ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: accelerometers; MVPA; health; adults
Online: 29 December 2016 (10:33:36 CET)
The main goal of the study was to obtain objective measures of the impact of a complete pre-season of amateur football on the players’ physical activity parameters. 17 amateur football players (24.47 ± 4.53 years) enrolled in the same team agreed to participate. They were asked to wear one accelerometer on the right hip during each training practice. Moderate-to-Vigorous physical activity (MVPA), steps and metabolic-equivalent (METs), among other parameters, were obtained and analyzed. Results showed that players spent an average 54.86% of each training session in MVPA levels, for a total of 100.33 minutes every week (3 training sessions per week). Therefore, this group of amateur football players did not meet the requirements to obtain health benefits from their physical activity program: amateur football. This finding could be considered noteworthy because there are thousands of adults worldwide who play amateur football to maintain a healthy lifestyle. They should be aware that their weekly training load is not enough to help them meet the necessary requirements. They either need more practice time (90-minute sessions) or more sessions. The pre-season training program was rated as “somewhat hard” by the participants, and quadriceps and hamstrings were mentioned as the most exerted muscles
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0470.v1
Online: 29 December 2021 (14:46:13 CET)
Introduction: Young adults are the second largest segment of the immigrant population in the United States (US). Given recent trends in later age of initiation of tobacco use, we examined variation in use of tobacco products by nativity status for this population group. Methods: Our study included young adults 18-30 years of age sampled in the National Health Interview Survey (2015-2019), a nationally representative sample of the US population. We calculated prevalence of use of any and 2 or more tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, pipes, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco) for foreign-born (n=3,096) and US-born (n=6,811) young adults. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, and poverty, while accounting for the complex survey design. Results: Foreign-born young adults were significantly less likely to use any tobacco product (Cigarette = 7.3% vs 10.7%; Cigar= 1.8% vs 4.8%; E-cigarette= 2.3% vs 4.5%, respectively; p<0.01) or poly tobacco use (1.9% vs. 4.2%; p<0.01) than US-born young adults. Adjusted regression models showed lower odds of poly tobacco use among the foreign-born than their US-born counterparts (Odds Ratio = 0.41, (95% Confidence Interval: 0.26-0.63)). Conclusion: Findings highlight the importance of targeted interventions by nativity status and further tobacco prevention efforts needed for the US-born.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0023.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: fake news; young adults; Spain
Online: 1 December 2020 (13:13:27 CET)
The infodiet of young Spanish adults aged 18 to 25 was analysed to determine their attitude towards fake news. The objectives were: to establish whether they have received any training in fake news; to determine whether they know how to identify fake information; and to investigate whether they spread it. The study employed a descriptive quantitative method consisting of a survey of 500 representative interviews of the Spanish population aged between 18 and 25 through a structured questionnaire. The results indicate that they are aware of the importance of training, although generally they do not know of any course and when they do, they do not tend to enrol on one either due to lack of interest or time. These young adults feel that they know how to identify fake content and, moreover, that they know how to do so very well. However, they do not use the best tools. While they do not always verify information, they mainly suspect the credibility of information when it is meaningless. However, they do not tend to spread fake information. We conclude that media information literacy training (MILT) is necessary in educational centres that focuses on the main issues identified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0337.v1
Online: 12 November 2020 (09:49:51 CET)
The study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of heavy episodic drinking (HED) among adults in Ecuador. In the national cross-sectional 2018 Ecuador STEPS survey, 4,638 persons (median age=39 years, range 18-69 years) responded to a questionnaire, physical measures, and biomedical tests. Results indicate that 24.1% had past month HED, 36.7% among men, and 12.0% of women; 40.6% past month HED among past 12-month drinkers. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, male sex (Adjusted Odds Ratio=AOR: 3.12, 95% Confidence Interval=CI: 2.50-3.89), past smoking (AOR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.09-1.76), and current smoking (AOR: 2.83, 95% CI: 2.15-3.83) were positively and persons aged 50-69 years (AOR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.38-0.66) and having underweight (AOR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.09-0.89) were negatively associated with HED. In addition, in sex-stratified analyses, among men, being African Ecuadorean or Mulato (AOR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.10-2.91), and high physical activity (AOR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.01-1.99) were positively associated with HED, and among women, being Montubia (AOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.17-0.93) was negatively and obesity (AOR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.44) was positively associated with HED. Almost one in four participants engaged in HED, and several sociodemographic and health indicators were identified that may facilitate public health interventions for reducing HED.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0494.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: mobility; hospitalization; older adults; implementation
Online: 25 July 2018 (16:03:50 CEST)
Immobility during hospitalization is widely recognized as a contributor to deconditioning, functional loss, and increased need for institutional post-acute care. Several studies have demonstrated that inpatient walking programs can mitigate some of these negative outcomes, yet hospital mobility programs are not widely available in U.S. hospitals. STRIDE is a supervised walking program for hospitalized older adults that fills this important gap in clinical care. Herein we describe how STRIDE works and how it is being disseminated to other hospitals using the Replicating Effective Programs (REP) framework. Guided by REP, we define core components of the program and areas where the program can be tailored to better fit the needs and local conditions of its new context (hospital). We describe key adaptations made by 4 hospitals who have implemented the STRIDE program and discuss lessons learned for successful implementation of hospital mobility programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1258.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: physical activity; older adults; periodized training
Online: 19 October 2023 (12:46:18 CEST)
Abstract: Background: The periodization of physical exercise to optimize the objectives is common in competitive sports, however physical exercise programs for the older adults do not usu-ally present periodization in their programming, they are limited to carrying out similar sessions throughout the program. Methods:137 people over 60 years old performed a physical exercise program, 71 people participated in a multicomponent non-periodized program as the Control Group (CG) and 66 people participated in a program periodized in blocks as the Experimental Group (EG). The block periodization program was oriented to the development of strength, and was carried out in 86 sessions three times per week during a period of 8 months. Anthropometric assessments were made using: weight, height, BMI and electrical bioimpedance; and functional evaluations through standardized tests: SPPB, TUG, handgrip and two-minute stair test. Results: After the intervention, the EG presents significant improvements in the TUG, in the weight and in the BMI. On the other hand, the CG presents significant improvements in fat weight, in BMI and in the 2-minute stair test. The SPPB did not present changes after the intervention. Conclusion: The periodization of physical exercise for older adults does not have a significant impact on the functional capacity in this population group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0829.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: depression; vitamins and supplements; adults; prevention
Online: 12 June 2023 (11:04:19 CEST)
Background: Studies addressing diet quality and mental health have shown a strong association. There is limited evidence of specific vitamins essential for treating depression. This study aims to understand the impact of diet quality through supplementation of vitamins D, B6, and magnesium on depressive symptoms. Methods: Multiple datasets from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017-March 2020 investigated the associations between vitamin D, B6, and magnesium on depression symptoms. A cross-sectional sample of adults over 20 was extracted (n=9,232). Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations. Results: Individuals with low doses of vitamin D were more likely to report symptoms of depression relative to those with low doses of vitamin B6 (χ²=3.9063, p=0.0481 vs. χ²=5.2071, p=0.0225). These results remained significant among those with high magnesium proportionate to high vitamin B6 (χ²=6.1272, p=0.0133 vs. χ²=5.2071, p=0.0225). Logistic regression results provided associations for all models except unadjusted vitamin D and adjusted vitamin D. Conclusions: Preventive measures could be addressed by identifying the risks of vitamin deficiencies. Further epidemiological research is needed for the individual effects of vitamin supplementation and depression symptoms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: systematic review; forest therapy; depression; adults
Online: 14 March 2017 (08:45:56 CET)
The purpose of this study was to systematically review forest therapy programs designed to decrease the level of depression among adults and subsequently identify the gaps in the literature. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The authors independently screened full-text articles from various databases using the following criteria: 1) intervention studies assessing the effects of forest therapy on depression in adults aged 18 years and over; 2) studies including at least one control group or condition; 3) been peer-reviewed; and 4) been published either in English or Korean before July 2016. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) measurement tool was used to assess the risk of bias in each trial. In the final sample, a total of 28 articles (English: 13, Korean: 15) were included in the present systematic review. This review concluded that forest therapy is one of the emerging and effective interventions for decreasing the level of depression in adults. However, the studies included in this review lacked methodological rigor. Future studies assessing the long-term effect of forest therapy on depression using rigorous study designs are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0927.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Emotional consumption; Psychological flexibility; Healthy diet; Adults
Online: 14 September 2023 (03:03:43 CEST)
The aim is to understand the relationship between psychological inflexibility, emotional eating, and the rate of healthy eating. A total of 705 Spanish adults participated (65.2% women); the mean age was 27.21 years (SD = 10.67). The instruments used were Acceptance and Action Ques-tionnaire, Eating and Appraisal Due to Emotions and Stress Questionnaire and the Healthy Eating Index for the Spanish population. The women showed significantly higher scores in psychological inflexibility than men (p < .001). No differences have been described in the Emotional Eating scale (p = .085) differences have been reported on the Self-efficacy in Emotion -and Stress-Related Eating subscale, where men do better at managing eating (p < .001). Females indicate better diet quality (p < .001). Those who show less psychological inflexibility obtain emotional eating scores indicative of less coping with emotions through food (p < .001). Groups formed according to psychological inflexibility do not differ in diet quality (p = .898). The importance of psychological inflexibility is due to its role and strong association with a variety of problems related to eating behavior, but especially because it is a construct that can be intervened upon and modified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1443.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: frailty; older adults; diet quality; sociodemographic; BMI
Online: 22 August 2023 (03:25:51 CEST)
This study aimed to identify sociodemographic and health indicators of diet quality in pre-frail community-dwelling older adults. Pre-frail older adults are those at risk of progression to clinical manifestations of frailty and are targets for preventative intervention. We previously reported that pre-frail older adults have reasonably good overall diet quality. However, further analyses found low intake of energy, protein and several micronutrients. Methods: We collected detailed dietary intake from pre-frail (FRAIL scale 1-2) older adults using NZ Intake24, an online version of 24-hour multiple pass dietary recall. Diet quality was ascertained with the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). We used regression Generalised Linear Models to determine predictors of diet quality and Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis to examine the complex relationships of predictors and identified profiles of sub-groups of older adults that predict diet quality. Results. The median age in this sample (n=468) was 80.0 years (77.0-84.0). Living with others, high deprivation index and a higher BMI were independent predictors of poorer diet quality. With CART analysis, we found that those with a BMI >29 kg/m2, living with others and younger than 80 years were likely to have a lower diet quality. Conclusions: We found BMI, living arrangement and socioeconomic status were independent predictors of diet quality in pre-frail older adults, with BMI being the most important variable in this sample when the interacting relationships of these variables were considered. Future research is needed to determine the similarities and/or differences in the profile of subgroups of older adults with poorer diet quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1628.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Children; Family Caregiver; Older Adults; Sandwich Generation
Online: 24 July 2023 (13:34:18 CEST)
The sandwich generation caregivers provide simultaneous care for multiple generations. Caregiving is a dynamic process, and each generation has its unique set of needs. Moreover, studies have indicated a growing population within this group. However, despite extensive research efforts, the caregiving practices employed by the sandwich generation remain inadequately explained. Therefore, the objective of this study was to shed light on the caregiving practices offered by the sandwich generation. The grounded theory approach was selected as the conceptual framework for investigating the research objective. Purposive and snowball sampling methods were utilized to recruit 18 participants from the sandwich generation. The data collected through interviews and observations were analyzed using the 2015 version of Corbin and Strauss methodology. The findings revealed that sandwich generation caregivers are influenced by prominent personality traits, issues related to the elderly, and dependencies and interdependencies within the caregiving process. Sandwich caregivers employ a range of strategies influenced by intervening and background factors. Throughout this process, caregivers encounter both positive and negative consequences. Consequently, policymakers and planners should prioritize the establishment and expansion of support systems for caregiving.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2259.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: curve of Spee; electromyographic analysis; young adults
Online: 30 June 2023 (13:17:51 CEST)
An analysis of the curve of Spee in relation to muscle activity, assessed by electromyographic analysis, on a group of 16 young adults with previous fixed orthodontic treatment is proposed as a pilot study. Given the high incidence of this type of dental treatment, it is important to point out how, in this field of dentistry, there is a marked tendency to level and flatten this anatomical occlusal curve, as proposed by Andrews. If in orthodontics there is a standardized levelling of the curve of Spee, in the prosthetic and restorative field, the management of the curve of Spee requires greater attention and often even an individualized approach. The purpose of this study is to investigate what the levelling of the antero-posterior occlusal curve entails in terms of masticatory effectiveness and harmony. From the results obtained, it can be seen that in order to optimize the harmony of the stomatognathic apparatus, the curve of Spee is a parameter that requires individual attention: modifying it through standardized levelling has inevitable consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0685.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Kidney cancer; Metabolic syndrome; Age; Young adults
Online: 10 May 2023 (04:38:19 CEST)
The aim of this study was to determine the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with kidney cancer and the impact of age and gender on such association. Using Korean National Health Insurance Service database, 9,932,670 subjects who had check-up in 2009 were followed up until the diagnosis of kidney cancer or death or until 2019. Kidney cancer was significantly associated with MetS (HR 1.56). This association was higher in the younger age group (HR: 1.82, 1.5, and 1.37 in 20-39 years, 40-64 years, and ≥65 years, respectively). In terms of the association of kidney cancer with obesity and central obesity, young-aged males showed higher HR for kidney cancer than old-aged ones (HR of obesity: 1.96, 1.52, and 1.25; HR of central obesity: 1.94, 1.53, and 1.3 in 20-39 years, 40-64 years, ≥65 years, respectively), while young-aged females showed lower HR. Kidney cancer was associated with obesity and MetS. The association was higher in younger aged population than in older ones. Regarding gender, MetS, obesity, and central obesity showed higher associations with kidney cancer in younger aged male population, while there was no significant difference in such association according to age in females.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Distal radius fracture; fall; elderly; older adults
Online: 23 February 2023 (01:57:10 CET)
