ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: overweight; obesity, adult women
Online: 5 October 2020 (10:56:02 CEST)
Introduction: Decreasing overweight and obesity prevalence requires precise data at sub-national levels to monitor progress and initiate interventions. This study aimed to estimate baseline age-standardized overweight prevalence at the lowest administrative units among women, 18 years and older, in seven African countries. The study aims are synonymous with indicator 14 of the global non-communicable disease monitoring framework. Methods: We used the most recent Demographic and Health Survey and administrative boundaries data from the GADM. Three Bayesian hierarchical models were fitted and model selection tests implemented. The age-standardized prevalence of overweight among adult women at national, first and second administrative levels were individually reported in each country in the form of maps and tables. Results: Substantial variation in the age-standardized prevalence of adult female overweight was noted across several second-level administrative units. In numerous locations in Tanzania, Nigeria and Zimbabwe, more than half of the adult female population were overweight and in one location in Tanzania, over 72% of the adult female population were overweight. These estimates were roughly twice the national level overweight prevalence and, in some cases, roughly 10 – 20% greater than the overweight prevalence in first-level administrative units. Conclusion: The observed overweight burden in subnational administrative units suggests the presence of an epidemic tantamount to the situation in more affluent economies. African countries lack the resources to effectively handle the fallout from such epidemic, therefore motivating the need for increased urgency in adopting WHO obesity-related intervention guidelines and implementing more rigorous studies to validate the study findings.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1006.v1
Online: 14 August 2023 (10:39:59 CEST)
Manifestation of cystic hygroma in adulthood is very rare. In this study, we reported a rare case of Cervical Cystic Hygroma in Adults. We report 20 years old male with a diagnosis of left-side neck cystic Hygroma and discuss the presentation, diagnosis, and clinical, radiological, and operative aspects of it.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: hypoglycaemia; spontaneous hypoglycaemia; neuroglycopaenia; non-diabetic; adult
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:50:47 CEST)
Although adult spontaneous (non-diabetic) hypoglycaemia is rare, its recognition is important for the preventative or curative treatment of the underlying cause. Establishing Whipple’s triad; low blood glucose, neuroglycopaenia and resolution of neuroglycopaenia on increasing blood glucose levels to normal or above, is essential to verify hypoglycaemia. Awareness that hypoglycaemia may occur in severely ill patients is important for its prevention. Further investigation in such cases is unnecessary unless another cause of hypoglycaemia is suspected. Patients are often asymptomatic and normoglycaemic at review. History of medication, self-medication, access to hypoglycaemic drugs, alcohol and comorbidity may provide aetiological clues. The investigation involves obtaining blood samples during symptoms for laboratory glucose measurement or provoking fasting or postprandial hypoglycaemia as directed by symptoms. If confirmed, insulin, c-peptide, proinsulin, beta-hydroxybutyrate are analysed in hypoglycaemic samples. These will classify hypoglycaemia due to non-ketotic hyperinsulinaemia, non-ketotic hypoinsulinaemia and ketotic hypoinsulinaemia and direct investigations to identify the underlying cause. There are, however, many pitfalls, which may mislabel healthy individuals as “hypoglycaemic” or misdiagnose treatable or preventable causes of spontaneous hypoglycaemia. Clinical acumen and appropriate investigations will mostly identify hypoglycaemia and its cause.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0319.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Disposable E-cigarettes Youth Young Adult Prevalence
Online: 17 November 2022 (02:29:42 CET)
Background: In the 2022 National Youth Tobacco Survey disposable e-cigarette devices are shown to be the most widely used e-cigarette devices amongst U.S. youth. In this paper we report the results of research designed to estimate the prevalence of use of BIDI® Stick branded e-cigarettes amongst youth (aged 13 to 17), and under-age young adults (aged 18 to 20) in the U.S. Methods: Cross sectional online survey of a nationally representative sample of 1,215 youth (13 17 years) recruited via the IPSOS probability-based KnowledgePanel and 3,370 young adults aged 18 to 24 - amongst whom 1,125 were aged 18 to 20. Results: Amongst youth aged 13 to 17, 0.91% [95% CI: 0.44-1.68] or 190,000 [95% CI: 90,000-350,000] youth reported having ever used a BIDI® Stick branded product and 0.04% [95% CI: 0.00-0.38] or less than 10,000 youth reported currently using a BIDI® Stick branded product. Amongst those young adults aged 18 to 20, 3.90% [95% CI: 2.49-5.81] or 470,000 [95%CI: 300,000-700,000] reported having ever used a BIDI® Stick product whilst 0.60% [95% CI: 0.17-1.55] or 70,000 [95% CI: 20,000-180,000] reported they now use a BIDI® Stick product “every day” or “some days”. Conclusions: The low prevalence of youth and underage adult current use of the BIDI® Stick e cigarette suggests that this product is not responsible for the recent growth in the use of disposable e-cigarettes by youth within the U.S. as demonstrated by the 2022 National Youth Tobacco Survey.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2074.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: nymphal stages; adult females; morphology; spoil heaps; SEM
Online: 31 October 2023 (10:35:40 CET)
The morphological characters of adult females of Trionymus aberrans Goux 1938 that had been collected in post-industrial wastelands and other habitats in Poland and other countries were studied. A distinctive morphological variability was observed in the specimens that had been collected from post-industrial wastelands in Poland. SEM photos of the morphological characters of T. aberrans are provided. The occurrence of unusual pores with four loculi was demonstrated for the first time in a species of the family Pseudococcidae. The importance of introducing additional morphological characters into the species description is discussed. New data on the frequency and host preference of T. aberrans are also provided. Our research is the first long-time study on scale insect species in post-industrial wastelands. The second-instar nymph of T. aberrans is described. The presence of translucent pores on the hind coxae in second-instar nymph was revealed.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Adult learners; Transformative learning; Personal story; Role positioning
Online: 11 September 2023 (10:02:37 CEST)
Transformative learning is an emerging and unique learning theory for adults. Foreign adult education scholars, represented by Mezirow, have produced significant research results in this field. However, research in this area in China is relatively lacking. This paper interprets the personal story of an English teacher through six stages and combines transformative learning theory to position the roles of adult learners in transformative learning. The author believes that adult learners today must take on six missions and play the roles of discerners, reflectors, communicators, integrators, aspirers, and resilient individuals in the transformative learning process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1272.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: adult reading; working memory; aphasia; acquired reading disorder
Online: 30 April 2023 (09:36:21 CEST)
(1) Background: Many processes play a key role in how language functions, and these processes are strongly related to reading. The aim of our research was to explore the relationship between reading impairment associated with adult acquired cognitive-linguistic impairment (aphasia) and the components of verbal working memory involved in language functioning. (2) Methods: We measured the reading abilities of a total of twenty-two adults diagnosed with aphasia using the Adult Acquired Reading Assessment. To assess working memory, we applied the measurement procedures available in Hungarian for measuring verbal working memory. Correlation analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between reading and the components of working memory involved in processing verbal information. In order to explore this relationship as comprehensively as possible, the results were analysed quantitatively through group-level analyses and qualitatively through case studies. (3) Results: The results suggest that the functioning of phonological short-term memory and verbal working memory is crucial for the reading of vowels, for certain word reading sub-processes such as reading complex words and pseudowords, and for text comprehension tasks, in particular for the processing of implicit text-level infor-mation. (4) Conclusions: The data support a strong relationship between reading and working memory, but not all mechanisms are related with the same weighting. The data will contribute to the understanding of the relationship between reading and working memory, which is important in order to see which cognitive components are dominant in reading instruction and which other cognitive mechanisms are affected in poor readers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: gaming; IGD; adolescents; children; adult; internet; Saudi Arabia
Online: 17 January 2023 (01:45:28 CET)
