BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: patient empowerment; home-administration; patient preferences; adherence; biologics
Online: 17 December 2021 (11:06:55 CET)
Severe asthma patients are at increased risk of major exacerbations and they need to be monitored regularly. The COVID-19 pandemic has impressively impacted on the health care resources. The telemedicine approach applied to the follow-up of asthmatic patients has been proved to be effective in monitoring their disease and adherence to the therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the satisfaction of severe asthma patients, before the activation of a telemedicine management complemented by a standard of care. An ad hoc questionnaire was developed and sent by e-mail to 180 severe asthma patients. Most of subjects (82%) were confident with the idea of doing self-measurements and self-managing their disease; 77% of subjects favoured to carry out virtual visit and telemedicine. 93% of patients considered easy the self-injection therapy. 94% of subjects felt safe and 93% were not worried while self-administering. Only mild adverse events were reported in 22% subjects after self-administration. Our results showed an agreement between what is considered necessary and practicable by healthcare personnel and what is perceived by the severe asthma patients, in terms of treatment and monitoring of the disease with Telehealth. Biologics have a safety profile and can be easily self-administred at home
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fit-for-purpose land administration; climate; resilience; pandemic.
Online: 6 April 2021 (13:34:53 CEST)
The major global pressures of rapid urbanization and urban growth are compounded by climate impacts resulting in increased vulnerability for urban dwellers, with these vulnerabilities exacerbated during COVID-19. Much of this is concentrated in urban and peri-urban areas where urban development spreads into hazard-prone areas. Often this development is dominated by poor quality homes in informal settlements or slums with poor tenure security. Lessons from a current resilience-building project shows that the fit-for-purpose (FFP) approach to land administration can provide a solution to increase the number of households with security of tenure and improve resilience outcomes as informal settlements grow. This paper discusses the influence of FFP land administration on vulnerabilities to multiple shocks related to climate change and COVID-19. This paper proposes ways the growth of human settlements can be better managed through responsible governance of land tenure rights, and effective land-use planning to improve resilience to different shocks and stresses and provide adequate access to safe land and shelter. Land administration systems can support improved resilience to the multiple stressors of climate and pandemics through improving tenure security and enhancing land use planning controls. Climate change adaptation and risk management need to be better mainstreamed into two major elements of land governance: (i) securing and safeguarding of land rights, and (ii) planning and control of land-use.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Child-pugh C cirrhosis; voriconazole; trough concentrations; administration; CYP2C19
Online: 12 August 2021 (15:33:44 CEST)
This prospective observational study aimed to describe voriconazole administrations and trough concentrations in patients with Child-pugh class C clinically, and to investigate the variability of trough concentration. A total of 144 voriconazole trough concentrations from 43 Child-pugh class C patients were analyzed. The majority of patients (62.8%) received adjustments. The repeated measured trough concentration was higher than the first and final ones generally (median, 4.33 vs. 2.99, 3.90 mg/L). Eight patients with ideal initial concentration later got supratherapeutic with no adjusted daily dose, implying accumulation. There was a significant difference in concentrations among the six groups by daily dose (P=0.006). The bivariate correlation analysis showed that sex, CYP2C19 genotyping, daily dose, prothrombin time activity, international normalized ratio, platelet, and Model for end-stage liver disease score were significant factors for concentration. Subsequently, the first four factors mentioned above entered into a stepwise multiple linear regression model (variance inflation factor < 5), implying that CYP2C19 testing makes sense for precision medicine of Child-pugh class C cirrhosis patients. The equation fits well and explains the 34.8% variety of concentrations (R^2 = 0.348). In conclusion, it needs more cautious administration clinically due to no recommendation for Child-pugh class C patients in the medication label. The adjustment of the administration regimen should be mainly based on the results of repeated therapeutic drug monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0642.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: MDPV; cannabidiol; conditioned place preference; self-administration; anxiety; mice