Introduction: Fractures in older individuals are often caused by falls, with approximately 90% of hip fractures resulting from falls. The risk of falling increases with age, and while a significant portion of individuals over 65 fall at least once per year, only a small percentage of these falls result in hip fractures. Factors that influence the likelihood of a fracture occurring include the intensity of the fall and the quality of the bone, with lower bone mineral content increasing the risk of fracture. Older women, particularly those in their 70s, are significantly more prone to hip fractures and any type of fracture. Efforts to reduce the likelihood of falls or mitigate the associated trauma are more complex than treating osteoporosis, due in part to a lack of understanding of the causes and contributing factors of falls in older age.Methods: This study analyzed data from patients admitted to Carmel medical center with upper or lower limb fractures between 2017 and 2019 to determine the side of wrist fractures and compare it to patient age in order to examine whether there was a difference in the distribution of sides in distal radius fractures based on age and test the hypothesis that falls are more likely to occur on the left side due to the assumption that dominant hand gross motor skills are better preserved. The study received approval from the Institutional Helsinki Committee and used statistical analysis with a significance level of 0.05. Potential sources of bias include limited availability of reliable data for many patients and the risk of errors in fracture registration or diagnosis, although the small sample size is expected to minimize these biases.Results: In this analysis of patient data from 2019 to 2017, a binomial test found that the probability of breaking the left wrist is significantly greater than the probability of breaking the right wrist (p < 0.05), while a t-test found no difference in the distribution of fractures between the right and left wrists of the distal radius based on age (p = 0.2774). Discussion: The findings of the study are consistent with previous research, and indicate that there is no change in side preference for fractures with age. Conclusion: The probability of breaking the left wrist is approximately 1.5 times greater than the probability of breaking the right wrist.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0125.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: adults; dietary pattern; fast food; KNHANES; obesity
Online: 11 September 2019 (14:59:00 CEST)
Background: Few studies have examined multifaceted aspects of fast food consumption and dietary patterns for their effects on obesity. We examined the independent associations of obesity with fast food consumption and dietary pattern in Korean adults. Methods: A total of 19,017 adults aged 19–64y participated from KNHANES 2010-2014. Fast food items were removed from diet and then dietary patterns were generated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the odds for overweight/obesity and central obesity according to fast food consumption and dietary patterns. Results: Fast food consumers were about 10% of Korean adults. Both of White rice and kimchi pattern and Meat and alcohol pattern were associated with low intakes of fiber, calcium, vitamin C, grains, fruit, and milk(p<0.05). Fast food consumers had higher the Meat and alcohol pattern and the Grains, fruit, and milk pattern, and they had lower the White rice and kimchi pattern than non-fast-food-consumers. Fast food consumer were not associated with overweight/obesity, whereas the participants with Meat and alcohol pattern had 14% higher overweight/obesity(95%CI:1.01,1.28) and 16% higher central obesity(95%CI:1.00,1.34). Conclusions: Fast food consumption was not directly associated with obesity, whereas the Meat and alcohol pattern had independent associations with overweight/obesity and central obesity among Korean adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0128.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: human virome; human microbiome; bacteriophage; elderly adults
Online: 9 July 2018 (10:50:10 CEST)
The human virome is an area of increasing interest with relation to human health and disease. It has been demonstrated to alter in concert with the bacterial microbiome in early life and was also found to be different in patients with certain diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. However, all virome analyses are hampered by a lack of annotated representative database sequences, often referred to as the ‘viral dark matter’. Here we provide the first description of the gut DNA virome in elderly individuals (>65 years old) as well as the description of novel bacteriophages not present in current reference databases. Diversity analysis comparing elderly persons from different residence locations (community living vs long term care facilities) did not reveal any difference in their virome diversity profiles despite the reported differences at the bacteriome level. An abundance of Microviridae of the subfamily Gokushovirinae were present in the faeces of elderly individuals. Several novel members of the order Caudovirales were also characterized and annotated. Assignment of host bacteria to detected viral genomes was attempted using a combination of CRISPR spacers, tRNA genes and a probabilistic approach. Further characterization of the viral dark matter is necessary for developing tools and expanding databases to study the human virome. This study focused on the virome of an aging human cohort with the goal of illuminating part of the viral dark matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0159.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: Heart Failure; older adults; ultrasound; outcomes; pleural effusion
Online: 2 November 2023 (10:31:43 CET)
The decompensation trajectory check is a basic step to assess the clinical course and to plan future therapy in hospitalized patients with acute heart failure (ADHF). Due to the atypical presentation and clinical complexity, trajectory checks can be challenging in the oldest old patients with acute HF. Point of care ultrasound (POCUS) proved to be helpful in the clinical decision-making of patients with dyspnea, but no study has attempted to verify its effectiveness in predicting determinants of HF in-hospital worsening. In this single-center prospective study, we consecutively enrolled patients aged 75 or older hospitalized with acutely decompensated HF in a tertiary care hospital. All the patients underwent complete clinical examination, blood tests, and POCUS including Lung Ultrasound, Focused Cardiac Ultrasound, Pleural Effusion score (PEFs), and Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) assessment. Out of 184 patients hospitalized with ADHF enrolled in the study, sixty experienced HF in-hospital worsening. No differences were found among patients with HF worsening and controls in terms of age, gender, frailty, and left ventricular ejection fraction. By multivariable logistic analysis, total PEFs [aOR: 1.15 (CI95% 1.02– 1.33), p = 0.043], and IVC collapsibility [aOR: 0.90 (CI95% 0.83 – 0.95), p = 0.039] emerged as independent predictors of acute HF worsening after extensive adjustment for potential confounders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1039.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Plasmodium; Haemoproteus; Leucocytozoon; Avian diseases; Slovakia; adults; juveniles
Online: 17 October 2023 (08:31:22 CEST)
Haemosporidians are a group of vector-borne parasites belonging to the order Haemosporida. They infect avian hosts and require blood-sucking insects (Diptera) for their transmission. The occur-rence and diversity of haemosporidian parasites are shaped primarily by the specificity of the parasite and the susceptibility of the host/vector. In this study, the presence and distribution of haemosporidians in blood samples from birds in urbanized and natural habitats were estimated using microscopic and molecular approaches. Birds in urbanized habitats were infected with four different species of Plasmodium: Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) relictum, P. (Novyella) vaughani, P. (H.) matutinum, P. (G.) circumflexum, two different species of Haemoproteus: Haemoproteus (Parahaemo-proteus) majoris, H. (P.) parabelopolskyi, and Leucocytozoon sp. The species H. (P.) balmorali, H. (P.) concavocentralis, H. (P.) minutus, and H. (P.) pallidus were additionally identified in birds in natural habitats. Typically, juvenile birds are essential markers of parasite species transmitted in the study area. The juveniles in the urbanized habitats carried the P. (H.) relictum, P. (N.) vaughani, P. (G.) circumflexum, H. (P.) parabelopolskyi, H. (P.) majoris, and Leucocytozoon species. The most abundant parasite was H. (P.) parabelopolskyi, which was found in both types of habitats. The prevalence of the Haemoproteus and Plasmodium species in birds in natural habitats (in totally 43.80%) was sig-nificantly higher than that in birds in urbanized habitats (in totally 21.94%) (p < 0.05), also in spring. There was no statistically significant difference between types of habitats for total infection rates with Leucocytozoon sp. (p > 0.05), neither overall nor in the spring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1804.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Wearable sensors; Locomotion; Algorithm design; Accelerometer; Older adults
Online: 25 August 2023 (11:49:54 CEST)
Accurate and reliable measurement of real-world walking activity is clinically relevant, particularly for people with mobility difficulties. Insights on walking can help understand mobility function, disease progression, and fall risks. People living in long-term residential care environments have heterogeneous and often pathological walking patterns, making it difficult for conventional algorithms paired with wearable sensors to detect their walking activity. We designed two walking bout detection algorithms for people living in long-term residential care. Both algorithms used thresholds on the magnitude of acceleration from a 3-axis accelerometer on the lower back to classify data as “walking” or “non-walking”. One algorithm had generic thresholds, while the other used personalized thresholds. To validate and evaluate the algorithms, we compared the classifications of walking/non-walking from our algorithms to the real-time research assistant annotated labels and the classification from an algorithm validated on a healthy population. Both the generic and personalized algorithms had acceptable accuracy (0.83 and 0.82 respectively). The personalized algorithm showed the highest specificity (0.84) of all tested algorithms, meaning it was the best suited to determine input data for gait characteristic extraction. The developed algorithms were almost 60% quicker than the previously developed algorithms, suggesting they are adaptable for real-time processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1081.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Reminisce; Older Adults; Qualitative; Narrative; Life review; Oman
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:03:19 CEST)
Background: Reminiscence studies and life reviews have a number of proven advantages. Future generations gain by learning from elders' life experiences, as do older adults themselves who share their memories. Despite Oman's sizable geriatric population, research on older individuals' life experiences is scarce. Therefore, this study aims to explore the life experiences of older Omani individuals across their many life stages, from childhood to the present. Methods: This was a qualitative study design. A total of 13 Omani older adults (9 females and 4 males) with an average age of 68 years were recruited for this study. Socio-demographic and life review information was gathered according to a set of semi-structured guiding questions. The responses were then captured on audio recordings, which underwent transcription and translation. Thematic analysis techniques were applied to the extracted data. Results: Three main themes were evident in the study’s findings: Childhood memories, Friendships, and Relationships, as well as the elders’ past. Additionally, older adults passed on a number of gems of wisdom to be shared with the younger generations. Conclusion: This study aided in revealing the resiliency, social connections, and life reflections of Omani older adults. Based on these findings, future studies might explore particular aspects of older experiences and pinpoint solutions to improve their quality of life and well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2028.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: assistance dogs; aged care; older adults; regulation; support
Online: 28 June 2023 (12:29:06 CEST)
Assistance dogs provide significant benefits to older adult owners. However, despite protective legislation, aged care facilities continue to not allow owners to retain their dog on relocation. The purpose of the current study was to explore whether older adults should be allowed to retain their dog on relocation to an aged care facility, and what factors should impact this decision. Further, if allowed to retain their dog, what would be the best practice to allow for this. A deliberative democracy methodology was used, with a range of key stakeholders recruited. Focus groups were held, with follow up questionnaire to establish deliberation for all questions. Results indicated that with sufficient objective measurement, fair decisions can be made to ensure the welfare and wellbeing for owner and dog. Key policy and procedure changes would also be necessary to ensure ongoing support, such as training, care plans, and emergency directives. By ensuring sufficient policies and procedures are in place, training and support could lead to an ideal outcome where facilities could be at the forefront of a better future for aged care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0855.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Amphetamine; Methylphenidate; Suicide attempt; Intentional misuse; Older adults
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:23:41 CEST)
Introduction: Given increasing adult use of amphetamine and methylphenidate and their high misuse potential, we examined suspected suicide attempts and other intentional misuse and medical outcomes and their associations with co-used other substances among amphetamine and methylphenidate exposure cases age 50+.Methods: Using the 2015-2021 U.S. National Poison Data System (N=7,701 amphetamine and/or methylphenidate cases), we fit two generalized linear models for a Poisson distribution with log link function, with suspected suicide attempt versus intentional misuse and major medical effect/death versus other outcomes as the dependent variables. Results: Of all amphetamine/methylphenidate exposure cases, suspected suicide attempts and intentional misuse were 28.4% and 13.2%, respectively. Benzodiazepine use was associated with a higher likelihood but any illicit drug use was associated with a lower likelihood of suspected suicide attempts compared to intentional misuse. Type of stimulant involved (amphetamine or methylphenidate) was not significant. Co-use of antidepressants (IRR=1.43, 95% CI=1.16-1.76), prescription opioids (IRR=1.48, 95% CI=1.21-1.81), drugs for cardiovascular disease (IRR=1.51 95% CI=1.20-1.90), antipsychotics (IRR=1.26, 95% CI=1.02-1.55), or illicit drugs (IRR=2.40, 95% CI=1.82-3.15) was associated with a higher likelihood of major effect/death.Conclusions: Suspected suicide attempts or intentional misuse accounted for more than 40% of amphetamine or methylphenidate exposure cases age 50+. The higher likelihood of major effect/death in cases involving antidepressants, antipsychotics, and cardiovascular disease drugs also suggests confounding effects of comorbid mental and physical health problems. Careful monitoring of those who were prescribed amphetamine or methylphenidate and use other substances are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: savoring; mindfulness; depressive symptoms; emerging adults; positive experiences
Online: 2 March 2023 (04:11:09 CET)
The links between mindfulness, savoring positive experiences, and depressive symptoms have been well-established in the literature. Nevertheless, little has been done to disentangle the prospective relations among these constructs. Clarifying the longitudinal relations is crucial, as it enables researchers and practitioners to discern potential trajectories of mental health interventions. In this study, 180 emerging adults between 18 and 27 years old were recruited twice at 3 months apart to complete self-reported measures including mindfulness, savoring positive experiences, and depressive symptoms. Cross-lagged path analysis indicated that savoring the moment was predictive of mindfulness three months later, whereas depressive symptoms were predictive of both mindfulness and savoring the moment three months later, above and beyond the effects of age, gender, and family income. Additionally, mindfulness, savoring positive experiences, and depressive symptoms were significantly correlated at baseline. The present study evidenced short-term inversed effects of depressive symptoms on mindfulness and savoring the moment, as well as a positive effect of savoring the moment on mindfulness. Hence, interventions gearing towards symptom reduction of depression are likely to carry concurrent and prospective benefits of psychological functioning, namely the ability to be present in the moment and to savor. Taken together, reducing depressive symptoms may be crucial in fostering psychological well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: influenza; vaccine; adult; vaccine effectiveness; elderly; older adults
Online: 10 October 2022 (10:14:42 CEST)
Older adults (age ≥65) are at high risk of influenza morbidity and mortality. This study evaluated the impact of a hypothetical two-dose influenza vaccine regimen per season to reduce symptomatic flu cases by providing preseason (first dose) and mid-season (second dose) protection to offset waning vaccine effectiveness (VE). The Framework for Reconstructing Epidemiological Dynamics (FRED), an agent-based modeling platform, was used to compare typical one-dose vaccination to a two-dose vaccination strategy. Primary models incorporated waning VE of 10% per month and varied influenza season timing (December through March) to estimate cases and hospitalizations in older adults. Additional scenarios modeled reductions in uptake and VE of the second dose, and overall waning. In seasons with later peaks, two vaccine doses had the largest potential to reduce cases (14.4% with February peak, 18.7% with March peak) and hospitalizations (13.1% with February peak, 16.8% with March peak). Reductions in cases and hospitalizations still resulted but decreased when 30% of individuals failed to receive a second dose, second dose VE was reduced, or overall waning was reduced to 7% per month. Agent-based modeling indicates that two influenza vaccine doses could decrease cases and hospitalizations in older individuals. The highest impact occurred in the more frequently observed late-peak seasons. The beneficial impact of the two-dose regimen persisted despite model scenarios of reduced uptake of the second dose, decreased VE of the second dose, or overall VE waning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0199.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; stress; coping; older adults; resilience
Online: 10 November 2021 (09:00:20 CET)
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing measures were put into place to flatten the pandemic curve. It was projected older adults were at increased risk for poor psychological and health outcomes resulting from increased social isolation and loneliness. However, little re-search has supported this projection among community-dwelling older adults. While growing body of research has examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on older adults, there is a paucity of qualitative research that captures the lived experience of community-dwelling older adults. The current study aimed to better understand the lived experience of community-dwelling older adults during the first six months of the pandemic. Semi-structured one on one interviews were conducting with independent living older adults aged 65 years and older. After achieving saturation, 22 interview were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Following a recursive process, two overarching themes emerged from the data: perceived threat and challenges of the pandemic and coping with the pandemic. Specifically, participants reflected on the threat of contracting the virus and challenges associated with living arrangement, social isolation, and financial insecurity. Participants shared their coping strategies to maintain health and wellbeing, including behavioral strategies, emotion-focused strategies, and social support. Overall, this re-search highlights resilience among older adults during the first six months of the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Social rhythm; Behavioral rhythm; Well-being; Old adults