Abstract: Objective: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has received attention over the past decade. Few studies have attempted to describe this disorder in the Saudi population. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of IGD and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted using translated Arabic and a validated questionnaire targeting both genders in Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study using a validated questionnaire (IGD-20) and targeting Arabic-speaking children, youth, and transitional age including both genders. A snowball approach was used to sample our population using an electronic survey. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with IGD diagnosis. The study was guided by the STROBE statement. Results: Among 419 individuals who participated in the study, 171 were classified as non-IGD, 167 were at risk for IGD (RIGD), and 72 were IGD. There is no significant association between IGD diagnosis and gender, nationality, residence, and family income. Time playing per week was significantly associated with IGD diagnosis (X2=49.256, p<0.01). There is a significant association between IGD-20 groups and categorical age groups (X2=10.096, p<0.01). Among our sample, the percentages of males (54.2%) and females (45.8%) who met the criteria for IGD were comparable. Conclusion: IGD and RIGD prevalence was significantly high in both age groups. Both males and females were affected similarly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: influenza; vaccine; adult; vaccine effectiveness; elderly; older adults
Online: 10 October 2022 (10:14:42 CEST)
Older adults (age ≥65) are at high risk of influenza morbidity and mortality. This study evaluated the impact of a hypothetical two-dose influenza vaccine regimen per season to reduce symptomatic flu cases by providing preseason (first dose) and mid-season (second dose) protection to offset waning vaccine effectiveness (VE). The Framework for Reconstructing Epidemiological Dynamics (FRED), an agent-based modeling platform, was used to compare typical one-dose vaccination to a two-dose vaccination strategy. Primary models incorporated waning VE of 10% per month and varied influenza season timing (December through March) to estimate cases and hospitalizations in older adults. Additional scenarios modeled reductions in uptake and VE of the second dose, and overall waning. In seasons with later peaks, two vaccine doses had the largest potential to reduce cases (14.4% with February peak, 18.7% with March peak) and hospitalizations (13.1% with February peak, 16.8% with March peak). Reductions in cases and hospitalizations still resulted but decreased when 30% of individuals failed to receive a second dose, second dose VE was reduced, or overall waning was reduced to 7% per month. Agent-based modeling indicates that two influenza vaccine doses could decrease cases and hospitalizations in older individuals. The highest impact occurred in the more frequently observed late-peak seasons. The beneficial impact of the two-dose regimen persisted despite model scenarios of reduced uptake of the second dose, decreased VE of the second dose, or overall VE waning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0958.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: adult educators; digital education; media education; sustainability in education
Online: 15 November 2023 (16:31:49 CET)
This paper exposes the initial part of a research consisting in a need analysis carried out by the Romanian partner in the Erasmus+ "Media Education for Aware Adults" project, regarding digital competences and media education of adult educators or trainers. After a short introduction on the subject, in the paper are presented the main findings of the desk research, and two focus group sessions, first one for identifying the necessary digital competences of adult educators, and second one for identifying the elements that educators need in order to adequately support adults in their learning process, especially in relation to the digital environment. The results of the initial research will lead to the development of the main intellectual outputs, namely the digital competences framework, handbook, online platform and training material on digital and media education. In their development will be taken into account, on the one hand, the needs identified in the initial research, and, on the other hand, the need for a sustainable approach to all activities, resources and outputs produced, as well as education itself, this goal being assumed through the project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1309.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: healthy aging; group dynamics; psychological well-being; older adult
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:18:38 CEST)
The United Nations Organization in its agenda for 2023 approved Health and Well-being as one of the objectives of sustainable development, in this sense, Higher Education Insti-tutions contribute with interventions to improve each human process that generates a healthy life. In Latin America as well as in European countries, studies have been con-ducted to observe psychological well-being at this stage of life. The present study analyzes in a longitudinal way the psychological well-being in three times in people who attend group dynamics programs. The sample is 668 participants, with an age range between 65 and 80 years. The sample has been distributed in two analysis groups controlling for gender and age: group 1 (with group dynamics) and group 2 (without group dynamics). The Spanish adaptation of Ryff's (2006) Psychological Well-being scale α= 0.87 was ap-plied to both groups. The scale is composed of six dimensions of psychological well-being (self-acceptance, positive relationships, autonomy, mastery of the environment, purpose in life and personal growth). Statistical analyses showed significant differences between the two groups: greater psychological well-being and differences in the dimensions of positive relationships and personal growth in group 1. In addition, logistic regression analysis was carried out to test the predictive capacity of psychological well-being by the existence or not of group dynamics, with significant results in several dimensions. With the results obtained, we can conclude that group dynamics have a relevant role in con-tributing to the development of better levels of psychological well-being of the elderly with longitudinal increase in time. Future studies should be aimed at evaluating the value of group dynamics in the way of successful aging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0412.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Huntington’s disease; circadian rhythm; clock genes; adult neurogenesis; chemogenetics
Online: 27 September 2022 (04:45:35 CEST)
Huntington’s disease (HD) causes progressive movement disorders and cognitive deficits. Besides, sleep disturbances and emotional distress are prominent clinical signatures of HD. The experimental subjects and HD human brains display altered regenerative plasticity resulting from aberrant neurogenic and nonneurogenic areas. Sleep disorders, emotional disruption, and cognitive deficits have been linked to impaired cell cycle events of neural stem cells (NSC) in neurodegenerative disorders. In a physiological state, circadian clock gene pathways play important roles in the regulation of the proliferation and differentiation of NSC, whereas the irregular circadian clock pathway is attributed to impairment in the neurogenic process. The recent advancement of chemogenetic-based approaches represents a potential scientific tool to rectify the abnormal circadian clock which may aid in mitigating neurogenic failure in the brain. Notably, GABAergic vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing neurons in the brain plays a key role in the regulation of neuroplasticity and circadian rhythm. Thus, this conceptual review article addresses the potential link between sleep disorder and aberrant neurogenic events in HD and proposes chemogenetic kindling of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) -expressing GABAergic neurons in the brain as a therapeutic strategy for reprogramming the clock gene pathways in mitigating the neurodegenerative failure in HD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0349.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: isoflurane; schizophrenia; adult neurogenesis; synaptic plasticity; parvalbumin-positive interneuron
Online: 23 September 2022 (02:05:41 CEST)
The therapeutic effects of volatile anesthetics on mental diseases, particularly schizophrenia, have gained considerable interest. Although isoflurane is a commonly used volatile anesthetic, there’s no more evidence that it could work on treating schizophrenia. Here, we discovered that inhaling isoflurane at low concentrations might reverse the behavioral phenotypes of schizophrenia caused by MK801, such as hyperlocomotion, pre-pulse inhibition impairment, and working memory loss. Isoflurane also helped recovering adult neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity impairments in the dentate gyrus (DG) induced by MK801. To better understand the mechanism, we discovered that isoflurane could reverse the reduction of parvalbumin (PV)-positive GABAergic interneuron (PVI) number and the aberration of NRG1-ErbB4 signaling in the DG; however, isoflurane could not reverse the schizophrenia-related phenotypes caused by PVI ablation, indicating that PVI are necessary for the therapeutic effect of isoflurane. Interestingly, isoflurane could reverse phenotypes caused by blocking PVIs GABA release in the DG, indicating the therapeutic impact is independent of PVI GABA release. Our research revealed that isoflurane might be used to treat schizophrenia, possibly through PVI in the DG.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0445.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Adult children's education; parental longevity; truncated regression; emotional support.