Online: 28 June 2021 (11:35:52 CEST)
3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a new psychoactive substance (NPS) and the most widespread and life-threatening synthetic cathinone of the “bath salts”. Preclinical research has proven the cocaine-like psychostimulant effects of MDPV and its potential for abuse. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid that has emerged as a new potential treatment for drug addiction. Here, we tested the effects of CBD (20 mg/kg) on MDPV (2 mg/kg)-induced conditioned place preference and MDPV (0.05 and 0.075 mg/kg/infusion) self-administration paradigm. We also assessed the effects of the combination of CBD, and MDPV (3 and 4 mg/kg) on anxiety-like behaviour using the elevated plus maze (EPM). CBD mitigated the MDPV-induced conditioned place preference. On the contrary, CBD administration throughout the MDPV (0.075 mg/kg/infusion) self-administration increased drug-seeking and taking behaviours, but only in the high-responders group of mice. Additionally, CBD exerted anxiolytic-like effects, but only in MDPV-treated mice. Taken together, our results indicate that CBD modulation of MDPV-induced motivational responses in mice vary depending on the requirements of the learning task, resulting in a complex response. More research attempting to decipher the behavioural and molecular interactions between CBD and MDPV is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: multiparticulates, administration device, acceptability, paediatric formulation, mouthfeel, oral syringe
Online: 6 August 2020 (12:00:05 CEST)
The popularity of multiparticulate formulations (MPs) as a paediatric dosage form continues to increase. MPs comprise of multiple small units that are easy-to-swallow. Currently, MPs are commonly manufactured into unit doses that are either swallowed whole or opened prior to administration. While this is an acceptable approach, dosing is envisioned to be optimized with a ‘standard’ paediatric device which can better harness the flexible dosing potential of MPs. We evaluated a novel oral syringe (SympfinyTM) that is being developed as a tool to dispense and administer MPs to children. Forty children, 4-12 years old, received 0.5, 1.2, and 2.0 mL doses of placebo MPs using the oral syringe with spring water or a drink of choice to complete sample intake. Acceptability was recorded as those able to completely swallow the dose and participants also rated dose acceptability on a 5-point scale. The ability to completely swallow the dose decreased as dose volume increased; the smallest dose was completely swallowed by 87.5% (35/40) children, and 69.4% (27/39) of children confirmed their willingness to take the sample as a daily medicine. Larger doses, 1.2 and 2.0 mL, gave values of 55% and 57.5% for the doses completely swallowed and 58.8% and 51.72% for willingness to take the sample as a daily medicine, respectively. Use of a drink of choice showed no increase in swallowability as compared with water. The novel oral syringe being developed is an appropriate device for dispensing doses flexibly and administering neutral tasting MPs directly to the mouth in the lower dose range without the need for a co-administration vehicle in children aged 4-12 years.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: ellagic acid; oral administration; bioavailability; microformulations; nanoformulations; solubility enhancement
Online: 7 April 2020 (12:02:54 CEST)
Ellagic acid, a polyphenolic compound present in fruits and berries, has recently been object of extensive research for its antioxidant activity, which might be useful for the prevention and treatment of cancer, cardiovascular pathologies, and neurodegenerative disorders. Its protective role justifies numerous attempts to include it in functional food preparations and in dietary supplements not only to limit the unpleasant collateral effects of chemotherapy. However, ellagic acid use as chemopreventive agent has been debated because of its poor bioavailability associated to low solubility, limited permeability, first pass effect, and interindividual variability in gut microbial transformations. To overcome these drawbacks, various strategies for oral administration including solid dispersions, micro-nanoparticles, inclusion complexes, self-emulsifying systems, polymorphs have been proposed. Here, we have listed an updated description of pursued micro/nanotechnological approaches focusing on the fabrication processes and the features of the obtained products, as well as on the positive results yielded by in vitro and in vivo studies in comparison to the raw material. The micro/nano-sized formulations here described might be exploited for pharmaceutical delivery of this active, as well as for the production of nutritional supplements or for the enrichment of novel foods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0550.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Medical Education; Healthcare; Family Medicine; Medicine; Public Administration & Public Policy