Online: 6 May 2021 (14:27:34 CEST)
Social and behavioral rhythms (SBRs) are related to circadian rhythms well known as central points in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorders. The purpose is to verify in elderly people if having functional SBRs correlated with a positive perception of the quality of life (QoL) and health parameters and if there was an association between dysfunctionality of SBRs and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Sample: 141 people aged 65 years (58,9%Female). Each subject was submitted to SBRs Scale (in which higher scores show more dysfunctional SRB); SF-12 for QoL; PHQ-9 for depressive symptoms and underwent blood levels essays including cholesterol and triglyceride. The medical documented lifetime diagnosis including Major Depressive Disorder was taken into account. SBRs Scale score correlated inversely with SF-12 score (r=-0.360, p<0.0001) and positively with PHQ9 (r=0.396, p<0.0001). Lifetime MDD medical diagnosis was associated with a higher score at scale on social rhythms (24.811.9 vs 20.18.0, F=15.848, p<0.0001).The study highlighted, for the first time, that SBRs such as sleep, and nutrition have a role in well-being and that dysregulation of SBRs is related to MDD. Further longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of individuals will have to confirm these data and clarify causal links of the association between QoL and SBRs.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Older adults; Physical exercise; Virtual exercise; COVID-19
Online: 11 February 2021 (11:08:37 CET)
Social isolation magnified by the restriction of movement order during the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to negative psychosocial health impact among community-dwelling older adults. We evaluated the feasibility of virtual research methods and virtual group exercises among individuals aged 60 years and over in Malaysia. Participants were recruited from the Promoting Independence in Seniors with Arthritis (PISA) pilot cohort through social media messages. A four-week course of virtual group exercise was offered. Anxiety and depression were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) during the last attended follow-up of the cohort study (pre-pandemic), pre-intervention, and post-intervention. Exercise adherence was recorded using diary with daily entries and attendance to the virtual group exercise sessions were captured daily. The outcomes of interest were changes of anxiety and depression scores from baseline to pre-intervention (pandemic-related) and post-intervention (virtual exercise related). Forty-three individuals were recruited. A significant increase in anxiety scores from baseline to pre-intervention was observed. Comparisons using repeated-measures analysis of variance between those who attendance ≥14 and <14 group exercise sessions revealed no between-within subjects differences in depression scores. There was a 23% dropout rate in the post intervention survey and 60.5% of diaries were returned. This study demonstrated the feasibility of conducting research entirely virtually among older persons during the peak of global first wave of a pandemic. The pandemic has led to increased anxiety among community-dwelling older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0241.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: vegetable intake; vegetable cultivation; qualitative study; Japanese, adults
Online: 26 March 2019 (10:49:20 CET)
Objective: We examined the reasons why vegetable cultivation increases or does not increase vegetable intake among adult Japanese vegetable growers.Materials and Methods: A qualitative cross-sectional study using a self-completed anonymous questionnaire was sent to participants (aged 20–74 years residing in three areas of a city in Gunma Prefecture, Japan) in September 2016. The questionnaire addressed perceptions of whether vegetable cultivation would increase vegetable intake, with four possible answers: strongly disagree, disagree, agree, and strongly agree. Respondents were then asked reasons for their view, with free-text responses. We also asked about participants’ characteristics and whether they found that growing vegetables had changed their vegetable intake and access to vegetables. We categorized the free-text answers by content.Results: We analyzed 442 answers, and reasons for vegetable growing increasing vegetable intake were grouped into five categories: “availability,” “purpose of cultivation,” “quality,” “increased positive emotions toward vegetables,” and “unconsciousness”; for it not increasing intake were also grouped into five categories: “limited quantities,” “negative emotions toward vegetables,” “cultivation for a purpose other than eating vegetables,” “access to vegetables from other sources,” and “limits associated with self-cultivation.”Conclusion: We found five main reasons why vegetable growing may and may not increase vegetable intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adolescent; young adults; gender; smoking; drinking; Asian city
Online: 16 January 2018 (04:49:45 CET)
The study aims to explore gender differences in smoking and drinking in three Asian cities—Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, and assesses the magnitude of these gender differences across cities. A total of 17,016 adolescents and young adults, aged 15 to 24 years, residing in both urban and rural area of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei were selected by multistage sampling methods and surveyed by face to face interview. The gender differences are significant for smoking-only, drinking-only, and both behaviors in each city. With respect to smoking-only, males are more than 30.66 times as likely to report it compared with females in Hanoi, followed by Shanghai and Taipei. The above trend holds true when further examining drinking-only and both smoking and drinking. The magnitude of gender differences in smoking-only, drinking-only, and both behaviors widely vary across the three cities. Future research is needed to further examine the mechanisms behind these gender differences and how these differences may be utilized to prevent and reduce smoking and drinking in the adolescent and young adult population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1555.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, ELISA, salivary samples, children, adults
Online: 24 November 2023 (05:37:48 CET)
Saliva is a promising matrix with several purposes. Our aim is to verify if salivary anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody determination is suitable for monitoring immune response. One-hundred eighty-seven subjects were enrolled at University-Hospital Padova: 105 females (56.1%) and 82 males (43.9%), 95 (50.8%) children and 92 (49.2%) adults. Subjects self-collected saliva using Salivette; nineteen subjects collected three different samples within the day. A serum sample was obtained for all individuals. The N/S anti-SARS-CoV-2 salivary IgG (sal-IgG) and serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG (ser-IgG) were used for determining anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The mean (min-max) of age was 9.0 (1–18) for children and 42.5 (20–61) for adults. Of 187 samples, 63 were negative for sal-IgG (33.7%), while 7 were negative for ser-IgG (3.7%). Spearman’s correlation was 0.56 (p<0.001). Sal-IgG and ser-IgG levels were correlated with age, but not with gender, comorbidities, prolonged therapy, previous SARS-CoV-2 infection or time from last COVID-19 infection/vaccination. The repeatability ranged from 23.8% (7.4kAU/L) to 4.0% (3.77kAU/L). Linearity of the assay missed in 4/6 samples. No significant intra-subject differences were observed in sal-IgG across samples collected at different time points. Sal-IgG have a good agreement with ser-IgG. Non-invasive saliva collection represents an alternative method for antibody measurement, especially in children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0328.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: probiotics; clinical trials; adults; gastroenteritis, inflammatory bowel disease; PRISMA
Online: 6 September 2023 (05:50:57 CEST)
Probiotics have been widely used in gastroenteritis due to acute and chronic illnesses. However, evidence supporting the effectiveness of probiotics in different health conditions are inconclusive and conflicting. The aim of the study was to review existing literature on the effects of probiotics in gastroenteritis among adults. Only original articles on clinical trials that demonstrated the effects of probiotics in adults with gastroenteritis were used for this analysis. Multiple databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, MEDLINE and Scopus databases were searched for the data. The study followed standard procedures for data extraction using PRISMA flow chart. A quality appraisal of the selected studies was conducted using CADIMA. Finally, a meta-analysis was conducted. Thirty-five articles met the selection criteria; of them, probiotics were found effective in the treatment and/or prevention of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease in 17 (49%), and the treatment of pouchitis in 4 (11.4%), antibiotic-induced diarrhea in 3 (8.6%), Helicobacter pylori infection in 2 (5.7%) and diverticulitis in 1 (2.9%), while the remaining 7 (20%) were ineffective and 1 study results were inconclusive. Meta-analysis, on the contrary, didn’t demonstrate any significant protective effects of probiotics. Having a τ² value of zero and I² of 6%, the studies were homogeneous and had minimum variances. Further studies are suggested to evaluate the beneficial effects of probiotics in IBDs and other chronic bowel diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2045.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Word Recognition; CI Outcome; prediction; generalised linear model; adults
Online: 31 July 2023 (11:47:35 CEST)
Background: Cochlear implantation is an efficient treatment for postlingually deafened adults who do not benefit sufficiently from acoustic amplification. Implantation is indicated when it can be foreseen that speech recognition with a cochlear implant (CI) is superior to that with a hearing aid. Especially for subjects with residual speech recognition it is desirable to predict CI outcome on the basis of preoperative audiological tests. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to extend and to refine a previously developed model for CI outcome prediction for subjects with preoperative word recognition to include subjects with no residual hearing by incorporat-ing additional results of routine examinations. Results: By introducing the duration of unaided hearing loss (DuHL) the median absolute error (MAE) of the prediction was reduced. While for subjects with preoperative speech recognition the model modification did not change the MAE, for subjects with no residual speech recognition before surgery, the MAE decreased from 23.7% with the previous model to 17.2% with the extended model. Conclusions: Prediction of word recognition with CI is possible within clinically relevant limits. Outcome prediction is particu-larly important for preoperative counselling and in CI aftercare, to support systematic monitor-ing of CI fitting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0920.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depressive symptoms; older adults; geriatric depression scale; depression screening
Online: 13 June 2023 (10:07:25 CEST)
Although the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a well-established instrument for the assessment of depressive symptoms in older adults, this has not been validated specifically for Portuguese cognitively impaired persons. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of two Portuguese versions of the GDS (GDS-27 and GDS-15) in a Portuguese mild-to-moderate cognitively impaired sample. Clinicians assessed for major depressive disorder and cognitive functioning in 117 participants with mild to moderate cognitive decline (76.9% female, Mage = 83.66 years). The internal consistency of GDS-27 and GDS-15 were 0.874 and 0.812, respectively. There was a significant correlation between GDS-27 and GDS-15 with Beck Depression Inventory-II GDS-27: rho = 0.738, p < 0.001; GDS-15: rho = 0.760, p < 0.001), suggesting good validity. A cutoff point of 15/16 in GDS-27 and 8/9 in GDS-15 resulted in identification of persons with depression (GDS-27: sensitivity 100%, specificity 63%; GDS-15: sensitivity 90%, specificity 62%). Overall, the GDS-27 and GDS-15 are reliable and valid instruments for the assessment of depression in Portuguese-speaking cognitively impaired persons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0041.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: older adults; whispered speech; lexical tone; vowel; duration; intensity
Online: 2 November 2022 (03:53:54 CET)
Purpose: This study aimed to examine how aging and modifications of critical acoustic parameters may affect the perception of whispered speech as a degraded signal. Method: Forty Mandarin-speaking adults were included in the study. Part 1 of the study compared the perception of Mandarin lexical tones, vowels, and syllables in older and younger adults in whispered vs. phonated speech conditions. Parts 2 and 3 further examined how modification of duration and intensity cues contributed to the perceptual outcomes. Results: Perception of whispered tones was compromised in older and younger adults. Older adults identified lexical tones less accurately than their younger counterparts, particularly for phonated T2, T3 and whispered T3. Aging also negatively affected the vowel identification of /i, u/ in the whispered condition. Syllable-level accuracy was largely dependent on the accuracy of lexical tones and vowels. Furthermore, reduced duration led to the decreased accuracy of phonated T3 and whispered T2, T3 but increased accuracy of phonated T4. Reduced intensity lowered the recognition accuracy for phonated vowels /i, ɤ, o, y/ in older adults and /i, u/ in younger adults, and it also lowered the accuracy of whispered vowels /a, ɤ/ in older adults. Contrary to our expectation, increased duration and intensity did not improve older adults’ speech perception in either phonated or whispered conditions. Conclusion: The results suggest that aging adversely affected speech perception in both phonated and whispered conditions with more challenges in identifying whispered speech for older adults. While older adults’ diminished performance may be potentially due to problems with processing the degraded temporal and spectral information of the target speech sounds, it cannot be simply compensated for by increasing the duration and intensity of the target sounds beyond the audible level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0091.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: tobacco age of sale; tobacco policy; youth; young adults
Online: 7 June 2022 (03:44:33 CEST)
Background: Prior to the federal law passed in late 2019, many states passed an increased age of sale law prohibiting youth under age 21 (or Tobacco 21) from purchasing tobacco products and e-cigarettes. Although previous research has documented tobacco retail sales violations, fewer studies have examined age verification and illegal tobacco sales in the context of Tobacco 21 or in repeated purchase attempts in various settings. Methods: In this study conducted between 2019 and 2022, buyers aged 18 to 20 years made repeated unsupervised purchase attempts of cigarettes, cigars, e-cigarettes, tobacco-free nicotine pouches and/or smokeless tobacco in store visits to over 180 tobacco or vape retailers in New Jersey, New York City, and Pitt County, North Carolina. Buyers documented whether they were asked for identification and whether they were able to successfully purchase a tobacco or nicotine product at each visit. Results: The primary outcome will be the percent of retailers that checked buyers’ identification at store visits and the precent of visits that resulted in a successful underage tobacco product purchase. We will aim to compare the results across time periods and study sites while controlling for other factors (including repeated visits). Conclusion: These results will be beneficial to designing compliance check inspections and/or interventions that reduce youth access to tobacco.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0263.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: response; dropout; older adults; physical activity interventions; OSM; GIS
Online: 22 February 2022 (03:47:38 CET)
Research is still lacking regarding the question as to how programs to promote healthy aging should be organized in order to increase acceptance and thus effectiveness. For older adults, ecological factors, such as physical distance to program sites, might predict participation and retention. Thus, the key aim of this analysis was to examine these factors in a physical activity intervention trial. Adults (N=8,299) aged 65 to 75 years were invited to participate and n=589 participants were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups with 10 weeks of physical activity home practice and exercise classes or a wait-list control group. Response, participation, and dropout data were compared regarding ecological, individual, and study-related variables. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models were used to determine predictors of dropout. In total, 405 participants completed the study. Weekly class attendance rates were examined regarding significant weather conditions and holiday periods. The highest rates of nonresponse were observed in districts with very high neighborhood levels of socioeconomic status. In this study, ecological factors did not appear to be significant predictors of dropout, whereas certain individual and study-related variables were predictive. Future studies should consider these factors during program planning to mobilize and keep subjects in the program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0749.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological distress; loneliness; sense of mastery; adolescents; young adults
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:35:42 CEST)
Background and aims Loneliness and a low sense of mastery have been associated with excessive gambling, but the underlying processes of these relationships remain unstudied. Because psychological distress can increase vulnerability to excessive gambling, we investigated its mediating role in these relationships among young people. To meet the need for cross-country research, we also observed how these relationships occur in four countries with different cultures. Design, setting and participants Demographically balanced cross-sectional survey data were collected for 15–25-year-olds in Finland (n=1200; 50% male), the United States (n=1212; 49.8% male), South Korea (n=1192; 49.6% male) and Spain (n=1212; 51.2% male). Measurements Excessive gambling was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen, psychological distress was assessed with the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire, loneliness was measured with the Three-Item Loneliness Scale and low sense of mastery was assessed with the Pearlin Mastery Scale. Associations were examined first using zero-inflated negative binomial regression analyses with excessive gambling as the outcome. In addition, path analyses were performed to study how loneliness and low sense of mastery relate to excessive gambling, with psychological distress as the mediating variable. Findings Loneliness and low sense of mastery were associated indirectly with excessive gambling via psychological distress in all country samples. Low sense of mastery was also directly associated with excessive gambling. There was a direct association between loneliness and excessive gambling only in samples from South Korea and Spain. Conclusions Psychological distress is an important factor in understanding how loneliness and sense of mastery relate to gambling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0741.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: dancing; dual-task; older adults; qualitative study; Zumba; cognition