Online: 26 August 2022 (04:18:44 CEST)
Background: Some developing countries, such as China, population is aging rapidly, meanwhile, the average years of schooling for residents is constantly increasing. However, the question of whether adult children’s education has an effect on the longevity of older parents, remains inadequately studied. Methods: This paper uses China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS) data to estimate the causal impact of adult children's education on their parents' longevity. Identification is achieved by using the truncated regression model and using historical education data as instrument variables for adult children’s education. Results: For every unit increase in adult children’s education, the father’s and mother’s longevity increased by 0.89 years and 0.75 years, respectively. Mechanism analysis shows that adult children's education has a significant positive impact on parents' emotional support, financial support and self-reported health. Further evidence shows that for every unit increase in adult children’s education, the father-in-law’s and mother-in-law’s longevity increased by 0.40 years and 0.46 years, respectively. Conclusions: It is conclusion that improving the level of adult children’s education can increase parents’ and parents-in-law’s longevity. Adult children’s education might contribute to the longevity of older parents by three channels that providing emotional, economic support and affecting parents’ health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0240.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: sarcopenia; slow gait speed; cognitive impairment; older adult; aging
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:28:59 CEST)
Cognitive impairment and sarcopenia may share common risk factors and pathophysiological pathways. This study was performed to examine the association between impairments in specific cognitive domains and sarcopenia (and its defining components) in a large group of community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional analysis was performed on the baseline data of 3,014 adults aged 70–84 years enrolled in the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study (KFACS). The final analysis included 1,887 adults underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and cognitive function assessments. Those with disability in activities of daily living, dementia, severe cognitive impairment, Parkinson’s disease, musculoskeletal complaints, neurological disorders, or who were illiterate were excluded. Cognitive function was assessed using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Packet, the Frontal Assessment Battery. For sarcopenia, we used the diagnostic criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 9.6% for men and 7.6% for women. Sarcopenia (odds ratio [OR] 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–2.99) and slow gait speed (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.34–4.99) were associated with cognitive impairment in men. Only slow gait speed (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.05–3.36) was associated with cognitive impairment in women. Sarcopenia is associated with cognitive impairment mainly due to slow gait speed. Our results suggested that cognitive impairment domains, such as processing speed and executive function, are associated with sarcopenia-related slow gait speed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0392.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: H2O2, redox signalling, development, regeneration, adult stem cells, metazoan
Online: 19 September 2018 (21:42:44 CEST)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were originally classified as exclusively deleterious compounds, have gained increasing interest in the recent years given their action as bona fide signalling molecules. The main target of ROS action is the reversible oxidation of cysteines, leading to the formation of disulfide bonds, which modulate protein conformation and activity. ROS endowed with signalling properties are mainly produced by NADPH oxidases at the plasma membrane, but their action also involves a complex machinery of multiple redox-sensitive protein families that differs in their subcellular localization and their activity. Given that the levels and distribution of ROS are highly dynamic in part due to their limited stability, the development of various fluorescent ROS sensors, some of which are quantitative (ratiometric), represents a clear breakthrough in the field and have been adapted to both ex vivo and in vivo applications. The physiological implication of ROS signalling will be presented mainly in the frame of morphogenetics processes, embryogenesis, regeneration, and stem cell differentiation. Gain and loss of function as well as pharmacological strategies have demonstrated the wide but specific requirement of ROS signalling at multiple stages of these processes and its intricate relationship with other well-known signalling pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0123.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: lead exposure; adult literacy; global health; environmental health; Myanmar
Online: 10 April 2018 (09:51:02 CEST)
Environmental lead exposure is a population health concern in many low- and middle-income countries. Lead is found throughout Myanmar and prior to the 1940s, the country was the largest producer of lead worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine any potential association between lead mining and adult literacy rates at the level of the 330 townships in Myanmar. Townships were identified as lead or non-lead mining areas and 2015 census data were examined with association being identified using descriptive, analytical and spatial statistical methods. Overall, there does appear to be a significant relationship between lead mining activity and adult literacy levels (P<0.05) among townships with both low access [OR= 2.701 (1.136-6.421)] as well as townships with high access to safe sanitation [OR=18.40 (1.794-188.745)]. LISA cluster maps confirm these findings. This exploratory analysis is a first step in the examination of potential environmental lead exposure and its implications in Myanmar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Mental Health; Depression; Physical Activity; Population Health; Adult; Middle Aged
Online: 1 September 2022 (16:13:25 CEST)
Worldwide, depressive disorder is one of the leading determinants of disability-adjusted life years. Although the benefits associated with physical activity (PA), there is a lack of information related to depression, especially in countries like Czechia, where modern approaches to mental health care only recently emerged. The PA levels were associated with aspects of depression such as clinician-diagnosed history; different severities; continuous depression scores; and specific symptoms that characterize the depression. The multivariable-adjusted Poisson regression models were carried out on 2123 participants (45.3% men, median 48 years). Compared to subjects with insufficient PA, the moderate and high PA levels were inversely associated with clinician-diagnosed depression history (respectively, prevalence rate [PR]= 0.84; 95% CI 0.66-0.82 and PR=0.50; 95% CI 0.36-0.67); and with continuous depression scores (PR=0.85; 95% CI 0.75-0.97; and PR=0.79; 95%CI 0.70-0.90).; but only high PA showed association with depression categories (PR=0.75; 95%CI 0.60-0.95). Depressed mood and worthlessness were the symptoms associated with moderate and high PA. Tiredness, change in appetite, and problems with concentration only with high PA. Although only high PA was sufficient for people intending changes among depression categories, the moderate PA may be enough for slight changes in depressive symptoms, and a good strategy when starting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0167.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mental health; mental health literacy; psychological vulnerability; health promotion; adult
Online: 11 February 2022 (21:40:28 CET)
Resumo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a Saúde Mental Positiva (SPM) e a sua relação com características sociodemográficas, literacia em saúde mental e escala de vulnerabilidade psicológica (PVS) em estudantes universitários portugueses com idades compreendidas entre os 17 e os 62 anos. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo-correlacional. Uma pesquisa online foi realizada para avaliar variáveis demográficas, e vários questionários foram aplicados para avaliar saúde mental positiva, vulnerabilidade psicológica e alfabetização em saúde mental. Os dados foram coletados de 1º de novembro de 2019 a 1º de setembro de 2020. No geral, 3.405 alunos participaram do estudo. Os resultados mostram que 67,8% dos alunos revelaram um alto nível de PMH, 31,6% apresentaram um nível médio de PMH e 0,6% apresentaram um nível baixo de PMH. Os estudantes do sexo masculino relataram maior satisfação pessoal (t (3170) = -2,39, p=0,017) e autonomia (t (3170) = -3,33, p=0,001), no PMH em relação ao sexo feminino. Alunos sem bolsa pontuaram mais alto (t (3.127) = -2,04, p=0,42) no PMH do que alunos com bolsa. Estudantes que não foram deslocados de casa relataram maior (t (3170) = -1,99, p=0,047) Autocontrole em PMH do que aqueles deslocados de sua casa. Estudantes universitários com resultados de PMH mais altos têm resultados de PVS mais baixos e resultados de Alfabetização mais altos. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para identificar as necessidades de intervenção dos alunos na PMH. Estudantes universitários com resultados de PMH mais altos têm resultados de PVS mais baixos e resultados de Alfabetização mais altos. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para identificar as necessidades de intervenção dos alunos na PMH. Estudantes universitários com resultados de PMH mais altos têm resultados de PVS mais baixos e resultados de Alfabetização mais altos. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para identificar as necessidades de intervenção dos alunos na PMH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0515.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Positive education; Pygmalion effect; learned helplessness; lifelong education; adult education
Online: 29 November 2021 (07:52:15 CET)
Positive education is seen as a transformative methodological approach capable of improving the act of teaching and learning and, above all, essential for the development of students' personal skills and competences. However, few studies have been carried out on this subject in the field of lifelong and adult education. This study works with a sample of 399 people over 16 years of age and students of the Universidad Popular de Dos Hermanas in order to show the relationship between the Pygmalion effect and learned helplessness in the process of acquiring knowledge in adulthood. In this way, three tools were used: a questionnaire that showed teachers' perceptions of students' qualities and behaviour and two that provided information on self-concept, self-esteem, personal and social skills and other variables directly related to emotional intelligence and positive education. It shows how exposure to negative operational conditioning factors influences the psychosocial and socio-educational development of students in every possible way, while on the other hand, it indicates the importance of positive education to compensate for this phenomenology by improving the development and growth of those who study and participate in non-formal education. Likewise, the factorial interrelation of both positive and negative conditioning factors and their incidence on learning is shown; the importance of neutralising the negative components and strengthening the positive reinforcement and the role played by the community and education professionals as catalysts and behavioural modulators at any stage of learning and age group for the achievement of the objectives of the student and of education itself in a broad sense