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:03:35 CEST)
Little is known about family medicine academic staff in Taiwan, and basic data about this workforce may aid healthcare decision makers. We analysed data on Taiwan’s 13 medical schools collected by the Taiwan Association of Family Medicine from June to September 2019. Items included medical school names and total staff, and the gender, age, degree, working title (part-time/full-time), academic level, and sub-specialty of each current family medicine faculty member. A total of 116 family medicine faculty members were reported; most were male (n= 85, 73.3%). Ages ranged between 30 and 69 years, with a mean (SD) age of 43.3 (8.09). Faculty members with a master’s degree were the largest group (n= 49, 42.2%), and most were academic lecturers (n=49, 42.2%). Additionally, only about one-fourth (n=26, 22.4%) of family medicine faculty in medical schools were full-time, while the other three-fourths (n=90, 77.6%) were part-time faculty; most were located in northern Taiwan (n=79, 68.1%) and specialized in gerontology and geriatrics (n=55, 47.4%) and hospice palliative care (n=53, 45.7%). Our research provides the most complete census of family medicine academic physicians in medical schools in Taiwan. The results inform efforts to improve the establishment and development of family medicine departments in Taiwan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0138.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Mass drug administration; Azithromycin; Gut microbiota; V4-16S rRNA sequencing
Online: 6 October 2020 (15:55:40 CEST)
Community-level mass treatment with azithromycin has been associated with a mortality benefit in children. However, antibiotic exposures result in disruption of the gut microbiota and repeated exposures may reduce recovery of the gut flora. We conducted a nested cohort study to examine associations between mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin and the gut microbiota of rural Malawian children aged between 1-59 months. Fecal samples were collected from the children prior to treatment and 6 months after two or four biannual rounds of azithromycin treatment. DNA was extracted from fecal samples and V4-16S rRNA sequencing used to characterize the gut microbiota. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla while Faecalibacterium and Bifidobacterium were the most prevalent genera. There were no associations between azithromycin treatment and changes in alpha diversity, however, four biannual rounds of treatment were associated with increased abundance of Prevotella. The lack of significant changes in gut microbiota after four biannual treatments supports the use of mass azithromycin treatment to reduce mortality in children living in low- and middle-income settings.
Subject: Keywords: barcode medication administration (BCMA); nurses’ workflow; inpatient setting; drug round
Online: 28 July 2020 (05:07:23 CEST)
Barcode medication administration (BCMA) is advocated as a technology that reduces medication errors relating to incorrect patient identity, drug or dose. Little is known, however, about the impact it has on nursing workflow. Our aim was to investigate the impact of BCMA on nursing activity and workflow. A comparative study was conducted on two similar surgical wards within an acute UK hospital. We observed nurses during drug rounds on a non-BCMA ward and a BCMA ward. Data were collected on drug round duration, timeliness of medication administration, patient identification, medication verification and general workflow patterns. BCMA appears not to alter drug round duration, although it may reduce the administration time per dose. Workflow was streamlined, with a reduction in use of the medicines room. The rate of patient identification increased from 74% (of 47) patients to 100% (of 43), with 95% of 255 scannable medication doses verified using the system. This study suggests that BCMA does not affect drug round duration; further research is required to determine the impact it has on timeliness of medication administration. There was reduced variability in the medication administration workflow of nurses, along with an increased patient identification rate and high medication scan rate, representing potential benefits to patient safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0098.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, General Humanities Keywords: Historic urban landscapes; Weberian administration; tactical urban planning; buffer zones.