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:10:45 CEST)
Despite the popularity of Zumba in several countries, research is scarce about its impact on older adults. Meanwhile, the integration of cognitive tasks with physical exercises, known as dual-tasking, is an evolving strategy to facilitate activities for older people. This study investigated the perceptions of older adults regarding Zumba and the potential of implementing it in a dual-task program. We conducted a qualitative-descriptive research involving 44 Filipino older adults from August to November 2020. Content analysis was employed to analyze the data. Four themes were identified: moving towards match or mismatch; balancing benefits with burdens; dual-tasking as innovative yet potentially challenging; and overcoming barriers with enablers. While Zumba is an inclusive and beneficial activity, individual and contextual limitations could hinder its suitability for older people. Dual-tasking in Zumba was also recognized as an innovative approach, although challenges should be addressed to promote its utility. Several strategies could support the design of these programs in communities. This is the first study to explore older adults’ perceptions towards Zumba and its potential utilization as a dual-tasking program. Findings could guide the implementation of appropriate Zumba and dual-tasking activities that seek to integrate cognitive and physical training for older adults.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0779.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Social isolation; risk factors; older adults; long-term care
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:24:17 CET)
Objectives: A wealth of literature has established risk factors for social isolation among older people, however much of this research has focused on community-dwelling populations. Relatively little is known about how risk of social isolation is experienced among those living in long-term care (LTC) homes. We conducted a scoping review to identify possible risk factors for social isolation among older adults living in LTC homes. Methods: A systematic search of five online databases retrieved 1535 unique articles. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Results: Thematic analyses revealed that possible risk factors exist at three levels: individual (e.g., communication barriers), systems (e.g., location of LTC facility), and structural factors (e.g., discrimination). Discussion: Our review identified several risk factors for social isolation that have been previously documented in literature, in addition to several risks that may be unique to those living in LTC homes. Results highlight several scholarly and practical implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0423.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: community-dwelling older adults; physical frailty; prevalence; risk factors
Online: 18 September 2020 (08:57:56 CEST)
Frailty is defined as a state of increased vulnerability to stressors, and it predicts the disability and mortality in the older population. This study aimed to investigate standardized prevalence and multidimensional risk factors associated with frailty among the Korean community-dwelling older adults. We analyzed the baseline data of 2,907 adults aged 70–84 years (mean age 75.8±3.9 years, 57.8% women) in the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study. The Fried frailty phenotype was used to define frailty. Analyzed data included sociodemographic, physical, physical function, biological, lifestyle, health condition, medical condition, psychological, and social domains. Data were standardized using the national standard population composition ratio based on the Korean Population and Housing Census. The standardized prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty was 7.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.8–8.9%) and 57.2% (95% CI 45.1–48.8%), respectively. The following 14 risk factors had a significant association with frailty: at risk of malnutrition, sarcopenia, severe mobility limitation, poor social capital, rural dwellers, depressive, poor self-perceived health, polypharmacy, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, elevated glycosylated hemoglobin, low 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, longer timed up and go, and low short physical performance battery score (p<0.05). Physico-nutritional, psychological, sociodemographic, and medical factors are strongly associated with frailty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0992.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: behavioral geography; everyday life; older adults; coupling constraints; gendered mobilities
Online: 15 November 2023 (10:01:54 CET)
Many Western studies have indicated that older women are generally more vulnerable in terms of mobility compared to older men, particularly regarding driving. However, the situation may differ in the context of China. This study, based on activity diaries and semi-structured inter-views, focuses on the spatiotemporal behavior of older adults in Tianjin and explores how the constraints posed by activity companions (in terms of type, size, and composition) shape the mo-bilities of older men and women, including activity locations, travel distances, and transporta-tion modes. The key findings are as follows: First, older women are more engaged with their families due to a higher percentage and longer duration of activities spent with family members. Second, older men tend to have more concentrated travel distances near their homes compared to older women. Third, older women exhibit a broader range of activities in different locations and engage in longer-distance leisure travel with family members when compared to older men. In the context of Western literature, this study discusses older women's enhanced social interactions, their earlier retirement in China, and the impact of COVID-19 as factors that help explain these findings. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of accompanied mobilities among Chinese older adults using geographical theory and methods, emphasizing the importance of flexible work schedules for the workforce and the organization of community-based activities to promote the social interactions and mobilities of older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1026.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: adults; worksite; sedentary behavior; social cognitive theory; workplace; health promotion
Online: 27 April 2023 (04:06:17 CEST)
Sedentary behavior (SB) is an important public health concern. Adults working in desk-based occupations spend a considerable proportion of the workday sitting. More information is needed regarding the factors that contribute to occupational SB. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain work-related SB using a quantitative, cross-sectional design by administering an online questionnaire. Participants included 381 full-time employees at a large, public university in the south-central United States. Hierarchical multiple linear regression was used to determine the relationship between SCT constructs and SB. Mean work-related SB was 6.08 (SD = 1.59) hours/day. In model 1, 9.6% of the total variance in SB was accounted for by standing desk ownership and physical activity level (p=0.001; R2=0.096). In model 2, SCT constructs led to a statistically significant R2 increase of 4.9% (p < 0.001, where standing desk ownership, physical activity, and self-efficacy explained 13.3% of the variance in work-related SB. Findings from this study suggest that self-efficacy may be an important factor in explaining variation in occupational SB. Public health researchers and practitioners should consider strategies to address employees’ self-efficacy when developing workplace interventions to target occupational SB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0554.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: eudaimonic well-being; psychological inflexibility; fear of death; young adults
Online: 31 March 2023 (15:12:48 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on the mental health, adjustment, and psychological well-being of young adults. Despite extensive research conducted in this area, eudaimonic well-being, one specific form of psychological well-being focusing on self-knowledge and self-realization within existential challenges, has received comparatively less attention. The current study aimed to investigate the potential linkages between two key psychological factors, psychological inflexibility and fear of death, with eudaimonic well-being among young adults in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. One year after the outbreak, 317 young Italian adults (18-34 yrs.) participated in an online survey, including measures of psychological inflexibility (AAQ-II), fear of death (CL-FODS), and eudaimonic well-being (PWB). Results showed that psychological inflexibility was negatively associated with all the dimensions of Ryff’s model of eudaimonic well-being, while fear of death of others was found to be associated with three of these dimensions (autonomy, environmental mastery, and self-acceptance). Results also indicated a mediation role of psychological inflexibility in the association between fear of death and eudaimonic well-being. These findings expand our knowledge of the potential factors that may influence eudaimonic well-being and provide insights for clinical work with young adults challenged by uncertain times.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: emotional loneliness; social loneliness; nursing homes; older adults; social isolation
Online: 27 January 2022 (13:25:59 CET)
(1) Background: Loneliness, little studied in Nursing Homes (NHs), can affect physical and mental health. We aimed to verify the prevalence of loneliness in 5 NHs and its associated factors. (2) Methods: Cross-sectional study. Older adults aged 65 or over with preserved cognitive status were included. The De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale was used to assess overall, social, and emotional loneliness; sociodemographic and health-related variables were collected. The chi-square (or Fisher’s) test and logistic regression were used for bivariate and multivariate analysis respectively. (3) Results: The final sample consisted of 65 participants (81.5% female) with a mean age of 84±7.13. Prevalence of overall loneliness was 70.7% (95%CI:58.2-81.4), social loneliness 44.6% (95% CI: 33.1-56.6) and emotional loneliness 46.2% (95% CI: 34.5–58.1). Overall loneliness was associated with lower perceived quality of life (Odds Ratio-OR= 5.52, 95% CI:1.25-24.38) and NH with state subsidized places (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.05-0.74); social loneliness with having 0-1 children (OR=0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.77), and emotional loneliness with depression (OR=4.54, 95% CI: 1.28-16.08) and urinary incontinence (UI) (OR=4.65, 95% CI: 1.23-17.52). (4) Conclusions: Loneliness was present in almost 71% of residents and was associated with the type of NH and poorer quality of life, emotional loneliness with depression and UI and social loneliness with having less than 2 children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0431.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: alcohol use; drug use; adolescents; adults; health variables; South Africa
Online: 16 November 2020 (15:36:53 CET)
The study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol use (HHDA) and drug use among persons 15 years and older in South Africa. In a national cross-sectional 2017 survey, 39,210 persons 15 years and older (Median=34 years) responded to a questionnaire on substance and health variables. Logistic regression was used to assess the determinants of HHDA and any drug use. Results indicate that (10.3%) engaged HHDA, 16.5% among males and 4.6% among females, and past 3-month drug use was 8.6%, 13.3% among males and 4.1% among females. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, among men, middle age (25-34 year olds), higher education, urban residence, drug use, and psychological distress were positively and Indian or Asian and White population groups were negatively associated with HHDA. Among women, middle age (25-34 year olds), Coloureds, residing on rural farms and urban areas, drug use and psychological distress were positively and older age (55 years and older), and Indians or Asians were negatively associated with HHDA. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, among men, having Grade 8-11 education, Coloureds, being unemployed, and HHDA were positively and middle and older age (25 years and older) and being a student or learner were negatively associated with past 3-month any drug use. Among women, Coloureds, Indians or Asians, and HHDA were positively and older age (45 years and older) was negatively associated with past 3-month and drug use. About one in ten participants engaged HHDA and any drug use, and several sociodemographic and health indicators were identified associated with HHDA and any drug use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Transition Medicine; Pediatric migraine; Pediatric; Migraine; Migraine in young adults
Online: 14 June 2017 (09:26:13 CEST)
Migraine is a common condition that affects children as they develop into adults. Transition of care from pediatric to adult care has becoming an increasingly popular topic in the medical literature. It has been suggested that discussions between patients, their families and providers should be initiated as early as age 13. Patients who are un or underprepared have poorer outcomes due to increased morbidity and worsening of their medical condition. Many children continue to have migraine into adulthood and if efforts are taken to ensure patients receive appropriate transfer of care, the results can significantly decrease the economic burden of this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Chinese adults; north region; south region; dietary pattern; metabolic syndrome
Online: 31 October 2016 (02:51:27 CET)
The geographical environment, food culture, and dietary habits are substantially different between the southern and northern regions in China. We investigated the associations with dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome between Chinese adult from the southern and northern regions (North: 1249; South: 1849) using data from the Chinese Health and Nutrition 2009 survey. Respectively, four dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis in the two regions. Each dietary pattern of factor score was calculated for three groups by tertile (T1<T2<T3). In the northern region, the association between the Alcohol and Western pattern and the risk of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.31; 95%:1.01, 1.68), hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.35; 95%:1.05, 1.74), high fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.37; 95%: 1.05, 1.80), and hypertension (OR: 1.55; 95%: 1.45, 1.99) was increased. In the southern region, the Convenience Food pattern was positively associated with hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.53; 95%: 1.03, 2.26), low HDL-cholesterol (OR: 1.96; 95%: 1.12, 3.43), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.79; 95%: 1.03, 3.11). The Alcohol dietary pattern was positively associated with high fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.83, 95%: 1.13, 2.97). There are some dietary pattern differences in the two regions. It is necessary to consider the factors of food culture and food intake habits in order to provide nutrition education to Chinese individuals from different regions in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0341.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: woodworking program; MCI; mild dementia; psychological health; social health; older adults
Online: 17 November 2022 (16:13:43 CET)
ackground: This study aimed to examine the effects of a woodworking program on psychosocial health in older adults who had mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia (MD) in Korea. Setting: The study was carried out in a dementia center in Seoul in Korea. Population: A total of 61 participants who had MCI or MD were allocated into two groups: the experimental group (EG, n = 35) and the control group (CG, n = 26). Methods: This study was carried out using a nonequivalent control group pre-test–post-test design. The EG participated in the woodworking program a total of 10 times for 120 min per session twice a week for 5 weeks, and the CG did not participate in the woodworking program. Both groups completed the same survey before and after the intervention. In the survey, demographic characteristics, psychological health (life satisfaction, depression, self-efficacy, and resilience), and social health (social isolation and social support) were measured. Results: In the within-group comparison, there was no significant difference between any factors of the CG before and after the intervention. In contrast, the EG had a significant improvement before and after the woodworking program. Participants in the EG with MCI and MD significantly improved their social support (p < 0.05). Psychological factors (life satisfaction, depression, and self-efficacy) were positively changed, although not significantly. Conclusions: The woodworking program promoted psychosocial health, such as life satisfaction, resilience, and social support, among older adults with mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0433.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Tele-exercise; physical activity; rural; older adults; knee osteoarthritis; clinical trial
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:36:22 CEST)
Enhance®Fitness (EF) is an evidence-based exercise program recommended for management of osteoarthritis (OA). However, access to EF is limited in rural areas. Accordingly, we evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of remotely delivered EF in rural, community-dwelling older adults with symptomatic knee OA. A single arm pilot trial of remotely delivered EF classes was conducted. Videoconferencing was used to livestream the instructor-led, 1-hour EF classes 3 days/week for 12 weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and immediately post-intervention. A total of 15 participants were enrolled with a median age of 70 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 67-75) and 14 (93%) were women. Median EF class attendance rate was 91% (IQR: 85-94%). Knee pain, as measured by the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), improved significantly from baseline to 12-week endpoint (mean difference=-11.4 [95% CI:-20.9, -2.0); P=0.02). In addition, participants’ self-reported knee function improved significantly (mean difference in KOOS Function score=-11.8 [95% CI:-18.4, -5.2]; P<0.01) as well as their physical capacity (mean difference in Timed Up and Go test time=1.8 seconds [95% CI: 0.2, 3.4]; P=0.03). All participants (100%) were very satisfied with remotely delivered EF classes and there were no serious adverse events. Findings from this pilot trial indicate that remotely delivered EF is feasible and acceptable in rural older adults with knee OA.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Vitamin D levels; population-based distribution; healthy adults; high solar irradiation.