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0434.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Cardiorespiratory Fitness; Cardiometabolic Risk Factors; Population Health; Adult; Middle Aged
Online: 23 August 2021 (12:18:10 CEST)
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a strong independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. However, there is no recent information about the impact of CRF on cardiometabolic risk specifically in Central and Eastern Europe, which are characterized by different biological and social determinants of health. Normative CRF values were proposed and the association between CRF and cardiometabolic outcomes was evaluated in an adult Czechian population. In 2054 participants (54.6 % females, median 48 years), the CRF was predicted from a non-exercise equation. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regressions were carried out to determine the associations. Higher CRF quartiles were associated with lower prevalence of hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and dyslipidaemia. Comparing subjects within the lowest CRF, those within the highest CRF had decreased chances of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.22-0.60); T2D (OR=0.16; 95% CI 0.05-0.47), low HDL-c (OR=0.32; 95% CI 0.17-0.60), high low-density lipoprotein (OR=0.33; 95% CI 0.21-0.53), high triglycerides (OR=0.13; 95 CI 0.07-0.81), and high cholesterol (OR=0.44; 95% CI 0.29-0.69). There was an inverse association between CRF and cardiometabolic outcomes, supporting the adoption of a non-exercise method to estimate CRF of the Czech population. Therefore, more accurate cardiometabolic studies can be performed incorporating the valuable CRF metric.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: older adult; happiness; family type; socio-physical environment; social activities
Online: 5 February 2020 (10:33:26 CET)
This study used secondary data from the 2017 Korean Community Health Survey to compare the associations of socio-physical environment, social support networks, and social activities with happiness among older adults with three different family types. As per the results, there was a significant difference in happiness index between the three groups (F = 86.688, p < .001). Older adults living alone (odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.57–0.99) and those living with family (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65–0.99) showed greater happiness as the frequency of contact with family increased. Older adults living with only their spouse showed an increase in happiness when their contact with friends was higher (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.56–0.84). It was confirmed that there were differences in factors influencing happiness according to the family type of the older adults in this study. Therefore, the happiness of older adults needs to be adequately ensured, while considering their various circumstances, including family type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1672.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: BMI index; professionally active adult population; cardiovascular diseases; obesity; bariatric procedures
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:22:34 CEST)
Unfortunately in recent years, the global healthcare system has noted a notable increase in the prevalence of obesity and its associated health complications. What is more, one of the significant phenomena is the increasing demand for bariatric procedures among individuals of working age. This trend is pronounced in Poland., due to the increasing number of patients meeting the qualifying criteria for surgery among the group of professionally active and as well as unactive patients. The aim of the study is to characterize alarmingly increasing number of candidates for bariatric procedures among professionally active Poles, who underwent occupational medicine examinations in Poland in 2016-2022 and its strong relationship with cardiovascular co-morbidities (POL-O-CARIA 2022 study). In total, the results of 2,056,861 initial, control and periodic visits as part of the occupational medicine certificate were analyzed. Statistical calculations were performed with the use of IBM SPSS Statistics 25. It was noticed that, there was a consistent rise in the proportion of individuals classified as candidates for bariatric procedures ( increase of 0.3%) alongside a notable decrease in the percentage of individuals maintaining a healthy body weight Moreover, it is imperative to conduct yearly evaluations of the prevalence of obesity and its associated health conditions. This proactive approach is essential in order to adequately equip the healthcare system for addressing the increasing population of obese individuals who are actively engaged in their professions. By doing so, we can strategically implement the most efficient interventions to counteract this trend and ensure optimal health outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1332.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: HTLV-1; adult T-cell leukemia; viral oncogenesis; Tax; HBZ; apoptosis
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:41:37 CEST)
The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the only known human oncogenic retrovirus. HTLV-1 can cause a cancer called adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). The virus is transmitted through body fluids of infected individuals, primarily breast milk, blood, and semen. At least 5–10 million people in the world are infected with HTLV-1. In addition to ATL, HTLV-1 infection can also cause HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM /TSP). ATL is characterized by low viral ex-pression and poor prognosis. The oncogenesis triggered by HTLV-1 is extremely complex and the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. However, viral regulatory proteins Tax and HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) have been shown to play key roles in the transformation of HTLV-1-infected T cells. Moreover, several studies have shown that the final fate of HTLV-1-infected transformed T cell clones is the result of a complex interplay of HTLV-1 oncogenic protein expression with cellular transcription factors that subvert the cell cycle and disrupt reg-ulated cell death, thereby exerting their transforming effects. This review provides updated in-formation on the mechanisms underlying the transforming action of HTLV-1 and the potential therapeutic targets to combat ATL.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0544.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: adult neurogenesis; brain injury; neural stem cell; regeneration; stroke; zebrafish; mice
Online: 22 December 2020 (08:49:39 CET)
Adult neurogenesis is an evolutionary conserved process occurring in all vertebrates. However, striking differences are observed between the taxa, considering the number of neurogenic niches, the neural stem cell (NSC) identity and brain plasticity under constitutive and injury-induced conditions. Zebrafish has become a popular model for the investigation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in adult neurogenesis. Compared to mammals, the adult zebrafish displays a high number of neurogenic niches distributed throughout the brain. Furthermore, it exhibits a strong regenerative capacity without scar formation or any obvious disabilities. In this review, we will first discuss the similarities and differences regarding (i) the distribution of neurogenic niches in the brain of adult zebrafish and mammals (mainly mouse) and (ii) the nature of the neural stem cells within the main telencephalic niches. In the second part, we will describe the cascade of cellular events occurring after telencephalic injury in zebrafish and mouse. Our study clearly shows that most early events happening right after the brain injury are shared between zebrafish and mouse including cell death, microglia and oligodendrocyte recruitment, as well as injury-induced neurogenesis. In mammals one of the consequences following an injury is the formation of a glial scar that is persistent. This is not the case in zebrafish, which may be one of the main reasons that zebrafish display a higher regenerative capacity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0368.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: fruit; vegetables; depressive symptoms; depression; young people; young adult; nutrition; diet
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:18:23 CET)
Higher consumption of fruit and vegetables has been associated with a lower risk of various chronic diseases including coronary heart disease, obesity, and certain cancers. Recently, fruit and vegetable intake has also been linked with mental health, including depression. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable intake and depressive symptoms in young people and adults aged 15-45. The systematic review focused on peer-reviewed cohort studies published from 1 January 2000 to 31 August 2020 using searches of six electronic databases. The exposure was fruit and vegetable consumption analysed both separately and/or together, and the outcome was depression or depressive symptoms. Data from eligible studies were extracted according to predefined criteria and the studies were appraised using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for Cohort Studies to evaluate for study quality and risk of bias. To evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and depressive symptoms, a narrative synthesis was conducted. Of 9667 potentially relevant studies that were screened for title and abstracts, 144 full text studies were evaluated, and 12 studies from seven countries were deemed eligible and included in the qualitative synthesis. Using the NOS framework one study was categorised as ‘very good’ quality, ten studies were ‘good’ quality, and two studies were ‘moderate’ quality. With respect to combined fruit and vegetable consumption, two studies demonstrated an inverse association with depression. When the effects of fruit and vegetable on depression were analysed separately, five studies showed significant associations in fruit consumption, and two studies showed significant associations in vegetable consumption. Four studies showed no association between combined fruit and vegetable consumption and depression, one study showed no association between fruit consumption and depression, and two studies showed no association between vegetable consumption and depression. Despite some contradictory results in the studies included in this review, the evidence seems to be building that a possible association exists, and this may have implications for addressing the burden of mental illness in young people and adults aged 15-45 years. Well-designed prospective cohort studies are needed to provide more robust evidence on the diet-depression relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0079.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: adult mortality; disparity; political instability; universal health coverage; cross-country study
Online: 8 August 2016 (12:01:28 CEST)