Online: 5 July 2018 (15:10:03 CEST)
In this article, a critical reflection is made that involves questioning the notion of historic urban landscapes profiled in the Memorandum of Vienna (UNESCO, 2005) and the Paris Recommendation (UNESCO, 2011) as a conceptual paradigm on which to base urban conservation in the 21st century. Its limited methodological development and the assumption of change as an inherent part of the urban condition constitutes the source of many of the problems and difficulties posed by management and protection of contemporary cities, since there is no consensus as to what the acceptable limits of change should be in historic urban landscapes - difficulties that become ever more apparent, given the background of Weberian administrative doctrines present in current governance models. Likewise, the concept of Buffer Zones as a landscape management tool is analyzed, with the aim of establishing new methodological proposals that enable spatial organization to be regulated by defining areas of harmonization that are made up of flexible and multifunctional spaces for cooperation where territorial scale comes into contact with modernization of the historical fabric.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0187.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: chemistry; salt; water solubility; routes of administration; physicochemical; stability; degradation
Online: 16 April 2018 (05:29:24 CEST)
Choice of the salts of therapeutic agents or active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is based on the physicochemical properties of API and the dosage form considerations. The appropriate salt can have positive effect on overall therapeutic and pharmaceutical effects of API. However, the incorrect salt form can negatively affect the overall pharmaceutical outcomes of the API. This review addresses various criteria for choosing appropriate salt form along with the effect of salt forms on API’s pharmaceutical properties. In addition to comprehensive review of the criteria, this review also gives a brief historic perspective of the salt selection process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0147.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Decentralization; National Health Service; Regional Health Administration; Primary Health Care; Portugal
Online: 11 July 2022 (03:46:45 CEST)
The Portuguese health system has a universal, public, general National Health Service (NHS), tending towards free healthcare access. Created in 1979, this delivery model developed from the integration and complementarity between the different response levels (primary, hospital, continuing, and palliative care). However, over these 40 years, the initially centralized system underwent a decentralization process with the creation of Regional Health Administrations in the five mainland administrative regions. Since then, the entire NHS has settled around this new organization. The most recent step started in 2018 with decentralizing primary health care skills to 190 municipalities. This paper presents the various critical issues involved in the latest gradual decentralization process in health, intending to bring services closer to the citizens, and more focused on their needs. The article identifies and discusses the implications of this experience based on the steps foreseen in the already published legal texts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0; Database; Data models; Big Data & Analytics; Asset Administration Shell
Online: 1 November 2021 (13:01:51 CET)
The data-oriented paradigm has proven to be fundamental for the technological transformation process that characterizes Industry 4.0 (I4.0) so that Big Data & Analytics is considered a technological pillar of this process. The literature reports a series of system architecture proposals that seek to implement the so-called Smart Factory, which is primarily data-driven. Many of these proposals treat data storage solutions as mere entities that support the architecture's functionalities. However, choosing which logical data model to use can significantly affect the performance of the architecture. This work identifies the advantages and disadvantages of relational (SQL) and non-relational (NoSQL) data models for I4.0, taking into account the nature of the data in this process. The characterization of data in the context of I4.0 is based on the five dimensions of Big Data and a standardized format for representing information of assets in the virtual world, the Asset Administration Shell. This work allows identifying appropriate transactional properties and logical data models according to the volume, variety, velocity, veracity, and value of the data. In this way, it is possible to describe the suitability of SQL and NoSQL databases for different scenarios within I4.0.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0050.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic; Review Literature; Psychosocial Support System; Public Health Administration
Online: 5 May 2020 (02:23:47 CEST)
The state of community lock-down due to COVID-19 pandemic caused restricted movements of people. There are existing evidence of the negative impact of quarantine and isolation to the mental health of a person in different contexts. A scoping review of literature using Google Scholar was conducted to discover records about the public mental health while in a community quarantine due to COVID-19 pandemic. A methodological approach suggested by Arksey and O’Malley was utilized. It comprised (a) identifying the research questions, (b) identifying relevant literatures, (c) selecting literature, (d) charting the extracted data, and (e) summarizing, analyzing, and reporting the results. As of April 17, 2020, there were only 4 original articles found that discuss psychosocial aspect of the COVID-19 crisis. After an online survey, they present evidence that (1) there is an outward change in the people’s behavior toward self-care during the pandemic and (2) trusting the community governing bodies can minimize the level of anxiety and stress. Other literatures found are original articles in preprint (n=8), letters, commentaries, editorial (n=6), review paper (n=4), and WHO guideline (n=1). It is evident that the psychosocial aspect of COVID-19 crisis needs more attention from the scholars and a large research gap can be lessened trough expansion of online platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0042.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: e-record; COVID-19 era; electronic memorandum; e-memo; ICT; university administration