Online: 8 April 2021 (12:17:33 CEST)
The use of vitamin D (VitD) supplements has become widespread in the last decade due not only to the dissociation between the blood levels recommended as "optimal" and those shown by the healthy population, but also to its presumed beneficial effects on multiple disorders. This work evaluated the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in a healthy population of European origin living in a region with high solar irradiation. In serum samples from a population-based study conducted in the Canary Islands, levels of 25(OH)D were analyzed. In 876 individuals who had no history of kidney or malabsorption disorders and who had not been treated with calcium and/or VitD supplementation, the median 25(OH)D level was 26.3 (5th;95th percentile, 14.3;45.8)ng/mL. Notably, 65.4% of the population had 25(OH)D blood levels below 30ng/mL, 23.4% below 20ng/mL and 6.4% below 15ng/mL. Based on the lack of evidence supporting causality between 25(OH)D levels below what is recommended as optimal (≥20ng/mL, or even ≥30ng/mL) and major skeletal and non-skeletal diseases, and in light of the distribution of the concentration of this vitamin in healthy adults living under optimal conditions of solar irradiation, it seems reasonable to consider 25(OH)D levels below 20ng/mL and close to 15ng/mL as adequate for the general population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0595.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: pathological gambling; social ecological model; adolescents; emerging adults; internet; online communities
Online: 28 January 2021 (16:16:00 CET)
Problem gambling among young people is an emerging trend globally. The online environment in particular offers various possibilities for gambling engagement. This is the first cross-national survey study using the social ecological model to analyze problem gambling, especially in the online context. The aim was to analyze how different social ecological spheres explain problem gambling. Participants were young people aged 15–25 in the United States (n = 1,212), South Korea (n = 1,192), Spain (n = 1,212), and Finland (n = 1,200). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) instrument was used as a measure for problem gambling. Regression models predicted problem gambling with measures of intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, and societal spheres. Spanish participants had the highest SOGS score for problem gambling. Out of the spheres, organizational-sphere measures best explained the variation in problem gambling in all countries (26%) when compared to the societal (3%), interpersonal (5%) and intrapersonal (11%) spheres. In the full model, organizational-sphere measures had strong associations with problem gambling. These included consumer debt, online gambling community participation, online casino participation, and exposure to online pop-up advertisements. Other robust predictors of problem gambling included conformity to group norms in the interpersonal sphere and male gender and impulsivity in the intrapersonal sphere. Cross-national results were similar in different countries. The online context plays a major role in problem gambling behavior. The social ecological model is a useful tool by which to tackle problem gambling and develop preventative measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0629.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Community Health Survey; CHS; PM10 long-term effect; young adults; BMI
Online: 28 August 2020 (09:26:19 CEST)
Background: The associations between long-term exposure to particulate matters (PM) in residential ambiance and obesity are comparatively less elucidated among young adults. Methods: Using 2017 Community Health Survey data with aged 19−29 participants in 25 communities, Seoul, the relationship between obesity and long−term PM10 levels of living district was examined. We defined obesity as overweight (25≤BMI<30) or obese (30≤BMI) using Body Mass Index (BMI) from self-reported anthropometric information. Analysis was conducted sampling weighted logistic regression models by fitting municipal PM10 levels according to individual residence periods with 10 years and more residing in a current municipality. Socio-demographic factors were adjusted over all models and age−specific effect was explored among aged 19–24 and 25–29. Results: Total study population are 3,655 [men 1,680 (46.0%) and aged 19–24 1,933 (52.9%)] individuals. Among the communities with greater level of PM10; 2001–2005, associations with obesity were increased for overall with residence period; 10 years ≤ [Odds ratio, OR 1.071, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 0.969–1.185], 15 years ≤ [OR 1.118, 95% CI 1.004–1.245], and 20 years ≤ [OR 1.156, 95% CI 1.032–1.294]. However, decreased associations were detected for PM10; 2006–2010, and age–specific effects were modified according to the residence period. Conclusions: Although currently PM10 levels are decreasing, higher levels of PM10 exposure at the residential area during the earlier life-time may contribute in increasing obesity among young adults.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: older adults; blood pressure; blood glucose,; depression,; senior center; comprehensive healthcare
Online: 5 December 2019 (11:48:21 CET)
This study explored the effects of a comprehensive health care program (CHCP) on blood pressure, blood glucose, body composition, and depression in older adults living alone. We used a quasi-experimental, two-group, pre-posttest design. The CHCP consisted of open lectures, health counseling, exercise classes, nutrition counseling, and self-help group meetings at a local senior welfare center. Fifty-eight subjects participated in this study, with thirty subjects in the experimental group and twenty-eight subjects in the control group. Data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics, χ²-test, and t-test. Comparisons of the pretest and posttest systolic blood pressure (t = - 2.530, p < .016) and blood glucose (t = 3.089, p < .004) between the experimental and control groups showed significant differences. In both the experimental (t = 3.949, p < .001) and control groups (t = 3.816, p < .002), depression symptoms showed a significant decrease post-test, compared with pre-test. Our findings infer that older adults require physical and psychosocial healthcare and that more efforts must be made to improve the general health and wellbeing of this population group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1789.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: young adults; housing; living at home; spatial autoregressive panel data model; Sweden
Online: 27 October 2023 (11:13:43 CEST)
This study investigates why young adults live with their parents in Sweden. As young adults’ living arrangements affect decisions about marriage, education, childbirth, and participation in the workforce, more knowledge for policy makers is crucial to implementing effective policies to support young adults and promote financial independence and well-being. Using a data set from 1998 to 2021 at the municipal level in Sweden, we used a spatial autoregressive panel data model to examine the proportion of young adults living at home and regional disparities. The study uncovers intraregional variations, illustrating how different municipalities within Sweden exhibit different patterns of young adults living at home. Our findings reveal that economic factors, such as unemployment, significantly impact this pattern. The dynamics of the housing market, demographic factors, cultural differences, and location-specific characteristics also play an essential role in explaining this pattern. The findings suggest that the key drivers are the lack of rental housing, high unemployment rates, a high degree of urbanisation, interregional migration, and lack of social capital.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1327.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Short Physical Performance Battery; comprehensive geriatric assessment; older adults; institutionalization; psycometric properties
Online: 19 July 2023 (09:54:04 CEST)
Background: The validation of measuring instruments in health is a requirement to be able to use them safely and reliably. The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) tool is an instrument widely used in the clinic and validated in numerous countries and languages and for different populations. The objective of this research was to determine the psychometric properties of SPPB for a sample composed of institutionalized Spanish older adults. Methods: Multicenter study of the psychometric properties of the Short Physical Performance Battery tool with a convenience sample of 194 institutionalized older adults. Reliability (internal consistency), validity (construct validity and convergent validity) tests were performed. Results: The results show a very good internal consistency, construct validity and convergent validity. In addition, the factorial structure of the SPPB is provided, which reflects that it is a unidimensional scale. Conclusions: In conclusion, the Short Physical Performance Battery is a valid and reliable tool for use with institutionalized older adults. Its use is recommended as part of the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment for the evaluation of the physical or functional sphere. Authors should include one of the following statements about the registration status of the manuscript here: This study was prospectively registered and approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Burgos (IR 11/2018).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0750.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: behavior; theory; addiction; gambling; college students; university students; young adults; betting; gaming
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:54:54 CEST)
Gambling among college students can start as a pastime activity. However, this pastime can lead to problem gambling and pathological gambling. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify and explain gambling behavior among university students using a novel fourth-generation multi-theory model (MTM) of health behavior change. Data were collected from a sample of 1,474 university students at a large southwestern university in the U.S. between January 2023 and February 2023, utilizing a validated 39-item survey. The statistical analyses employed in this study encompassed descriptive statistics, independent samples t-tests, and hierarchical regression modeling. Among students who engaged in gambling in the past month, the constructs of participatory dialogue (β = 0.052; p < 0.05), behavioral confidence (β = 0.073; p < 0.0001), and changes in the physical environment (β = 0.040; p = 0.0137) accounted for 27.7% of the variance in the likelihood of initiating the behavior change. Furthermore, the constructs of emotional transformation (β = 0.104; p = 0.0003) and practice for change (β = 0.060; p = 0.0368) accounted for 22.6% of the variance in the likelihood of sustaining quitting gambling behavior. The Multi-Theory Model (MTM) can be employed to design interventions aimed at reducing problem gambling among college students.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1990.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: Tryptophan; Kynurenine pathway; Aging; older adults; Inflammation; Osteoporosis; Sarcopenia; Frailty; Biomarkers; Osteosarcopenia
Online: 29 May 2023 (07:32:17 CEST)
Tryptophan is an essential nutrient required to produce niacin (vitamin B3), which is needed for energy metabolism and DNA production. Alterations in tryptophan metabolism could have significant effects on aging and musculoskeletal health. The kynurenine pathway, the main catabolic route of tryptophan, is modulated by inflammatory factors, which are increased in older persons, a process known as inflammaging. Osteoporosis, sarcopenia, osteosarcopenia and frailty have also been linked with chronic increased levels of inflammatory factors. Due to the disruption of the kynurenine pathway by chronic inflammation and/or changes in the gut microbiota, serum levels of toxic kynurenines are increased and have been associated with osteoporosis, sarcopenia and frailty. In contrast, anabolic end products of this pathway, such as picolinic acid, have demonstrated a beneficial effect on bone and muscle. In addition, recent studies have shown that physical activity can modulate this pathway by promoting the secretion of anabolic kynurenines. According to the evidence collected, kynurenines could have a promising role as biomarkers for osteoporosis sarcopenia, osteosarcopenia and frailty in older persons. In addition, some of these metabolites could become important targets for developing new pharmacological treatments for these conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: excessive Internet gaming; heart rate variability; high frequency; impulsivity, young male adults
Online: 3 April 2023 (13:46:36 CEST)
Several studies have reported a relationship between autonomic dysfunction during tasks and Internet addiction. Changes within 24 h regarding heart rate variability (HRV) may be a more sensitive indicator than short term observations. We evaluated the influence of excessive Internet usage on HRV using a 24 h electrocardiogram (ECG) and examined acute changes during computer game tasks. A total 13 high school students and 22 young adults were recruited, and divided into excessive Internet user and non- excessive user groups based on Internet addiction test scores. The ECG was recorded continuously for 24 h by a wearable sensor and during two computer games (the Iowa gambling task and each participant’s preferred game) using a standard type ECG system. Multiple psychometric tests were also conducted. The excessive Internet user group exhibited clinically significant depressive symptoms, and higher self-reported scores for anxiety, impulsivity, autistic tendencies, and sleep problems than the non- excessive internet user group. There were weak differences within the 24 h high-frequency (HF) band power between two groups. During the Iowa gambling task, younger participants exhibited a reduced HF response, which may be related to weaker top- down self- regulatory mechanisms.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0620.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mental health risk, transpersonal gratitude, emotional intelligence, life contentment, adolescents, young adults
Online: 25 July 2020 (18:14:54 CEST)
World statistics demonstrate that around 970 million people around the globe suffer from mental health problems (Ritchie & Roser, 2019), a major proportion of which comprised of adolescents and young adults (UNODC, 2018). Also, because of increased mental health issues the problems like substance use, suicide, depression, anxiety, and stress are also increasing (Armstrong, 2019; Bandelow & Michaelis, 2015; Ritchie & Roser, 2018; United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime [UNODC], 2019). It is thus a dire need to address the issue. The present coneptual paper proposed the role of transpersonal gratitude, emotional intelligence, and life contentment for reducing mental health risk among the adolescents and young adults.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: body shape index; body roundness index; metabolic risk factors; Southern China adults
Online: 24 May 2020 (16:44:12 CEST)
This purpose was to compare the ability of body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI) with waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body adiposity index (BAI) to predict metabolic risk. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 17,360 Chinese subjects (were aged 18-95 years old) who escaped cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes. Biochemical and anthropometric variables were measured by trained staff. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and optimal cutoff values of obesity indices were recruited to compare the predictive ability for metabolic risk factors. The mean age of subjects was 53.7(13.1) years, 41.6 % were males. Within young group (<60 years), the areas under the curve (AUC) demonstrated that WC, BMI, WHR, WHtR and BRI were able to similarly predict high metabolic risk in males (0.74 vs. 0.74 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73) and in females (0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.71 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73), while the approximate predictive ability were only acquired in males (0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.70 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73) within elder group (≥60 years). The optimal cut-off values of BRI for high metabolic risk were calculated in males (<60 y: 3.49 vs. ≥60 y: 3.46) and females (<60 y: 3.47 vs. ≥60 y: 3.60). Meanwhile, BRI displayed a strong prediction to elevated BP and elevated TG in males (AUC = 0.64; AUC = 0.70) and to elevated BP, elevated TG and elevated SUA in females (AUC = 0.67; AUC = 0.69; AUC =0.70). BRI was able to similarly predict high metabolic risk compared to WC, BMI, WHR, WHtR and BAI, while ABSI was not. Moreover, BRI revealed specific predictive ability for elevated BP, elevated TG and elevated SUA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0224.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: WHOQOL; Senior Fitness Test; exercises; actigraph; accelerometry; elderly; older adults; physical fitness
Online: 25 February 2019 (14:21:58 CET)
The aim of this study was to identify the differences in functional fitness and quality of life among women over 60 years of age depending on their level of objectively measured physical activity (PA) according to Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for health. The study used cross-sectional design with 213 volunteered women over 60 years of age. Physical activity was monitored for 7 days of the week using Actigraph Gt3x monitor. The Senior Fitness Test battery and Hand-grip strength tests were performed to assess functional fitness. Quality of life was self-reported using short version of WHOQOL-brief questionnaire. Women who met the PA recommendations achieved slightly better results in most functional tests and all domain of quality of life. The significant differences were found in upper body strength, dynamic balance and social relationships domain of quality of life. Physical activity programs developed on the basis of WHO recommendations have the potential to improve functional capacity and quality of life. However, further experimental studies in this area are required.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1752.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: vaccine uptake; immunisation; adults; older people; elderly; Asia-Pacific; barriers; facilitators; factors; interventions
Online: 28 November 2023 (07:15:38 CET)
This rapid review aims to present a comprehensive overview of barriers and facilitators or factors, and, effective interventions that promote immunisation uptake by older people in the Asia-Pacific region. Rapid review methodology was applied using two databases (PubMed, Embase). Articles were included if studies were conduced in Australia, Singapore, Indonesia and the Philippines, included human population ≥50 years old, used original data, adopted quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method designs, and published from 2016 to August 2022. The study selection yielded 1424 articles. A total 23 papers met the inclusion criteria, of which 19 reported on barriers and facilitators, while, 4 articles reported on effective interventions to promote vaccination uptake. Among the 19 studies that identified barriers and facilitators to vaccination uptake, the more common factors were social influences (n=8/19), perceived benefits of vaccine (n=7/19), and perceived vaccine safety (n=6/19). Strategies that focussed on supporting clinicians were found to be effective in leading them to recommend vaccinations among older adults such as creating awareness on the low baseline vaccination rates among older adults, provision of structured health assessment, and nurse reminders. More studies are needed ascertain the factors, and effective interventions influencing vaccine uptake among older people in the Asia-Pacific region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0864.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: frailty; physical exercise; physical performance; community-dwelling older adults; intrinsic capacity; functional capacity
Online: 13 October 2023 (16:38:00 CEST)
Background. The measurement of physical performance constitutes an indicator of physical functional capacity and allows the design of physical exercise programs adapted to the individual abilities and needs of older adults with and without frailty. Aim. To present a synthesis of knowledge on the effect of exercise programs on physical performance in older adults with and without frailty in the community. Method. A systematic review was carried out in accordance with the PRISMA-2020 criteria. The search for articles was made until May 4, 2023 in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, SciELO and LILACS. The outcome variable was physical performance, measured through the SPPB (Short Physical Performance Battery). The mean difference (MD) was estimated to evaluate the effect. Results. We found 2,483 studies, of which 12 met the eligibility criteria for the systematic review and 9 for the meta-analysis. The effect of exercise on SPPB score was significantly higher in the exercise group compared to control in non-frail older adults with MD=0.51 [95% CI, 0.05 to 0.96, p<0.05]. Likewise, in older adults with frailty, the effect of exercise on the global SPPB score was significantly higher in the exercise group compared to the control with an MD=0.66 [95% CI, 0.09 to 1.24, p<0.05 ]. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that exercise programs are effective in increasing and/or maintaining physical performance in older adults with and without frailty, whose effect is more evident in older adults with frailty, probably due to the greater margin of recovery of intrinsic capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2004.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Havighurst developmental tasks; life histories methodology; young people; adults
Online: 28 July 2023 (11:53:11 CEST)