Background: Disparity in adult mortality (AM) with reference to social dynamics and health care has not been sufficiently examined. This study aimed to identify the gap in the understanding of AM in relation to religion, political stability, economic level, and universal health coverage (UHC). Methods: A cross-national study was performed with different sources of data, using the administrative record linkage theory. We created a new data set using data from the 2013 World Bank data catalogue by region, The Economist (Political instability index 2013), Stuckler David et al. (Universal health coverage, 2010), and religious categories of all UN country members. Descriptive statistics, a t-test, an ANOVA followed by a post hoc test, and a linear regression were used where applicable. Result: The average AM rate for males and females was 0.20 ± 0.10 and 0.14 ± 0.10, respectively. AM was significantly higher in economically weak countries, countries with political instability, countries with traditional religion, without achievement of UHC, and Sub-Saharan Africa (p<0.01). There was high disparity of AM between countries with and without UHC (F = male: 61.89, female: 51.85, p<0.001) and between groups with low and high income (F = male: 36.33, female: 42.39, p<0.001). UHC and political stability would significantly reduce AMR by > 0.41 in both sexes and high economic status would reduce male AMR by 0.44, and female AMR by 0.70, in relation to countries without UHC, with political instability, and low economic status. Conclusions: Disparities in AM can be reduced after the achievement of UHC and economically productive activities for those adults affected by conflict and political unrest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0118.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Adult Population; Economic Growth; Financial Exclusion; Financial Inclusion; Financial Institutions; Financial Inclusion Strategy
Online: 10 October 2022 (10:07:47 CEST)
It has been observed that most adult citizens, globally, are not enjoying financial services. They are financially excluded, especially rural dwellers. Monetary authorities initiated financial inclusion, with the aim of including all adult population who are excluded from financial services into the financial system at an affordable cost to meet their basic needs. Studies have shown that it encourages household savings and affects growth positively. Central Bank of Nigeria initiated financial inclusion in 2012 and commenced implementation in 2014. Given the short period of its implementation, this study ascertained the effect on economic growth in Nigeria. The study used time series data ranging from 2004 to 2021. The study covered the pre-inclusion period, through its implementation period. Ordinary Least Square technique was adopted for data estimation. Preliminary and post-estimation tests were also conducted. Despite the short period of the implementation of financial inclusion strategy, the OLS result affirmed that it positively affects economic growth. It was concluded that financial inclusion is a growth driver. It was recommended that Central Bank of Nigeria, in collaboration with commercial banks and microfinance banks, continue to enforce inclusion exercise in all rural communities, ensuring that women, youths, farmers, traders in the informal sector, are captured by the financial system. Also, Central Bank Nigeria should set up financial inclusion compliance committee at the Local Government levels, with a State Monitoring unit to ensure compliance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0550.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Interdisciplinary co-design; healthcare design; exercise; low-back pain; older adult patients; rehabilitation
Online: 30 August 2021 (15:12:45 CEST)
This study presents three forms of interdisciplinary expertise in the healthcare design context to approach a particular multifaceted problem around the current healthcare for older adult patients with chronic low-back pain (LBP). Using an interdisciplinary co-design framework, first, our design approach performs the role of an initiator to define the problem by exploring the current context of healthcare. Second, it facilitates the experiences of experts and patients to reach the roots of the problem by functioning as a mediator. Third, our approach fulfills the primary role of healthcare design in producing new meanings considering the principles of patient-centeredness. These roles significantly contributed to the design of healthcare innovations. Our framework transformed the distributed disciplinary knowledge developed while tackling the multifaceted problem into new forms of expertise for collaboration in healthcare innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0207.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Social Anxiety Disorder; Social Phobia, Online Survey; Adult, Oman; Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale
Online: 8 August 2020 (09:39:49 CEST)
Background: Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is among the most common anxiety disorders worldwide with data largely emerging from the Euro-American and Pacific Rim populations. In contrast, there is a dearth of studies among the populations of Arabian Gulf countries including Oman. This study has two interrelated aims: (i) to explore the prevalence of SAD among Omani adults, and (ii) to tease out the links between sociodemographic factors and SAD in Oman. Methods: A cross-sectional study via an online survey was conducted among 1019 adult Omani nationals residing in Oman. The presence of SAD was assessed using the Arabic version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Result: Nearly half the participants (45.9%, n=468) endorsed themselves as having features of SAD as defined by LSAS. In the multivariate logistic analysis, participants below 40 years of age were 1.6 times (OR=1.568, p=0.026) more likely to have SAD than those who were 40 and older. Women were 1.3 times (OR=1.348, p=0.038) more likely to endorse SAD than men. Participants who had secondary or undergraduate education were respectively 1.5 times (OR=1.45, p=0.014) and 2.5 times (OR=2.509, p<.001) to have SAD than who were postgraduates. Conclusion: The present data suggest that 45.9% of the participants reached the cut-off for case-ness in LSAS, which is high compared to reports from other populations. As online survey respondents tend to belong to similar demographics, the current results need not be representative of the Omani adult population, which calls for studies that adopt more inclusive survey methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0245.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: corneal; pediatric; adult; corneal endothelial dystrophies; total RNA; gene expression; gene sets; transcriptome
Online: 15 June 2018 (05:42:13 CEST)
The eyes are the sense organs through we view the world around us, and the cornea is the transparent layer which covers the outer, visible part of the eye. It is known that the gene expression of corneal endothelium depends on age. And the expressed genes of the endothelium of cornea for pediatric samples is different than that of the adult samples. The purpose or objective of this study was to characterize human corneal endothelial cell (HCEnC) gene expression and differential gene expression and to detect the expressed genes mapped to chromosomal loci associated with some corneal endothelial dystrophies. Both upregulated and downregulated genes were analyzed. For this purpose, total RNA was isolated from ex vivo corneal endothelium taken from six pediatric and five adult corneas. The complementary DNA was hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip 1.1 ST array. The data analysis was performed using the Enrichr software for both upregulated and downregulated genes. These are described in more detail in the results and discussion section. This study uses bioinformatics tools to identify and analyse gene sets present in the transcriptome of the corneal endothelium, and tries to find out and observe the relation of the aging effect on the corneal endothelium gene expression. The human subjects had participated voluntarily and informed consent was obtained from all before carrying out any testing procedure. Proper guidelines from the hospital ethical committee were also followed and no harmful chemicals were used on the participants. This study simply aims to raise some awareness of the given topic among the local people so that they are better able to take informed choices about their health in the near future, and also so that they seek medical help when necessary and have no inhibitions in doing so.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0710.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: Tacrolimus; LCP-Tac; Population Pharmacokinetics; CYP3A5; CYP3A4; ABCB1; Renal transplantation; stable adult patients; Immunosuppression
Online: 11 October 2023 (12:16:38 CEST)
The aim of the study is to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model and to investigate the influence of CYP3A5/CYP3A4 and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the Tacrolimus PK parameters after LCP-Tac formulation in stable adult renal transplant patients. The model was developed using NONMEM v7.5, from full PK profiles from a clinical study (n=30) and trough concentrations (C0) from patient follow-up (n=68). The PK profile of the LCP-Tac formulation was best described by a two-compartment model with linear elimination, parameterised in elimination (CL/F) and distributional (CLD/F) clearances and central compartment (Vc/F) and peripheral compartment (Vp/F) distribution volumes. A time lagged first order absorption process was characterized using transit compartment models. According to the structural part of the base model, the LCP-Tac showed an absorption profile characterized by 2 transit compartments and a mean transit time of 3.02 hours. Inter-individual variability was associated with CL/F, Vc/F and Vp/F. Adding inter-occasion variability (IOV) on CL/F caused a statistically significant reduction in the model minimum objective function MOFV (p<0.001). Genetic polymorphism of CYP3A5 and cluster of CYP3A4/A5 SNPs statistically significantly influenced Tac CL/F. In conclusion a PopPK model was successfully developed for LCP-Tac formulation in stable renal transplant patients. CYP3A4/A5 SNPs as a combined cluster including three different phenotypes (high, intermediate, and poor metabolizers) was the most powerful covariate to describe part of inter-individual variability associated with apparent elimination clearance. Incorporating this covariate in the initial dose calculation and during the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) would probably optimize Tac exposure attainments.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0089.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: health disparity; diet; cooking; breakfast intake; balanced meal intake; cross-sectional study; Japan; adult
Online: 1 August 2023 (11:03:57 CEST)
This study investigated the intersecting influence of socioeconomic status and cooking behavior on dietary habits using nationwide Japanese data. The study measured the frequency of balanced meals and breakfast intake as indicators of healthy eating habits and used subjective economic status, subjective spare time, and cooking behavior as the independent variables. It employed multivariate logistic regression analyses to elucidate the relationships among these variables. The results demonstrated that even among economically poor or time-constrained individuals, those preparing meals from ingredients were more likely to eat balanced meals and breakfast than those relying on commercial food or rarely cooking. This finding suggested that cooking behavior can mitigate disparity in healthful eating due to socioeconomic conditions. The study added new insights into the impact of combining socioeconomic status and cooking behavior on dietary habits, which highlights the potential of promoting cooking behaviors, such as teaching cooking skills, as a strategy for reducing socioeconomic dietary disparities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1963.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Adult Fontan patients: exercise capacity; oxygen uptake efficiency slope; lung function; inspiratory muscle weakness.
