewed and normal). Ablation times of 2, 5, and 25 minutes where investigated. An ablation time of 2 minutes produced a bimodal distribution with the other types seen at higher periods of processing. Mg nanoparticle UV-Vis absorbance at 204 nm increased linearly with increasing ablation time, indicating an increase in nanoparticle count. The colloidal density (mg/ml) generally increased with increasing nanoparticle mean diameter as noted via increasing UV-vis absorbance. High la-ser scan speeds (within the studied range of 3000 - 3500 mm/s) tend to increase the nanoparticle count/yield. For the first time, the effect of scan speed on colloidal density, UV-vis absorbance and nanoparticle diameter from metallic powder ablation was investigated and is reported herein. The nanoparticles formed dendritic structures after being drop cast on aluminum foil as observed via FESEM analysis. Dynamic light scattering was used to measure the size of the nanoparticles. Magnesium nanoparticles have promising use in the fabrication of wearables, such as in conductive tracks or battery electrodes, owing to their low heat capacity, high melting point and bio-compatibility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0035.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Photopolymerization; Additive manufacturing; Ultrafast laser; Multiphoton lithography; Laser 3D nanolithography; Nanoscale; Organic and hybrid materials; Bio-derived materials; Functional 3D structures; Advanced material engineering
Online: 2 October 2020 (09:30:53 CEST)
Ultrafast laser 3D lithography based on non-linear light-matter interactions, widely known as multi-photon lithography (MPL), offers unrivaled precision rapid prototyping and flexible additive manufacturing options. 3D printing equipment based on MPL are already commercially available, yet there is still no comprehensive understanding of factors determining spatial resolution, accuracy, fabrication throughput, repeatability, and standardized metrology methods for the accurate characterization of the produced 3D objects and their functionalities. The photoexcitation mechanisms, spatial-control or photo-modified volumes, and the variety of processable materials are topics actively investigated. The complexity of the research field is underlined by limited understanding and fragmented knowledge of light-excitation and material response. Research to date has only provided case-specific findings on photoexcitation, chemical modification, and material characterization of the experimental data. In this review, we aim to provide a consistent and comprehensive summary of the existing literature on photopolymerization mechanisms under highly confined spatial and temporal conditions, where, besides the excitation and cross-linking, parameters such as diffusion, temperature accumulation, and the finite amount of monomer molecules start to become of critical importance. Key parameters such as, photoexcitation, polymerization kinetics, and the properties of the additively manufactured materials at the nanoscale in 3D are examined, whereas, the perspectives for future research and as well as emerging applications are outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0133.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: advanced glycation end products (ages); drought; glycation; sh-sy5y human neuroblastoma cells; metabolomics; osmotic stress; pea (pisum sativum l.); pro-inflammatory; seeds; seed metabolism; signaling
Online: 10 December 2019 (14:53:42 CET)
Protein glycation is usually referred to as an array of non-enzymatic post-translational modifications, formed by reducing sugars and carbonyl products of their degradation. Resulting advanced glycation end products (AGEs) represent a heterogeneous group of covalent adducts, known for their pro-inflammatory effects in mammals, and impacting on pathogenesis of metabolic diseases and ageing. In plants, AGEs are the markers of tissue ageing and response to environmental stressors, the most prominent of which is drought. Although water deficit enhances protein glycation in leaves, its effect on seed glycation profiles is still unknown. Moreover, the effect of drought on biological activities of seed protein in mammalian systems is still unstudied in respect of glycation. Therefore, here we address the effects of a short-term drought on the patterns of seed protein-bound AGEs and accompanying alterations in pro-inflammatory properties of seed protein in the context of seed metabolome dynamics. A short-term drought, simulated as polyethylene glycol-induced osmotic stress and applied at the stage of seed filling, resulted in dramatic suppression of primary seed metabolism, although secondary metabolome was minimally affected. This was accompanied with significant suppression of NF-kB activation in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells after a treatment with protein hydrolyzates, isolated from the mature seeds of drought-treated plants. This effect could not be attributed to formation of known AGEs. Most likely, the prospective anti-inflammatory effect of short-term drought is related to antioxidant effect of unknown secondary metabolite protein adducts, or down-regulation of unknown plant-specific AGEs due to suppression of energy metabolism during seed filling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0245.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: Osteomeles Schwerinae; diabetic retinopathy (DR); spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rat; human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs); advanced glycation end products (AGEs); retinal apoptosis; oxidative stress; mitochondrial function; adjunctive effect; combination therapy
Online: 24 January 2019 (08:37:29 CET)
Retinal apoptosis plays a critical role in the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common diabetic complication. Currently, the tight control of blood glucose levels is the standard approach to prevent or delay the progression of DR. However, prevalence of DR among diabetic patients remains high. Focusing on natural nutrients or herbal medicines that can prevent or delay the onset of diabetic complications, we administered an ethanol extract of the aerial portion of Osteomeles Schwerinae (OSSCE), a Chinese herbal medicine, over a period of 17 weeks to spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rats. OSSCE was found to ameliorate retinal apoptosis through the regulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial function via inhibition of NF-κB activity, in turn through the downregulation of PKCδ, P47phox, and ERK1/2. We further demonstrated in 25 mM glucose-treated human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) that hyperoside (3-O-galactoside-quercetin), quercitrin (3-O-rhamnoside-quercetin), and 2''-O-acetylvitexin (8-C-(2''-O-acetyl-glucoside)-apigenin) were the active components of OSSCE that mediated its pharmacological action. Our results provide evidence that OSSCE is a powerful agent that may directly mediate a delay in development or disease improvement in patients of DR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI); Distributed Energy Resources (DER); Distribution Management System (DMS); Graph Reduction In Parallel (GRIP); Intelligent Electronic Device (IED); Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI); Service Oriented Architecture (SOA); Ultra Large Scale System (ULSS)
Online: 19 March 2018 (11:42:42 CET)
Smart grid software interconnects multiple Engineering disciplines (power systems, communication, software and hardware technology, instrumentation, big data, etc.). The software architecture is an evolving concept in smart grid systems in which systematic architecture development is a challenging process. The architecture has to realize the complex legacy power grid systems and cope up with current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). The distributed generation in smart grid environment expects the software architecture to be distributed and to enable local control. Smart grid architecture should also be modular, flexible and adaptable to technology upgrades. In this paper, the authors have made a comprehensive review on architecture for smart grids. An in depth analysis of layered and agent based architectures is presented and compared under various domains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0242.v1
Subject: Keywords: Lorentzian SRT-transformation factors as solutions of oscillation-equations Holger Döring IQ-Berlin-Spandau Germany e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.orgAbstract:Shown is the derivation of Lorentz-Einstein k-factor in SRT as an amplitude-term of oscillation-differential equations of second order.This case is shown for classical Lorentz-factor as solution of an equation for undamped oscillation as well as the developed theorem as a second solution for advanced SRT of fourth order with an equation for damped oscillation-states.This advanced term allows a calculation for any velocities by real rest mass.key-words: undamped oscillation; SRT; k-factor; Differential-equation of second order; Einstein-Lorentz; Amplitude-analogy; damped oscillation; developed SRT of fourth order
Online: 11 May 2021 (11:16:44 CEST)
Abstract:Shown is the derivation of Lorentz-Einstein k-factor in SRT as an amplitude-term of oscillation-differential equations of second order.This case is shown for classical Lorentz-factor as solution of an equation for undamped oscillation as well as the developed theorem as a second solution for advanced SRT of fourth order with an equation for damped oscillation-states.This advanced term allows a calculation for any velocities by real rest mass