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition, characterized by persistent deficits in communication/social interaction and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. It is usually identified in childhood, despite late diagnoses in cases of greater functionality. Havighurst proposes a set of fundamental tasks throughout the life cycle, whose achievement is probably compromised in the ASD, even though it lacks scientific evidence. This study innovates, as it is based on Havighurst's theoretical model for understanding the development process of three adults and one young person, diagnosed with ASD level I, at different life stages. Through the methodology of life histories, interviews were subject to content analysis. Results pointed out the early detection and interventions importance, minimizing adversities, above all by those who had late diagnoses. Self-perceived success, not expected, was found in some development tasks (e.g. conscience and morality development). Also were noticed expected limitations related to ASD (e.g. difficulties in relationships with peers and in the labor market inclusion). Probably, in cases of greater severity and less functionality/autonomy, there would be greater failure in development tasks. It is crucial to improve research on this developmental model and on the factors that delay the diagnosis, including cases of different levels of severity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1890.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: gratitude, enjoyment of life, life satisfaction, social support, aging, older adults, Saudi Arabia
Online: 26 May 2023 (08:19:32 CEST)
This cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate the relationship between gratitude and life satisfaction, and the mediation role of social support and enjoyment of life among older individuals. The Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test, the Enjoyment of Life Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale were administered to a sample of 260 older individuals aged between 60 and 80. The main findings revealed a positive association between gratitude and life satisfaction, and social support was a partial mediator in this relationship. Although enjoyment of life was not a direct mediator in the relationship between gratitude and life satisfaction, the final model indicated a significant serial pathway from gratitude to social support and then through enjoyment of life-to-life satisfaction. In conclusion, enhancing gratitude, promoting enjoyment of life, and social support in older individuals might increase their life satisfaction, which in turn might contribute to their successful aging
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: cognitive screening; Efficiency Index; Free-Cog; Mini-Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (MACE); older adults
Online: 12 April 2023 (04:04:12 CEST)
Ageing is the strongest known risk factor for many of the neurodegenerative diseases causing cognitive decline and dementia. Identification of cognitive impairment may be a prelude to appropriate treatment, hopefully disease-modifying. Use of cognitive screening instruments may be an equitable way to identify cognitive impairment. This study examined the use of two such instruments, Free-Cog and Mini-Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (MACE), in patient cohorts referred to a dedicated cognitive disorders clinic based at a tertiary neurosciences centre. Results showed that: (1) specificity and positive predictive value increased with patient age for both tests with some loss of sensitivity and negative predictive value. (2) In the oldest age groups (≥75 and ≥70 years respectively) where specificity was at maximum, a positive test result (i.e. below the specified test cut-off) rules in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment. (3) Values of an “Efficiency Index” for each test indicated qualitatively a moderate change in the probability of correct diagnosis and quantitatively an approximately 15-25% increase in the probability of correct diagnosis. These findings show that both Free-Cog and MACE may be used with confidence for the identification of cognitive impairment and dementia in older patient cohorts. These findings may have implications for public health policies directed to case-finding in clinical practice as opposed to population-based screening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0140.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: quality of life; physical activity; physical function; food and nutrition; older Japanese adults
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:32:36 CET)
Japan is experiencing a super-aging society faster than is anywhere else worldwide. Consequently, extending healthy life expectancy is an urgent social issue. To understand diet that supports the extension of healthy life expectancy, we studied the relationships among quality of life (QOL: SF-36 questionnaire), physical activity (number of steps and activity calculated using an accelerometer), physical function (muscle strength, movement function, agility, static balance, dynamic balance, and walking function) and dietary intake among 469 older adults living in the Tokyo metropolitan area (65–75 years old, men/women = 166/303) from February 23, 2017, to March 31, 2018. There was a significant positive association between physical QOL and steps, moderate-intensity activity, and high-intensity activity (p < 0.05), and a significant positive association (p < 0.05) between physical activity and movement, static balance, and walking functions, but no association with muscle strength. These three body functions were significantly positively correlated with intake of vegetables, seeds, fruits, and milk, and with magnesium, potassium, vitamin B6, and the dietary fibre/carbohydrate ratio and composition ratios (p < 0.05). Balancing food and nutrition may improve QOL in older adults through increased physical function and physical activity. Future verification of interventions is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0664.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; psychological impact; perceived stresses-R scale; PSS scale; young adults
Online: 28 July 2020 (04:39:39 CEST)
Context: COVID-19 pandemic and the Lockdown implemented as a measure to contain the virus spread has taken a toll over the psychological well-being of the people especially the young adults, the confinement along with the environment of a highly infectious pandemic around the induvial are put under great stress.Aims: The current study aims to assess the psychological impact and perceived stress due to COVID-19 lockdown in Young Adult population of India.Settings and Design: It is a cross sectional, observational study.Methods and Material: The survey was conducted using Google forms involving snowball sampling technique which obtained 267 responses in total. (IES-R) and (PSS) scales were used for the study.Statistical analysis used: Descriptive analysis were performed on the sociodemographic parameters and the comparison of means were done by Chi-square test in SPSS Statistic 21.0 (IBM SPSS Statistics, New York, United States). Results: The mean IES-R and PSS scores obtained for the population in this study was 25.64±18.95 and 18.27±6.10 respectively. Out of the 267 respondents in total 61.4% (n=164) of them were males. Maximum of the respondents 62.54%(n=167) belonged to the age group of 18-23 with mean age being 23.14± 2.913. 92.5% of the respondents were unmarried and only 26.6% belonged to the rural part of India. Females, younger individuals were found to have higher IES-R and PSS scores. Conclusions: There is significant psychological burden and stress on the young Indian population with females and younger individuals particularly students are the most vulnerable population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0046.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: end-of-life (EOL); relational dialectics theory (RDT); older adults (OA); aging; families
Online: 7 April 2017 (12:56:28 CEST)
For older adults, approaching end-of-life (EOL) brings unique transitions related to family relationships. Unfortunately, most families greatly underestimate the need to discuss these difficult issues. For example, parents approaching EOL issues often struggle with receiving assistance from others, avoiding family conflict, and maintaining their sense of personhood. In addition, discussions of EOL issues force family members to face their parents’ mortality, which can be particularly difficult for the adult children to process emotionally. This study explored aging issues identified by aging parents and their families as they traverse these impending EOL changes. Ten focus groups of seniors (n = 65) were conducted. Focus groups were organized according to race (African American/Caucasian), gender, and whether the older adult was living independently or in an assisted care facility. When asked open-ended questions about discussing aging and EOL issues with family members, participants revealed tensions that led us to consider Relational Dialectics Theory as a framework for analysis. The predominant tension highlighted in this report was certainty versus uncertainty, with the two sub-themes of sustained life versus sustained personhood and confronting versus avoiding EOL issues. For these data, there were more similarities than differences as a result of gender, race, or living situation than one might expect, although culture and financial status were found to be influential in the avoidance of EOL discussions. The results of this study help to provide additional insight into relational dialectics related to aging, EOL, and the importance of communication in facilitating family coping.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0849.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Cognitive function; ambient air quality; air pollution and brain health; older adults; cognitive frailty
Online: 14 November 2023 (16:54:32 CET)
(1) Background: Environmental and public health research has given considerable attention to the impact of air quality on brain health, with systematic reviews widespread. No literature review has been done for cognitive frailty – a multidimensional syndrome combining physical frailty and cognitive impairment and their apparent co-dependence, linked to increased vulnerability and adverse health outcomes, including dementia. Instead, cognitive decline and frailty is implicitly explored through research on air quality and comorbid cognitive and physical decline in elderly populations. (2) Methods: A scoping review was conducted to explore the need for a systematic review. Combining Arksey and O’Malley  and PRISMA-ScR checklist , a scoping review of SCOPUS using ‘cogniti*’ + ‘resilience’ + ‘air quality’ or ‘cogniti*’ + ‘ageing’ + ‘air quality’ resulted in N=2503 articles, screened and reduced using inclusion and exclusion criteria, to N=16 articles. (3) Results: Air quality appears to be a critical risk factor for cognitive decline, even at air quality levels below WHO targets. Moderate long-term ambient air pollution appears linked to increased risk of cognitive frailty, suggesting earlier and more active interventions to protect older people. There are varied effects on cognition across the life course, with both emotional and functional impacts. Effects may be more detrimental to elderly people with existing conditions, including economic and health inequalities. Generalisation of results is limited due to the absence of a dose-response, variations in methods, controlling for comorbid effects, and variance across studies. (4) Conclusions: The findings support the need for more research and a more extensive summary of the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0310.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: carers; community meals; home-delivered meals; Meals on Wheels; older adults; qualitative research; referral
Online: 6 September 2023 (04:17:25 CEST)
Meals on Wheels (MoWs) provide access to daily meals and social contact to adults with care and support needs.MoWs could be essential for the increasing rates of an ageing population and adults living with complex needs in England, yet many do not know that the service exists. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of MoWs service users, and people who refer them to MoWs (‘referrers’), with accessing and setting up the service in England, and what information would be valued when considering accessing MoWs services.Semi-structured interviews were conducted in May-July 2022 with seven service users and 21 referrers, recruited from four MoWs providers across England. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants indicated various pathways into the service, but referrers (family members) were more likely to be the ones enquiring about, and setting up, MoWs for service users. Once an enquiry about MoWs had been made, the service was perceived as straightforward to set up.However, existing preconceptions and stereotypes about the service (e.g. bringing to mind ‘school meals’, aimed solely at older adults) were perceived to act as barriers to accessing MoWs.Information that participants deemed important to have available when deciding on whether to access MoWs related to the meals (e.g. nutritional value, variety, need for any preparation, catering for individual needs), the specific services provided (e.g. wellbeing checks, daily social contact), the reliability and flexibility of delivery, and the cost of services. These findings could inform MoWs providers’ public awareness strategies about MoWs, in order to facilitate referrals to the service for adults with care and support needs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1101.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Cognitive stimulation; physical activity; combined interventions; older adults; new technologies; exergaming; e-mental health
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:27:32 CEST)
Background: Demographic aging is a reality in developed countries, which poses a social challenge of great responsibility. Thus, numerous studies have been developed in an attempt to understand which factors best predict healthy aging. The aim of this study was to investigate and systematize literature on intervention programs that simultaneously include cognitive stimulation and physical activity, understand the importance of the use of new technology in these programs, and understand their impact on cognitive function in older adults, giving indications about their contribution to healthy aging. Methods: A narrative approach was used for extraction and synthesis of the data. Relevant studies were identified from electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Academic Search Complete. Results: Thirty-two articles, involving 2815 participants, were identified. All selected studies were randomized controlled studies. The studies were published between 2011 and 2020. All studies included a combination of cognitive and physical interventions. Many of the studies used technology to administer the cognitive stimulation program. Conclusions: Most of the analyzed studies use new technologies in physical and cognitive interventions, demonstrating that this new form of intervention exerts lasting and stable benefits in cognition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0874.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: online frailty check application; older adults; co-design; co-development; reliability; participatory action research
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:25:59 CEST)
Frailty, an age-related decline in homeostatic reserves, markedly proceeded during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. To continuously assess frailty status, a remote system is urgently required. We aimed to co-design/co-develop an online frailty check (FC) application alongside FC supporters who were facilitators in a pre-existing onsite FC program. The online FC included a screening measurement for sarcopenia and an 11-item questionnaire covering dietary, physical, and social behaviors. Using prototype applications, 55 opinions obtained from 32 FC supporters (median 74.0 years) were categorized and reflected refinement. Regarding the self-efficacy of FC supporters, a significant increase in social positioning was seen after the mock test (P=.031). For FC supporters and participants, the average system usability scale (SUS) score was 70.2±10.3 points, which was “marginally high” for acceptability and “good” for the adjective range. Multiple regression analysis showed that the SUS score was significantly correlated with online-onsite reliability but not online communication, even after adjusting by age, sex, education level, and ICT proficiency (b=0.400, 95% CI: 0.243-1.951, P=.013). Additionally, a significant association between onsite and online FC scores was observed (R=0.670, P=.001). Our online FC application was evaluated to be a valuable tool to practically assess frailty status remotely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0108.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Triple X syndrome; Adults; Neurocognitive functioning; Sex Chromosomal Disorders; Attention; Psychomotor speed; Executive functioning
Online: 7 June 2022 (11:26:18 CEST)
Triple X syndrome (TXS, also known as trisomy X or 47,XXX) has been associated with impaired overall neurocognitive functioning in children and relatively young adults. However, neurocognitive functioning in adults with TXS is poorly understood. The aim of this study was, therefore, to examine cognitive functioning in adults with TXS. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data were collected from 34 adult women with TXS (mean age = 32.9; SD = 13.1) and 31 controls (mean age = 34.9; SD = 13.7). General intellectual functioning, semantic/verbal memory, visual/episodic memory, psychomotor speed, and attention and executive functioning were then compared between these two groups. Results: We found that general intellectual functioning was significantly lower in the TXS group compared to the control group. In addition, women with TXS had more attention problems and lower psychomotor speed, particularly motor processing speed. When the analyses were adjusted for IQ, the strength of these associations decreased. The women in the TXS group also scored significantly lower at free recall in the verbal memory test, but not in immediate or delayed recognition. Finally, visual/episodic memory and executive functioning did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions: Our analysis revealed that women with TXS score lower in general intellectual functioning and have impairments in motor processing speed and attention compared to controls, but do not differ with respect to executive functioning. These results offer new insights for improving the support of adults with TXS both at school and in the workplace.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: stroke; CNS; ischaemic; haemorrhagic; biomarker; panel; young adults; children; triage; specifici-ty; sensitivity; prediction values
Online: 29 April 2022 (07:44:11 CEST)
Early stroke diagnosis remains a big challenge in healthcare partly due to the lack of reliable diagnostic blood biomarkers, which in turn leads to increased rates of mortality and disability. Current screening methods are optimised to identify patients with a high risk of cardio-vascular disease, especially among the elderly. However, in young adults and children, these methods suffer low sensitivity and specificity and contribute to further delays in their triage and diagnosis. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to develop reliable blood biomarkers for triaging patients suspected of stroke in all age groups, especially children and young adults. This review explores some of the existing blood biomarkers, as single biomarkers, or biomarker panels, and examine their sensitivity and specificity for predicting stroke. A review was performed on PubMed and Web of Science for journal articles published in English during the period 2001 to 2021 which contained information regarding biomarkers of stroke. In this review article, we provide comparative information on the availability, clinical usefulness, and time-window periods of eight single blood biomarkers and six biomarker panels that have been used for predicting stroke in emergency situations. The outcomes of this review can be used in future research for developing more effective stroke biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Nocturia; Quality of life; Lower urinary tract symptoms, Male adults, NQoL, Urinary frequency, Bedtime urination.
Online: 5 August 2021 (11:14:31 CEST)
Background: Most prevalence surveys on nocturia have focused on older populations. This study aimed to measure the nocturia prevalence across the full spectrum of male adults living in Hong Kong, where severity and associated quality-of-life (QoL) were also explored. Methods: A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted in men aged 18 or above using the ICIQ-NQoL Questionnaire. Results: With 1,239 respondents at age ranged 18-99, the overall nocturia prevalence were found to be 63.0% (ranged 41.6-84.6% at different age groups) and 31.2% (ranged 13.0-56.3% at different age groups), for ≥1 and ≥2 bedtime voiding episodes, respectively. The chance of nocturia was dramatically increased at age 60 or above while both prevalence and voiding frequency were increased with advancing age. About 83% of the nocturia men experienced 1-2 voiding episodes per night, but many of them had self-rated their QoL poor or very poor and indicated moderate-to-high bothersome. Younger men at age 18-39 were found to have high prevalence as 41.6% and almost 30% of them rated poor or very poor QoL. Conclusions: Nocturia was not only affecting the older populations but also caused significant bothersome and negative impacts on QoL in younger males.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0076.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: low-income Hispanics; type 2 diabetes; diet and exercise intervention; older adults; Health Belief Model
Online: 4 August 2020 (04:45:46 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to present the challenges faced when implementing a diet and exercise intervention for low-income older Hispanics with type 2 diabetes with an observational study of recruitment, attendance, and characteristics of Hispanic adults with type 2 diabetes in a community congregate meal site pre and post administration of a diet and exercise intervention. This report evaluates retentions and diabetes self-management beliefs Hispanic adults ≥60 years with type 2 diabetes (n=17) at baseline, and completion of the six-month intervention in terms of the Health Belief Model. There was limited interest in controlling diabetes with diet and exercise. Major barriers included lack of perceived vulnerability to diabetes complications and a belief that medication alone is sufficient to stabilize blood glucose. Environmental barriers included lack of transportation, access to exercise groups, access grocery stores, and limited ability to pay for healthy foods. A lesson learned from this intervention was that the diet and exercise intervention given was insufficient as a cue to action for this population interventions to engage low-income, older Hispanics with diabetes in diet and exercise need to consider strategies to overcome barriers such as health beliefs, transportation issues, lack of access to nutritious food and group exercise classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0423.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: palliative and end-of-life care; older adults; advance care planning (ACP); health care professionals.