Online: 29 May 2023 (04:35:37 CEST)
We aimed to provide a comprehensive assessment of exercise physiology of adult Fontan patients (FP) and factors limiting functional capacity (FC). A prospective single-centre study of 37 FP aged ≥16years and 19 healthy-controls (HC), who underwent CPET on cycle-ergometer in February-March 2022. Lung function was impaired in FP, mostly mild restrictive pattern (56.8%). Mean peakVO2 was 21±5.4ml/kg/min, 55% predicted. Morphologically left-single ventricle showed higher peakVO2%predicted (57.4±14.4% vs 43.4±8.1%, p=0.045). A lower peakVO2%predicted was observed in patients with an early flattened and/or descending O2 pulse at maximal exertion (52±14% vs 62±12.5, p=0.04 and 47.6±9% vs 60±14 respectively, p=0.018) and chronotropic insufficiency (53±12% vs 69.8±20%, p=0.008). Strong positive correlation was observed between %OUES and peakVO2%predicted (r=0.726, p>0.001). PeakVO2%predicted was progressively higher as the level of physical activity increased (low-level 49.5±14%, moderate-level 55±12%, intense-level 69±20%). FP showed lower inspiratory muscle strength compared to HC but it was no statistically associated with either peakVO2 or VE/VCO2 slope. In FP OUES is a useful submaximal parameter in those who fail to reach maximal exertion. Chronotropic insufficiency and early flattened or descending oxygen pulse slope were factors associated with low peakVO2. Regular intense physical activity improves FC. Although FP have inspiratory muscle weakness, its impact on FC is unclear.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Testis; granulosa-cell tumor; adult–type; sex cord-stromal tumor of testis; testicular cancer
Online: 16 May 2023 (07:27:50 CEST)
Testicular granulosa cell tumors (TGCTs) are rare tumors of sex cord stromal origin. TGCTs can be classified into the adult type and the juvenile type. The adult type is extremely rare with only 93 known cases reported in the literature. We, herein, present a report of a case of a 30 year old male patient who presented with a testicular mass, underwent radical inguinal orchiectomy and the pathology examination revealed an adult type granulosa tumor. We additionally review the literature to summarize the scientific knowledge of an entity barely described worldwide.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: adult spinal deformity; lumbosacral junction; anterior lumbar interbody fusion; bone morphogenetic protein; beta-tricalcium phosphate
Online: 28 December 2020 (12:06:09 CET)
Achievement of solid fusion of the lumbosacral junction (L5-S1 level) is an important factor in adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. The purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness and feasibility of injectable rhBMP-2 (a combination of Eschericia coli-derived rhBMP-2 and hydrogel type β-TCP carrier; NOVOSIS Inject) as a bone substitute for the fusion of lumbosacral junction. 20 patients (average age 69.1 years) diagnosed with ASD with sagittal imbalance who underwent surgical treatment including anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) in the L5-S1 level were evaluated. Injectable rhBMP-2 was applied in L5-S1 ALIF and followed-up for 1-year. Solid fusion rates and changes of clinical outcomes (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], Visual Analog Scale [VAS] of back and leg) were measured and analyzed at 6 and 12 months after surgery. All postoperative adverse events were evaluated about the association with injectable rhBMP-2. Fusion rates were 68.4% and 100% at 6 and 12 months after surgery. Compared to baseline, ODI were improved to 45.8% and 63.7%, VAS(back) were improved to 69.2% and 72.8%, and VAS(leg) were improved to 49.2% and 64.8% at 6 and 12 months after surgery (p<0.001, respectively). There were no adverse events associated with injectable rhBMP-2. Thus, injectable rhBMP-2 may be a suitable choice of a bone graft substitute when achieving solid interbody fusion in the lumbosacral junction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0094.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Keywords: vegetable cultivation; health; physical health; mental health; social well-being; qualitative study; adult; Japan
Online: 8 April 2019 (12:49:04 CEST)
The present short communication aimed to determine the effects of vegetable cultivation on health. We conducted a qualitative study using responses to an open-ended question that was part of a survey on regional differences on vegetable intake. Participants in this study were residents of Gunma Prefecture, Japan, and were aged between 20–74 years. In the questionnaire, we asked: “Aside from increasing vegetable intake, how does vegetable cultivation affect your health?” We were able to categorize the answers into six subcategories related to physical health, mental health, and social well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0984.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Anoikis; Adult stem cells; Somatic cells; Reprograming; suspension-induced stem cell transition; single cell RNA sequence
Online: 18 September 2023 (03:58:54 CEST)
Adult stem cells (ASCs) can be cultured with difficulty from most tissues, often requiring chemical or transgenic modification to achieve adequate quantities. We show here that mouse primary fibroblasts grown in suspension change from the elongated and flattened morphology observed under standard adherent culture conditions generating rounded cells with large nuclei and scant cytoplasm expressing the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) marker (Sca1; Ly6A) within 24hrs. Based on this initial observation, we describe here a suspension culture method that, irrespective of the lineage used, mouse fibroblast, primary human somatic cells (fibroblasts, hepatocytes and keratinocytes), is capable of generating a high yield of cells in spheroid form which display expression of ASCs surface markers, circumventing the anoikis which often occurs at this stage. Moreover, mouse fibroblasts-derived spheroids can be differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. Analysis of single cell RNA sequence data identified 8 distinct cell clusters with one in particular comprising approximately 10% of the cells showing high levels of proliferative capacity expressing high levels of genes related to MSCs and self-renewal as well as extracellular matrix (ECM). We believe the rapid, high-yield generation of proliferative, multi-potent ASC-like cells by the process we term suspension-induced stem cell transition (SIST) could have significant implications for regenerative medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: NMDA; excitotoxicity; Glaucoma; melanopsin-RGCs; intrinsically photosensitive-RGCs; Brn3a+RGCs; adult albino rat; retina; SD-OCT
Online: 23 May 2019 (04:43:45 CEST)
We studied short- and long-term effects of intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on melanopsin-containing (m+) and non-melanopsin-containing (Brn3a+) retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In adult SD-rats, the left eye received a single intravitreal injection of 5µL of 100nM NMDA. At 3 and 15 months, retinal thickness was measured in vivo using SD-OCT. Ex vivo analyses were done at 3, 7, 14 days or 15 months after damage. Whole-mounted retinas were immunolabelled for Brn3a and melanopsin, the total number of Brn3a+RGCs and m+RGCs were quantified and their topography represented. In control retinas, the mean total numbers of Brn3a+RGCs and m+RGCs were 78,903±3,572 and 2,358±144 (mean ± SD; n=10), respectively. In the NMDA injected retinas, Brn3a+RGCs numbers diminished to 50% and 25%, at 3 and 14 days, respectively, but there was no further loss up to 15 months. The number of immunoidentified m+RGCs decreased significantly at 3 days, recovered between 3-7 days and was back to normal thereafter. OCT measurements revealed a significant thinning of the left retinas at 3 and 15 months. Intravitreal injections of NMDA induce a rapid loss of 75% of Brn3a+RGCs, a transient downregulation of melanopsin expression but not m+RGC death, and a thinning of the inner retinal layers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0085.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: TCP-C2S, Nurse ´A ceramic, Biomaterials, adult human mesenchymal stem cells, Solid State Reaction, Biomedical applications.
Online: 14 March 2017 (13:43:13 CET)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity and cell response of a well-characterized Nurse´s A-phase (7CaO•P2O5•2SiO2) ceramic and his effect compared to a control (tissue culture polystyrene-TCPS) on the adhesion, viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of ahMSCs in vitro. Cell proliferation (Alamar Blue Assay), Alizarin Red-S (AR-s) staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OCN) and collagen I (Col I) were evaluated. Also, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images were acquired in order to visualise the cells and the topography of the material. The proliferation of cells growing in a direct contact with the material was slower at early stages of the study because of the new environmental conditions. However, the entire surface was colonized after 28 days of culture in growth medium (GM). Osteoblastic differentiation markers were significantly enhanced in cells growing on Nurse´s A phase ceramic and cultured with osteogenic medium (OM), probably due to the role of silica to stimulate the differentiation of ahMSCs. Moreover, calcium nodules were formed under the influence of ceramic material. Therefore, it is predicted that Nurse´s A-phase ceramic would present high biocompatibility and osteoinductive properties being a good candidate to be used as a biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: seasonal change; honeybee; adult bee; capped brood; Varroa mite; colony size; dinotefuran; neonicotinoid; mite-prevalence; field experiment
Online: 12 October 2020 (16:35:43 CEST)
Neonicotinoids, such as dinotefuran (DF), have caused a variety of problems, such as massive loss and winter failure of the bee colony, as a price for the benefit of reducing farm work, because it continues to maintain a high insecticide activity over a long period of time. In this study, a field experiment was conducted for about six months to investigate the effects of DF on bee colonies damaged by Varroa mites. This study examined the long-term changes in such as the size of bee colonies, the intake of sugar syrup (SS), intake of pollen paste (PP), which is a vehicle for administering DF, the intake of DF, the mite-prevalence of bees and the inside and outside temperatures of hive-boxes. The variation width of the inner temperature of the hive-box is less than that of the ambient temperature (Ta). The inner temperature of the hive-box is adjusted with about 30 ℃ of Ta as the boundary. If Ta is lower than 30 ℃, the inner temperature of the box is higher than Ta, and if Ta is higher than 30 ℃, it is lower than Ta. The temperature variation width of the DF-exposed colony is greater than that of the control colony. The average intake of SS per bee per day of the DF-exposed colony is more than that of the control colony. The average intake of PP per bee per day of the DF-exposed colony is almost equal to that of the control colony. These results suggest that bees do not avoid DF, and ingest PP without distinction between toxic and pesticide-free. In the period from the start of DF administration to the colony extinction, the intake of DF per colony is about 865 µg/colony, the intake per bee is 14 ng/bee, and the intake per bee per day is less than 0.1 ng/bee/day in this work. These intakes are much lower than the previous ones (60-65 ng/bee, 0.27-2.32 ng/bee/day). These discrepancies may be because attacks of mites and Japanese giant hornets hastened the colony collapse. Seasonal changes in mite-prevalence of honeybees is approximately the same regardless of the bee colonies. At the end of August (the start of attacks by Japanese giant hornets), the mite-prevalence will increase rapidly. Even if the number of bees damaged by mites turns to decrease, the mite-prevalence will continue to increase, with approaching 100% before bee colonies become extinct. In this study, it was found that the bee colony was collapsed by the intake of a smaller amount of DF due to the synergistic effect of DF and mite-damage. To prevent a bee colony collapse, not only to make an effort to minimalize the adverse effect on the bee colony of neonicotinoids such as DF with long-term residual effect and high insecticide properties, it is necessary to reduce the damage of mites as much as possible, while considering the synergistically adverse effects of neonicotinoids and miticides.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2156.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: C-arm free; minimally invasive spine surgery; adult spinal deformity; lateral access spine surgery; oblique lumbar interbody fusion
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:51:02 CEST)
Background and Objectives: C-arm free MIS techniques can offer significantly reduced rates of postoperative complications such as blood loss and hospitalization time. Another advantageous long-term aspect is the notably diminished exposure to radiation which is known to cause ma-lignant changes. This study emphasizes that, in some cases of spinal conditions which require a procedural intervention, C-arm free MIS techniques hold stronger indications than open surgeries guided by image intensifier. Materials and Methods: In this research, a retrospective analysis and review of various cervical and thoracic spinal procedures, performed in our hospital, by applying C-arm free techniques. The course of the study explains the basic steps of the procedures and demonstrating postoperative or intra-operative results. For anterior cervical surgery, we performed OPLL resection, while for posterior cervical surgery, we performed posterior fossa decompression for Chiari malformation, minimally invasive cervi-cal pedicle screw fixation (MICEPS) and modified Goel technique with C1 lateral mass screw for atlantoaxial subluxation. Re-garding the thoracic spine, we performed anterior correction for Lenke type 5 scoliosis, and transdiscal screw fixation for DISH fractures. Results: C-arm free techniques are safe procedures that offer precise and high-quality postoperative results by offering sufficient spine alignment and adequate decompression depending on the case. Blood loss, postoperative pain and wound infection are other important aspects of spine surgery that must be always taken into consideration. Conclusions: Navigated C-arm free techniques are safe and precise procedures implemented in the treatment of surgically demanding conditions. They can significantly increase accuracy while decreasing the operative time. They represent the advancement in the field spine surgery and are hailed as the future of the same
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0351.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: organogenesis, adult liver, translational, regeneration, homeobox, hox, Wnts, growth factors, theme, gene expression, cancer, hepatectomy, three-dimensional, organoid
Online: 16 January 2019 (09:14:06 CET)
Researchers in different disciplines studied liver’s genetic expression of organogenesis in embryogenesis; however, organogenesis has not been studied as an independent and a complementary process during adult liver regeneration. This paper reviewed studies and extracted information related to organogenesis in adult liver regeneration because of organogenesis’ important role in cancer and tissue regeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Recreational substance abuse; drug abuse; marijuana; amphetamine; acute ischemic stroke; risk factors; young adult; NIS; Stroke; Sudden Cardiac Death
Online: 27 September 2022 (09:41:00 CEST)
Background: Substance use continues to be on the rise in the United States and has been linked to new onset cardiovascular (CVDs) and cerebrovascular disorders (CeVDs) leading to hospitalizations. We aimed to study the association of different subtypes of substance use disorders (SUDs) among hospitalized patients, with the different subtypes of CVDs and CeVDs, using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database. Additionally, we aimed to assess the odds of hospitalizations with new onset CVDs and CeVDs among patients with different types of SUDs. Methods: A retrospective study of the NIS database (2016-2017) using the ICD-10-CM codes was performed. The hospitalizations with a secondary diagnosis of SUDs were identified. Weighted univariate analysis using the chi-square test and multivariate survey logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate for the incidence, prevalence, and odds of association between vascular events and SUDs. Results: There were a total of 58,259,589 hospitalizations, out of which 21.42% had SUDs. Out of all the hospitalized patients between the age 18-50, more patients had SUDs than not (31.83%, p< 0.0001). This difference existed for all the different subtypes of SUDs including alcohol related disorder (42.61%), amphetamine dependence (76.17% vs 31.83%), cannabis related disorder (75.17%), cocaine related disorders (57.87%), hallucinogen related disorder (82.91%), inhalant related disorders (67.25%), opioid related disorders (52.86%), and nicotine dependence (35.72%). We found a significant association of acute ischemic stroke with amphetamine dependence (OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.14-1.33), cocaine related disorders (1.17, 1.12-1.23) and nicotine dependence (1.42, 1.40-1.43). Similarly, the association of intracerebral hemorrhage was higher with amphetamine dependence (2.58, 2.26-2.93), and cocaine related disorders (1.62, 1.46-1.79). The association of subarachnoid hemorrhage was noted to be higher with amphetamine dependence (1.82, 1.48-2.24) and nicotine dependence (1.47, 1.39-1.55). In terms of association of cardiovascular disorders with SUDs,the patients with myocardial infarction had higher odds of nicotine dependence (1.85, 1.83-1.87) than not, Similarly, the patients with angina pectoris were noted to have a higher association with cocaine related disorders (2.21, 1.86-2.62), and those with atrial fibrillation had a higher association alcohol related disorders (1.14, 1.11-1.17). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the variability of CVD and CeVD in patients hospitalized for SUD. Findings from our study may help promote increased awareness and early management of these events. Further studies are needed to evaluate specific effects of frequency and dose on the incidence and prevalence of CVD and CeVD in patients with SUD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0265.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: adult neurogenesis; dentate gyrus; diet; microglia; bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide; LPS; Omega 3; polyunsaturated fatty acids; sexual dimorphism; systemic inflammation
Online: 22 February 2022 (09:44:55 CET)
Maternal intake of the polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 (n-3 PUFA) and omega-6 (n-6 PUFA) impacts hippocampal neurogenesis during development, an effect that may extend to adulthood by altering adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA are precursors of inflammatory regulators that potentially affect AHN and glia. Additionally, n-3 PUFA dietary supplementation may present a sexually dimorphic action in the brain. Therefore, we postulated that dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA balance shapes the adult DG in a sex-dependent manner influencing AHN and glia. We test our hypothesis by feeding adult female and male mice with n-3 PUFA balanced or deficient diets. To analyze the immunomodulatory potential of the diets, we injected mice with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS reduced neuroblast number, and its effect was exacerbated by the n-3 PUFA deficient diet. The n-3 PUFA deficient diet reduced the DG volume, AHN, microglia number and surveilled volume. Diet effect on most mature neuroblasts was exclusively significant in female mice. Colocalization and multivariate analysis revealed an association between microglia and AHN, and the sexual dimorphic effect of diet. Our study reveals that female mice are more susceptible than males to the effect of dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio on AHN and microglia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0299.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR), Augmented Reality, Adult Education, MAR Games, Content Analysis, Jaccard index, Ingress, Augmented Reality in Education