Online: 20 September 2018 (16:59:45 CEST)
This paper reports the findings from a pilot study designed to explore the barriers, facilitators and similarities with the delivery and implementation of two distinct models of Advance Care Planning (ACP) documentation for older adults in their last year of life used by health care professionals in their clinical practice. PACe (Proactive Anticipatory Care Plan): a GP led model and PEACE (Proactive Elderly Persons’ Advisory CarE): a nurse led model with community geriatrician oversight were used by participants in their clinical practice. Telephone interviews were conducted with general practitioners (GPs) to explore their views of using the PACe tool. Hospital admission avoidance matrons took part in face to face interviews and care staff employed in private residential care homes took part in individual telephone interviews to explore their views of using the PEACE tool. GPs and admission avoidance matrons were employed by Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) and all study participants were recruited from the South East of England where data collection took place in 2015. Nine telephone interviews and two face-to-face interviews (one joint and one individual) were conducted with twelve participants. The data was analysed thematically. Participants highlighted the similarity of both tools in providing focus to ACP discussions to inform individual end-of-life care preferences. The importance of relationships was a pivotal theme-established, trusting inter-professional relationships to enable multidisciplinary teamwork and a prior relationship with the older person (or their proxy in the case of cognitive impairment) to enable conversations of this nature. Using both tools enabled participants to think critically and reflect on their own practice was another theme identified. Notwithstanding participants’ views to improve the layout of both tools, using a paper-based approach to deliver streamlined ACP and end-of-life care was a theme to emerge as a barrier which focused on the problems with access to paper-based documentation, accuracy and care co-ordination in the context of multidisciplinary team working. The value of technology in overcoming this barrier and underpin ACP as a means to help simplify service provision, promote integrated professional practice and provide seamless care was put forward as the solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0589.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Sleep; Social Jetlag; Diet Food and Nutrition; Nutrition Surveys; Cross-sectional; Epidemiology; Adults; Public Health
Online: 30 July 2018 (14:41:06 CEST)
Limited observational studies have described the relationship between sleep duration and overall diet. The present study investigated the association between sleep duration at weekdays and empirically derived dietary patterns in a nationally representative sample of UK adults, aged 19-64 years old, participating in the 2008-2012 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme. Survey members completed between three to four days of dietary records. Sleep duration at weekdays was categorised into tertiles to reflect short, normal and long sleep duration. Social jetlag was calculated as the difference between sleep duration at weekends and weekdays. The association between sleep duration/ social jetlag and dietary patterns, derived by principal components analysis, was assessed regressing diet on sleep whilst accounting for the complex survey design and adjusting for relevant confounders. Survey members in the highest tertile of sleep duration had on average 0.45 (95% CI -0.78, -0.12) lower healthy dietary pattern score compared to middle tertile (p =0.007). There was an inverted u-shaped association between social jetlag and a healthy dietary pattern, such that when sleep at weekends exceeded weekday sleep by 1h 45min, scores for indicating a healthy dietary pattern declined (p =0.005). In conclusion, long sleep duration at weekdays and an increased social jetlag are associated with a lower healthy dietary pattern score. Further research is required to address factors influencing dietary patterns in long sleepers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2078.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: COVID-19; remote island; family with older adults; Concentric Sphere Family Environment Theory; family ethnographic research
Online: 1 November 2023 (03:07:07 CET)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affected not only individuals but also families. The purpose of this study was to clarify the temporal changes in the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on entire families with older adults susceptible to infection living on small islands in Japan over the duration of the pandemic. Family ethnographic research was conducted from 2021 to 2023, using the Concentric Sphere Family Environment Theory as the theoretical framework. Formal interviews were conducted with 20 families. In addition, data from informal interviews, participant observation and other sources were compiled into field notes. All data on the impact on the entire family were extracted and content analysis was conducted. Five categories and a total of 85 subcategories were extracted. The results show that COVID-19 exerted not only negative but also positive impacts on the entire family, and their temporal changes are clarified. The impact on families is believed to have been influenced by the family external environment, such as increases and decreases of infection cases or events that occurred outside the family. The knowledge acquired from these studies will help healthcare professionals in providing appropriate family support.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1990.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: judo; martial art; combat sport; open-skill exercise; brain function; physical performance; cognitive performance; old adults
Online: 28 June 2023 (10:27:53 CEST)
Judo is a popular Japanese martial art and an Olympic sport. Recently, an increasing interest has been observed in the application of judo as a multicomponent exercise, with a growing body of evidence showing that multicomponent exercise improves physical and cognitive performance in older adults. Therefore, this review highlights the benefits of judo training in preventing physical and cognitive decline in older adults. Specifically, first, this review outlines the basic characteristics of judo (philosophy, match, and training). Next, previous studies investigating the effects of judo training on physical and cognitive aspects of older adults are reviewed. Thereafter, the brain mechanisms underlying the effects of judo training in improving physical and cognitive performance are discussed. Throughout this review, judo training demonstrated some positive effects on physical (gait and balance, among others) and cognitive (memory and executive function) function in older adults. These positive effects are attributed to a variety of changes in the brain (e.g., increased neurotrophic factor expression and increased cerebral blood flow, among others), that affect different brain regions and networks both functionally and structurally. From these findings, this review concludes that judo training can be an effective way to maintain and prevent physical and cognitive decline in older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: antecedent-based intervention; function-based intervention; children of deaf adults; pre-session pairing; independent group contingency
Online: 16 May 2023 (10:11:00 CEST)
This study was designed to extend the literature on multicomponent interventions for the children of deaf adults (CODA) population. This study used two evidence-based behavior intervention strategies: pre-session pairing (PSP) and independent group contingency (GC). These strategies have been successfully used to decrease off-task behavior in elementary school children with various abilities and diverse backgrounds. However, the research on multicomponent interventions has yet to examine their effects on the CODA population in inclusive classrooms. This study used a concurrent multiple baseline design across participants with an ABC sequence to examine teacher-implemented PSP with independent GC in reducing the off-task behavior of three CODAs in an inclusive classroom at a public elementary school. The results show that the intervention successfully decreased off-task behavior for all participating CODAs. The results suggest that CODAs can adapt to classroom rules and expectations when PSP and independent GC are systematically applied to them in classrooms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0159.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Diseases; electrocardiography; electroencephalography; Timed-Up and Go test; sensors; mobile devices; feature detection; diseases; older adults
Online: 6 August 2020 (10:46:57 CEST)
The use of smartphones, coupled with different sensors, makes it an attractive solution for measuring different physical and physiological features, allowing for the monitoring of various parameters and even identifying some diseases. The BITalino device allows the use of different sensors, including Electroencephalography (EEG) and Electrocardiography (ECG) sensors, to study different health parameters. With these devices, the acquisition of signals is straightforward, and it is possible to connect them using a Bluetooth connection. With the acquired data, it is possible to measure parameters such as calculating the QRS complex and its variation with ECG data to control the individual's heartbeat. Similarly, by using the EEG sensor one could analyze the individual's brain activity and frequency. The purpose of this paper is to present a method for recognition of the diseases related to ECG and EEG data, with sensors available in off-the-shelf mobile devices and sensors connected to a BITalino device. The data were collected during the elderly's experiences, performing the Timed-Up and Go test, and the different diseases found in the sample in the study. The data were analyzed, and the following features were extracted from the ECG, including heart rate, heart rate variability, the average QRS interval, the average R-R interval, and the average R-S interval, and the EEG, including frequency and variability. Finally, the diseases are correlated with different parameters, proving that there are relations between the individuals and the different health conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1069.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Medical Self-service Terminals (MST); Older adults; Unified Technology Acceptance and Use Theory (UTAUT); User interface characteristics
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:10:21 CEST)
Medical Self-service Terminals (MST) offer potential for process optimization and enhanced patient convenience in hospitals, including the elderly. However, the behavioral inclination (BI) of elderly Chinese individuals towards MST adoption remains suboptimal. This study aims to elucidate BI determinants for MST among the aging demographic, focusing on User Interface (UI) attributes within the extended Unified Technology Acceptance and Use Theory (UTAUT) Model. The empirical inquiry examines seven factors, comprising three key UI attributes and four fundamental UTAUT factors. Results reveal significant positive associations of Performance Expectancy (β=0.40, p<0.001), Effort Expectancy (β=0.50, p<0.001), and Social Influence (β=0.25, p<0.05) with BI. Notably, User Interface Design positively correlates with Performance Expectancy (β=0.89, p<0.001) and Effort Expectancy (β=0.81, p<0.001). These findings emphasize the interplay between objective UI attributes and subjective UTAUT determinants. This research enhances understanding of UI's impact on MST BI and acceptance, particularly within the Chinese elderly population, urging MST researchers to prioritize elderly attitudes for effective technological integration in healthcare.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0196.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Epitope, Glutamic acid decarboxylase; Latent-autoimmune diabetes in adults; Prediction; Type 1 diabetes
Online: 4 May 2023 (05:18:16 CEST)
Anti-islet autoantibodies serve as key markers in immune-mediated type 1 diabetes (T1D) and slowly-progressive T1D (SPIDDM), also known as latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). Autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 (IA-2A), and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8A) are currently employed in the diagnosis, pathological analysis, and prediction of T1D. GADA can also be detected in non-diabetic patients with autoimmune diseases other than T1D and may not necessarily reflect insulitis. Conversely, IA-2A and ZnT8A serve as surrogate markers of pancreatic β-cell destruction. Combinatorial analysis of these four anti-islet autoantibodies demonstrated that 93-96% of acute-onset T1D and SPIDDM cases were diagnosed as immune-mediated T1D, while the majority of fulminant T1D cases were autoantibody-negative. Evaluating the epitopes and immunoglobulin subclasses of anti-islet autoantibodies help distinguish between diabetes-associated and non-diabetes-associated autoantibodies and is valuable for predicting future insulin deficiency in SPIDDM (LADA) patients. Additionally, GADA in T1D patients with autoimmune thyroid disease reveals the polyclonal expansion of autoantibody epitopes and immunoglobulin subclasses. Recent advancements in anti-islet autoantibody assays include nonradioactive fluid-phase assays and the simultaneous determination of multiple biochemically defined autoantibodies. Developing a high-throughput assay for detecting epitope-specific or immunoglobulin isotype-specific autoantibodies will facilitate more accurate diagnosis and prediction of autoimmune disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1177.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Suicidal Ideation, major depression in adults, natural language written texts, Romanian depression support forum, machine learning text mining,
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:44:06 CEST)
Detecting suicidal ideation in adults with major depression is crucial for timely intervention and prevention of self-harm. As suicide is influenced by various biological, socio-cultural and psychological factors, traditional screening methods have accuracy and efficiency limitations. In certain cultures, societal stigma and marginalization can compel individuals with depression to conceal their suffering. Such individuals often turn to online social media platforms and share their experiences with peers under the protection of anonymity. Our research explored the potential of machine learning detection of suicidal ideation among Romanian adults with major depression that contributed to a web-based depression support forum. A trained algorithm (C4.5 decision tree) analyzed 125 posts fed to on a free access online support forum over 5 years (2014 – 2018) and classified them based on suicidal ideation content. 32 texts (25%) were identified as having a high probability of suicidal ideation content. 65% of the authors were male, with a mean age of 36.7±10.3 years and an average duration of illness of 3.4±1.4 years. Texts indicating positive suicidal ideation were generally shorter and elicited more general responses but fewer professional responses compared to those without suicidal ideation content. The study's main limitations include the relatively small number of classified texts, the absence of prospective information and the lack of qualitative evaluation of the excerpts' content. As socio-demographic and linguistic actuarial results were comparable to data reported by real life studies, we may consider basic text mining techniques as a screening tool that is able to detect suicidal ideation in texts written in unstructured Romanian language.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1055.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: caregivers; mental health; older adults; long-term care; photovoice; art-based research; focus group; meaningful engagement; quality of life.