Online: 10 June 2021 (15:14:21 CEST)
A single paragraph of about 200 words maximum. For research articles, abstracts should give a pertinent overview of the work. We strongly encourage authors to use the following style of structured abstracts, but without headings: (1) Background: Place the question addressed in a broad context and highlight the purpose of the study; (2) Methods: briefly describe the main methods or treatments applied; (3) Results: summarize the article's main findings; (4) Conclu-sions: indicate the main conclusions or interpretations. The abstract should be an objective rep-resentation of the article and it must not contain results that are not presented and substantiated in the main text and should not exaggerate the main conclusions.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: adult 1; classification 2; consensus 3; goal 4; guideline 5; immune thrombocytopenia 6; indication 7; ITP 8; therapy 9
Online: 28 February 2020 (16:18:38 CET)
Despite the publication in 2009 of a paper on ‘terms and definitions of immune thrombocytopenia’, (ITP) some unresolved issues remain and are reflected by the disagreement in the treatment suggested for primary ITP in adults. Considering that these disagreements could be ascribed to non-shared goals, a ‘consensus’ to classify the different lines of treatment for primary ITP in adults according to their indications and goals was proposed in October 2018 to the XIX annual meeting of the Italian Gruppo di Studio delle Piastrine (GSP), a non-profit platelet study group of scientists and physicians. Having approved the project, 60 potential co-authors and experts in the world were invited to take part to a consensus through e-Delphy method and nine of the 12 who initially accepted the invitation completed the work. Agreement was reached on a classification of four lines of treatment for primary ITP in adults based on their indications and goals. The consensus obtained regarded also the criteria, ‘timing’ included, to consider practicable elective splenectomy in these patients. In our opinion, the classification of the lines of treatment for primary ITP in adults here proposed could facilitate the realization of better shared evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of the disease.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1087.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: autoinflammatory diseases; SARS-CoV-2; vaccination; familial Mediterranean fever Adult-onset Still's disease; cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome; systemic autoinflammatory diseases
Online: 17 October 2023 (11:54:44 CEST)
Patients with sAID are a population at high risk of severe COVID outcomes but evidence on the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in this group of patients is scarce. To investigate the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with systemic autoinflammatory diseases (sAID) receiving interleukin-1 inhibition is important. Vaccination responses from 100 sAID patients most of whom were treated with IL-1inhibitors (N=96) and 100 healthy controls (HC) were ana-lyzed. After 2nd SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, sAID patients showed similar anti-SARS-CoV-2 anti-body responses (mean (SD): 6.7 (2.7)) compared to HC (5.7 (2.4)) as well as similar neutralizing antibodies (85.1 ±22.9% vs. 82.5 ±19.7%). Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses and neutralizing antibodies were similar in sAID patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection and double vaccination. Furthermore, while antibodies increased after 1st and 2nd vaccination in sAID patients they did not further increase after 3rd and 4th vaccination. No difference was found in antibody responses between anakinra and anti-IL-1 antibody treatments and also the additional use of colchicine or other drugs did not impair vaccination responses. Primary and booster SARS-CoV-2 vaccination lead to protective antibody responses in sAID patients, which are at the same level of vaccination responses in HC and in sAID patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immunomodulatory treatments used in sAID do not seem to affect antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1549.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: patient supported research; COVID-19; older adult; mental health; pandemic management; policy evaluation; implementation science; staffing; quality of care; quality of life
Online: 25 October 2023 (04:12:46 CEST)
The Single Site Order – a policy restricting staff from working at multiple long-term care homes – was mandated by the Public Health Agency of Canada to control the spread of COVID-19 in long-term care homes, where nearly 70% of COVID-19-related deaths in Canada occurred. This mixed methods study assesses the impact of Single Site Order on long-term care residents in British Columbia. Interviews were conducted (residents (n=6), family members (n=9), staff (n=18), and leadership (n=10) from long-term care homes (n=4)) and analyzed using thematic analysis. Administrative data was collected between April 2019 – March 2020 and April 2020 – March 2021 and analyzed using descriptive statistics and data visualization. Qualitative and quantitative data were triangulated and demonstrate staffing challenges became worse during implementation of the SSO resulting in the mental and physical health deterioration of LTC residents. Qualitative data demonstrated decreased time for personalized and proactive care, increased communication challenges, and increased loneliness and isolation. Quantitative data showed a decline in activities of daily living, increased antipsychotic medication use, pressure ulcers, behavioural symptoms, and an increase in falls. Addressing staff workload and staffing shortages during SSO-related policy implementation is essential to avoid resident health deterioration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0407.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: human T-cell leukemia virus type 1; adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma; viral genes; genetic alterations; immune response; host–pathogen interaction; pathogenesis; treatment
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:32:44 CEST)
Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). HTLV-1 carriers have a life-long asymptomatic balance between infected cells and host antiviral immunity, but 5–10% of carriers lose this balance and develop ATL. Coinfection with Strongyloides also promotes ATL development, suggesting that the immunological status of infected individuals is a determinant of viral pathogenicity. As CD4+ T cells play a central role in host immunity, deregulation of their function and differentiation by HTLV-1 promotes the immune evasion of infected T cells. During ATL development, the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in key host immunity-related genes further disturbs immunological conditions. Various therapeutic approaches have been developed to treat these abnormalities. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is currently the only treatment with the potential to cure ATL; however, the patient's immune state may also contribute to its outcome. Additionally, the activity of the anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 antibody, mogamulizumab, also depends on immune functions, such as antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the immunological pathogenesis of HTLV-1 infection in ATL and integrate clinical findings to determine the factors to be considered for developing treatment strategies for ATL.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1430.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Oryza sativa; Magnaporthe oryzae; rice; rice blast; panicle blast; high field resistance; quantitative resistance; major gene; adult plant resistance; durability; sustainable use; sustainable development goals
Online: 19 May 2023 (10:30:25 CEST)
Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, poses significant threat to rice production. Rice blast susceptibility has been observed in Japanese rice varieties with excellent eating quality. Enhancing blast resistance is essential to ensure minimal use of agricultural chemicals. Two types of blast resistance are observed: true resistance, which is a type of qualitative resistance expressed by a major gene, and field resistance, which is a type of quantitative resistance expressed by multiple micro-acting genes. ‘Resistance collapse’, in which a variety with a true resistance gene becomes diseased by blast fungus races compatible with the resistance gene, has been observed. Varieties carrying blast-resistance genes, such as Pb1 (panicle blast resistance 1), have been developed through DNA marker-assisted selection. In this review, we focus on the Pb1, which expresses strong quantitative resistance to panicle blast and has been widely used in Japan without showing ‘resistance collapse’ for 40 years. Pb1 is an ‘adult plant resistance gene’ that does not exert strong selection pressure on the blast population during the leaf blast stage, thus preventing the selective multiplication of Pb1-compatible blast strains. This epidemiological mechanism prevents ‘resistance collapse’. Interdisciplinary research and breeding are required to sustainably use genes that induce high field resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0176.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological distress/anxiety/depression; dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21; Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items; factor structure; psychometric properties; structural validity; validation; measurement invariance; old age/elders/elderly; informal; family caregivers; spouse; adult children
Online: 9 August 2022 (08:44:11 CEST)
Dementia patients express a set of problematic and deteriorating symptoms, along self-care dependency. Overtime, the mental health of family caregivers of persons with dementia may suffer, putting them at a high risk for psychopathology, which may be associated with endangered wellbeing of demented people. This cross-sectional study examined the psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items (DASS-8), DASS-12, DASS-21 in a convenient sample of 571 caregivers from northern Italy and southern Switzerland (Mean age = 53, SD = 12, range = 24–89 years). A bifactor structure of the three measures had the best fit; some items of the DASS-12/DASS-21 failed to load on their domain-specific factors. The three-factor structure was invariant across various groups (e.g., gender, education, etc.), expressed adequate reliability and convergent validity, and had strong positive correlation with the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLALS3). Dementia type had no effect on distress scores, which were higher among females, adult children caregivers, those caring for dependent patients, and those who received help with care. For 54.9 and 38.8% of the latter, care was provided by relatives and health professionals, respectively. Since the DASS-8 expresses adequate psychometrics comparable with the DASS-21, it may be used as a brief measure of distress in this population.