Online: 14 August 2023 (14:02:54 CEST)
Background: Carers (or care partners) of adults in LTC contribute substantially to the health and well-being of their loved ones by providing physical care, emotional support, and companionship. Despite their critical role, little is known about how caregivers have been impacted by the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of caregivers of people living in long-term care (LTC) homes during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic and potential supports and resources needed to improve caregivers’ quality of life.Design: An interpretive descriptive approach that incorporated photovoice method was used. Methods: Using purposive sampling strategy, six family carers in Ontario, Canada were recruited between September and December 2021. Over a four-week period, caregivers took pictures depicting their experience of the pandemic that were shared in a virtual focus group. Visual and text data were analyzed using thematic analysis with an inductive approach.Findings: Caregivers expressed feelings of frustration, confusion, and joy. Emerging themes included: (i) feeling like a “criminal” amidst visitor restrictions and rules; (ii) experiencing uncertainty and disappointment in the quality of care of long-term care homes; (iii) going through burnout; and (iv) focusing on small joys and cherished memories.Conclusions: The combination of visual and textual methods provided unique insight into the mental distress, isolation, and intense emotional burdens experienced by caregivers during the pandemic. Impact: Our findings underscore the need for LTC organizations to work in unison with caregivers to optimize the care of residents and support mental health of caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: extreme weather; heat waves; anvironment and public healt; aged; older adults; social behaviour; interpersonal relation; social isolation; mortality; lonelliness
Online: 11 October 2021 (08:59:11 CEST)
Background: Heat waves are correlated with increased mortality in the aged population. Social isolation is known as a vulnerability factor. This study aims at evaluating the correlation between an intervention to reduce social isolation and the increase in mortality in the population over 80 during heat waves. Methods: The study adopts a retrospective ecologic design. We compared the excess mortality rate (EMR) in the over 80 population during heat waves in urban areas of Rome (Italy), where a program to reduce social isolation was implemented compared to others where it was not implemented. We measured mortality of the summer periods from 2015 to 2019 compared with 2014 (a year without heat waves). Winter mortality, cadastral income and proportion of over 90 were included in the multivariate Poisson regression. Results: The EMR in the intervention and controls was 2.70% and 3.81%, respectively. Rate ratio 0.70 (c.i. 0.54 - 0.92, p-value 0.01). The Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) of the interventions with respect to the controls is 0.76 (c.i. 0.59 - 0.98). After adjusting for other variables, the IRR was 0.44 (c.i. 0.32 - 0.60). Conclusions: Reducing social isolation could limit the impact of heat waves on the mortality of the elderly population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0035.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Adolescents and young adults (AYA) cancer; molecular profiling; precision oncology; genomics; whole genome sequencing; next-generation sequencing; sarcoma; diagnostic biomarkers
Online: 1 December 2023 (08:09:28 CET)
Sarcomas are a heterogenous group of tumours that commonly carry poor prognosis with limited therapeutic options. Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with sarcoma are a unique and under-studied patient population that have only achieved modest survival gains compared to other groups. We present our institutional experience of AYA with sarcoma who underwent comprehensive molecular profiling (CMP) using either large-panel targeted DNA sequencing or whole genome and transcriptome sequencing and evaluated the feasibility and clinical impact of this approach. Genomic variants detected were determined to be clinically relevant and actionable following the Molecular Tumour Board evaluation. Clinicians provided feedback regarding the utility of testing three months after reporting. Twenty-five patients who were recruited for CMP are included in this analysis. The median time from consent to final molecular report was 45 days (interquartile range 37-57). Potentially actionable variants were detected for 14 patients (56%) and new treatment recommendations were identified for 12 patients (48%). Pathogenic germline variants were identified in three patients (12%), and one patient had a change of diagnosis. Implementation for CMP for AYA with sarcoma is clinically valuable, feasible and should be increasingly integrated into routine clinical practice as technologies and turnaround times continue to improve.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0463.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Nocturia; aging male symptoms; Quality of life; Health-related Quality of life; Male adults; NQoL; Urinary frequency; Bedtime urination; sleep
Online: 29 July 2022 (13:13:15 CEST)
Background: The link between nocturia and aging male symptoms (AMS) has not been scientifically established. This study aimed to measure the degree of severity of AMS that impact on the health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) in adult males living with nocturia, and to determine the predictive values of nocturnal factors on AMS. Methods: It is an extended analysis of new data collected by using the Hong Kong Traditional AMS (HK-AMS) scale and Cantonese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in a recently published cross-sectional population-based survey. Results: Of the 781 respondents that have completed the set of questionnaires, 68% and 61% of men living with nocturia reported clinically significant (at moderate-to-severe levels) somato-vegetative and sexual AMS, whereas the prevalence and severity were increased with advancing nighttime voiding frequency. The nocturia-specific QoL (NQoL) score and nocturnal frequency were found to be significant predictive factors for composite, somato-vegetative and sexual AMS, in addition to age, global OSQI score, and certain metabolic diseases. Conclusions: Current findings suggested the inclusion of nocturia when measuring the male-specific HRQoL related to aging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2136.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Epilepsy; Pediatric Drug Development (PDD); Therapeutic Orphans; Extrapolation of efficacy from adults to children; Antiseizure Medications (ASMs); Pediatric Investigation Plan (PIP)
Online: 1 August 2023 (02:49:45 CEST)
Modern drugs have changed epilepsy, which affects people of all ages. But for young people with epilepsy, the framework of drug development has stalled. In the wake of the thalidomide catastrophe, the misconception emerged that for people <18y antiseizure medications (ASMs) need separate proof of efficacy and safety (E&S), overall called “pediatric drug development.” This has been corrected to some extent. Authorities accept that ASMs are effective in <18y as well, but they still require "extrapolation of efficacy," as if minors were another species. In our view, the real problem is less that relevant parts of pediatric clinical epilepsy research over the past decades were useless, but that this has hampered research on meaningful challenges. We do not need to show that ASMs work also before the 18th birthday. But we need to learn how to best use ASMs to prevent brain damage in young patients and optimize ASMs use considering a broader range of aspects
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0039.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Chronic conditions; diabetes; older adults; race or ethnicity; health care access; home health care; social determinants of health; inequalities or inequities
Online: 1 February 2021 (14:03:38 CET)
Racial and ethnic disparities exist in diabetes prevalence, health services utilization, and out-comes including disabling and life-threatening complications. Home health care may especially benefit older adults with diabetes through individualized education, advocacy, care coordina-tion, and psychosocial support for patients and their caregivers. This study examined factors as-sociated with hospital discharge to home health care and subsequent utilization of home health care among a cohort of Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes, age 50 and older, living in the United States. The cohort (n=786,758) was followed for 14 days after a diabetes-related index hospitalization, using linked Medicare administrative, claims, and assessment data (2014-2016). Multivariate logistic regression models included patient demographics, comorbidities, hospital length of stay, geographic region, neighborhood area deprivation, and rural/urban setting. In ful-ly adjusted models, hospital discharge to home health care was significantly less likely among Hispanic (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.8-0.8) and American Indian (OR 0.8, CI 0.8-0.8) compared to white patients. Among those discharged to home health care, all racial/ethnic minority patients were less likely to receive services within 14-days. Further work should focus on eliminating systemic racism in home health care referral and systemic barriers to receiving home health care services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0111.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: helminthiasis dynamics in Ghana, preventive chemotherapy, school-aged children, high-risk adults, neglected tropical diseases, age-structure, infection risk, cost analysis
Online: 5 November 2018 (11:43:33 CET)
Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), a neglected tropical disease (NTD) remains a major health problem all over the world including Ghana, which has STH prevalence of 25.4%. To control the disease, the government of Ghana currently concentrates on implementing mass drug administration (MDA) efforts focusing only among school-aged children. However, various studies have suggested that focusing on only a specific group for MDA may not be cost-effective. Moreover, some adults such as teachers and school-workers spend large fraction of their time with children, who shed more parasite in environment due to unhygienic behavior, and thus have a higher risk of getting infected as compared to other adults. In this study we use a mathematical model to evaluate age-structured and risk-based policies for implementing MDA while capturing transmission dynamics of STH in Ghana. A cost model was developed that included various costs related to MDA to study cost-effectiveness of current policies of MDA in Ghana against novel policies to control STH in Ghana. We carry out analysis for five different scenarios— I: no MDA (baseline), II: current MDA policy (focusing children) in Ghana, III: MDA for different age groups (adults and children groups) for unlimited budget, IV: MDA for different age groups with limitations of number of individuals treated, and, V: MDA for different groups based on their risk of getting infected (adults school workers (high-risk group), adults non-school workers and children groups). Our results suggest that it might be more cost-effective to allocate treatment through MDA to at least some proportion of adults along with children. In case of unlimited budget, the best strategy in Scenario IV would be to treat approximately 22% of adults and approximately 45% of children. The most cost-effective among the 5 scenarios is suggested through scenario V, where high-risk adults group and children are provided MDA at higher level than low-risk adults. In conclusion, age-structured and risk-based allocation of treatment and resources is crucial to reducing STH load in developing countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2070.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Vaping; E cigarette; lung injury; lung disorder; association; relationship; adults; long term impact; vaping risk -benefit analysis; attitudes; mental health; side effect; EVALI
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:23:06 CEST)
The electronic cigarette or e-cigarette is the new alternative method to deliver nicotine. In 2007, the United States introduced vaping devices on the market. Due to their attractive taste and lack of adverse effects, these vaping devices have gained popularity among youth and adults. However, there has been increasing evidence that vaping can cause severe lung injury, and these devices release toxic chemicals into the body. E-cigarettes are recognized as a global threat to public health. Nicotine, the most prevalent chemical in vaping devices, is associated with neurological problems and cognitive decline. Long-term use of e-cigarettes can cause adverse health problems, including respiratory illnesses, asthma, bronchitis, and lung inflammation. In 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) officially declared vaping-associated illness EVALI (e-cigarette or Vaping Product Associated Lung Injury). The US Surgeon General published an alarm in December 2016 that e-cigarette consumption among adolescents and teens in the US is a "major public health concern" and that more young people are now vaping than smoking traditional cigarettes and cigars. Since its commercial introduction in 2003, modern electronic cigarettes (or E-cigarette s) have become increasingly popular with smokers, non-smokers, and those who used to smoke who have switched to them. With such a rise in consumption, people are becoming more aware of the irritating, harmful, and perhaps cancer-causing effects on the lungs. (Chadi et al., 2019; Dinardo & Rome, 2019; Lyzwinski et al., 2022; Marrocco et al., 2022; O’Callaghan et al., 2022)
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0132.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: adults; influenza; cell-cultured vaccine; egg-based vaccine; influenza vaccine; relative vaccine effectiveness; real word evidence; mutation; human / prevention & control*; comparative study
Online: 20 December 2021 (11:00:26 CET)
Avian mutations in vaccine strains obtained from embryonated eggs could impair vaccine effec-tiveness. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the adjusted relative vaccine effectiveness (arVE) of seed cell-cultured influenza vaccines (ccIV) compared to egg-based influ-enza vaccines (eIV) in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza related outcomes (IRO) or IRO by clinical codes, in subjects 18 and over. We completed the literature search in January 2021; ap-plied exclusion criteria, evaluated risk of bias of the evidence, and performed heterogeneity, pub-lication bias, qualitative, quantitative and sensitivity analyses. All estimates were computed us-ing a random approach. International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, CRD42021228290. We identified 12 publications that reported 26 adjusted arVE results. Five publications reported 13 laboratory confirmed arVE and seven reported 13 code-ascertained arVE. Nine publications with 22 results were at low risk of bias. Heterogeneity was explained by season and risk of bias. We found a significant 11% (8 to 14%) adjusted arVE favoring ccIV in preventing any IRO in the 2017-2018 influenza season. The arVE was 3% (-01 to 7%) in the 2018-2019 influenza season. We found moderate evidence of a significant advantage of the ccIV in preventing IRO, compared to eIV, in a well-matched A(H3N2) predominant season.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0182.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: motivation for learning Chinese; Japanese learners of Chinese; teaching Chinese to Japanese learners, teaching Chinese to kids and adolescents; teaching Chinese to adults
Online: 9 August 2021 (08:58:48 CEST)
Sustaining learners’ motivation to keep learning has been concerned for over 60 years in education and SLA. Most research focusing on Japanese university students has contributed lots of theoretical and practical developments, but research focusing on motivations of non-traditional adult learners and those under 18-year-old to learn Chinese is still little even though previous research findings have proved age is one of the key variables influencing learning besides nationalities and Chinese language levels. In order to find an effective treatment for sustainable Chinese language learning in Japan, this study utilized a survey method to analyze the types of Japanese learners’ motivation to learn Chinese via analysis of a moment structures (AMOS), and to compare the differences of the motivation via one-way ANOVA. This study revealed that Japanese learners’ motivation to learn Chinese consists of eight common types, which are “instrumental motivation”, “personal orientation”, “identified regulation”, “Chinese cultural productions”, “integrating into Chinese community”, “external regulation”, “social responsibility”, and “Chinese for academic purposes”. Also, there are similarities and differences existing in the eight motivation types among the Japanese children, adolescents, (non-) traditional adult learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL). The findings contribute the understanding of motivation types and differences among the four aged Japanese learners to teachers of teaching Chinese to speakers of other languages (TCSOL), and to future research further exploring how differently aged Japanese learners can have and use a higher motivation as a main drive to learn Chinese language as a lifelong business.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: chronic conditions; diabetes; older adults; race or ethnicity; social determinants of health; in-equalities or inequities; policy; health care access; home health care
Online: 6 April 2021 (14:40:37 CEST)
Older adults with diabetes are at elevated risk of complications following hospitalization. Home health care services mitigate the risk of adverse events and facilitate a safe transition home. In the United States, when home health care services are prescribed, federal guidelines require they begin within two days of hospital discharge. This study examined the association between timing of home health care initiation and 30-day rehospitalization outcomes in a cohort of 786,734 Medicare beneficiaries following a diabetes-related index hospitalization. Of these patients, 26.6% were discharged to home health care. To evaluate the association between timing of home health care initiation and 30-day rehospitalizations, multivariate logistic regression models including patient demographics, clinical, geographic variables, and neighborhood socio-economic variables were used. Inverse probability-weighted propensity scores were incorporated into the analysis to account for potential confounding between the timing of home health care initiation and the outcome in the cohort. Compared to patients who received home health care within the recommended first two days, patients who received delayed services (3-7 days after discharge) had higher odds of rehospitalization (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.25-1.32). Among patients who received late services (8-14 days after discharge), the odds of rehospitalization were four times greater than for patients receiving services within 2 days (OR 4.12, 95% CI 3.97-4.28). Timely initiation of home health care following diabetes-related hospitalizations is one strategy to improve outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: older adults; cognitive impairment; tango-therapy; quality of life; well-being; physical performance; walking performances; abilities of daily living; dance movement therapy; arts with therapeutic intent
Online: 16 January 2023 (01:11:39 CET)
Cognitive impairment in older adults is associated with poor gait performance, physical decline, falls and poor quality of life. This paper analyzes the feasibility and efficacy of a tango-based in-tervention in older people with cognitive impairment living in nursing homes. A multicenter study, with pre and post-test, was carried out. Intervention attendance, well-being, physical abilities (Short Physical Performance Battery), walking performance, functional capacities (Katz Index), and quality of life (Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease) were assessed. Fifty-four participants (84.9 ± 6.7 years, Mini Mental State Examination 14.5 ± 7.4) completed the protocol. Intervention attendance was 92%, and the mean subjective well-being after each session was 4.5 ± 0.5 (on a five-point scale). Statistically significant improvement was found in the quality of life (p = 0.030). Non statistically significant changes were found in walking performance, physical abilities, or in functional capacities. The study shows feasibility and suggests evidence for the effects of Tango therapy on well-being and quality of life. Further studies are necessary to contrast these findings and to verify the role of Tango interventions as a holistic approach to prevent functional decline in older people with cognitive impairment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0332.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS); children and adults; motor and vocal/phonic tics; obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS); gluten-free diet; one-year adherence
Online: 26 April 2018 (06:26:55 CEST)
The Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and Non-Coeliac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS) may be associated. We analyse the efficacy of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in 29 patients with GTS (23 children; 6 adults) in a prospective pilot study. All of them followed a GFD for one year. The YGTSS, Y-BOCS/CY-BOCS and GTS-QOL questionnaires were compared before and after the GFD. 74% of children and 50% of adults were males, not significant (NS). At the beginning of the study, 69% of children and 100% of adults had associated OCD (NS). At baseline, the YGTSS scores were 55.0 ± 17.5 (children) and 55.8 ± 19.8 (adults) (NS), the Y-BOCS/CY-BOCS scores were 15.3 (SD = 12.3) (children) and 26.8 (9.2) (adults) (p = 0.043), and the GTS-QOL scores were 42.8 ± 18.5 (children) and 64 ± 7.9 (adults) (p = 0.000). NCGS was frequent in both groups, with headaches reported by 47.0% of children and 83.6% of adults (p = 0.001). After one year on a GFD there was a marked reduction in measures of tics (YGTSS) (p = 0.001), and the intensity and frequency of OCD (Y-BOCS/CY-BOCS) (p = 0.001), along with improved QOL (p = 0.001) in children and adults. In conclusion, a GFD maintained for one year in GTS patients led to a marked reduction in tics and OCD both in children and adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0448.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R)/post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); cutoff point/cutoff score; psychiatric patients/the general public/healthy adults; psychometric evaluation/criterion validity; Coronavirus Disease-19/COVID-19; Arabic version/Arab/Saudi Arabia
Online: 25 January 2023 (05:02:13 CET)
The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) is the most popular measure of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which has been recently validated in Arabic. This instrumental study aimed to determine optimal cutoff scores of the IES-R and its subscales in Arab samples of psychiatric patients (N = 168, 70.8% females) and healthy adults (N = 992, 62.7% females) from Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic as an ongoing collective traumatic event. Based on a cutoff score of 14 of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items (DASS-8), receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis revealed two optimal points of 39.5 and 30.5 for the IES-R in the samples (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.86 & 0.91, p values = 0.001, 95% CI: 0.80-0.92 & 0.87 to 0.94, sensitivity = 0.85 & 0.87, specificity = 0.73 & 0.83, Youden index = 0.58 & 0.70, respectively). Different cutoffs were detected for the six subscales of the IES-R, with numbing and avoidance expressing the lowest predictivity for distress. Meanwhile, hyperarousal followed by the irritability expressed stronger predictive capacity for distress than all subscales in both samples. In path analysis, pandemic-related irritability resulted from direct and indirect effects of key PTSD symptoms (intrusion, hyperarousal, and numbing). Irritability contributed to traumatic symptoms of sleep disturbance in both samples while the opposite was not true. The findings suggest usefulness of the IES-R at a score of 30.5 for detecting adults prone to trauma related distress, with higher scores needed for screening in psychiatric patients. Various PTSD symptoms may induce dysphoric mood, which represents a considerable burden that may induce circadian misalignment and more noxious psychiatric problems/ co-morbidities (sleep disturbance) in both healthy and diseased groups.