Online: 4 July 2022 (08:51:23 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: upstream social marketing; mobile government; marketing mix; public services; public administration; behavior
Online: 12 July 2019 (05:07:56 CEST)
The article analyses the main aspects of upstream social marketing for implementing of mobile government (MGov). The methodology of current research is based on the systematic literature review in the fields of MGov and social marketing. According to our findings, most researchers investigated MGov from the side of citizens (consumers) and emphasised the benefits to them while changing their attitudes and behaviours in employing mobile applications. However, as there is a lack of the researches from the side of governmental bodies, in this paper, we were contrary looking for new meanings, attitudes and values from their perspective. Limitations of employment of MGov occur due knowledge gap among decision makers and public policy formers (upstream audience). Therefore, we argue that upstream social marketing for the upstream audience would bring the success in faster MGov implementation. Specific social marketing would be mostly valuable on the municipal level that is the closest substance to the society. Thus, in our paper we emphasise the benefit of the MGov for the local upstream audience and propose possible external marketers as well as the motivating theses based on these 7P of marketing mix for the successful MGov on municipal level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0252.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: vaginal administration; preterm birth; progesterone; cervical ripening; uterine first-pass effect; vaginal nanoformulation
Online: 15 August 2022 (08:13:44 CEST)
Preterm birth is a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality in the world. In 2020, 1 in 10 infants were born prematurely in the United States. Globally, the World Health Or-ganization estimates 15 million infants are born prematurely. The efficacy of current ther-apeutic interventions for preterm birth have been called into question due to limited repli-cable success. Recent advancements in the field of nanomedicine have made it possible to utilize the vaginal administration route to effectively and locally deliver drugs to the fe-male reproductive tract. Also, studies using murine models have provided important in-sights about the cervix as a gatekeeper for pregnancy and parturition. It seems plausible that the field of reproductive biology is on the cusp of a paradigm shift in the context of treating preterm birth. The present review focuses on the complexities associated with treating the condition and novel therapeutics that have produced promising results in pre-clinical studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0486.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Stemona collinsae; Non-Tai-Yak; Topical administration; Didehydrostemofoline; Alkaloids; Cockroach; Insecticide; MALDI IMS
Online: 30 December 2021 (12:39:41 CET)
Contact toxicity against Periplaneta americana has never been tested with S. collinsiae root extract. Hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and water extracts were tested in final-instar nymphs and adult P. americana by topical application method. The dichloromethane extract showed the high-est potency of contact toxicity against the final-instar nymphs (41-100% corrected mortality at 48 hours), lowest LC50 (1.5±0.2 %w/v at 48 hours), and lowest LT50 (36.1±0.8 hours at 10%w/v) while the water crude extract lacked the contact toxicity (0-0% corrected mortality at 48 hours). Signs of toxicity, such as excited movement, trembling body, motionlessness, and swollen abdomen segment including irregularly extended foregut were found at the both stages of P. americana dropping with solutions of dichloromethane extract. Detection of didehydrostemofoline distri-bution using IMS revealed that didehydrostemofoline distributed in the tissue of the dead fi-nal-instar nymph and adult P. americana contacting with dichloromethane extract, but it was not found in tissue of euthanized P. americana which exposed to the water extract. Didehydrostemo-foline in the extract was a cause of toxicity signs and death of P. americana via a contact route. Thus, dichloromethane extract and didehydrostemofoline could be used as an active ingredient and chemical marker in aerosol and spray formulations for cockroach control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0247.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: opioid; microbiome-brain axis; DHA; anxiety; polyunsaturated fatty acids; intravenous self-administration; mice
Online: 23 July 2019 (04:09:40 CEST)
Opioids are highly addictive substances with a relapse rate of over 90%. While preclinical models of chronic opioid exposure exist for studying opioid dependence, none recapitulate the relapses observed in human opioid addiction. The mechanisms associated with opioid dependence, the accompanying withdrawal symptoms and the relapses that are often observed months or years after opioid dependence are poorly understood. Therefore, we developed a novel model of chronic opioid exposure whereby the level of administration is self-directed with periods of behavior acquisition, maintenance and then extinction alternating with reinstatement. This profile arguably mirrors that seen in humans, with initial opioid use followed by alternating periods of abstinence and relapse. Recent evidence suggests that dietary interventions that reduce inflammation, including omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may reduce substance misuse liability. Using the self-directed intake model, we characterize the observed profile of opioid use and demonstrate that a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fat acids (PUFAs) ameliorates oxycodone-seeking behaviors in the absence of drug availability and reduces anxiety. Guided by the major role gut microbiota have on brain function, neuropathology, and anxiety, we profile the microbiome composition and the effects of chronic opioid exposure and DHA supplementation. We demonstrate that withdrawal of opioids led to a significant depletion in specific microbiota genera whereas DHA supplementation increased microbial richness, phylogenetic diversity, and evenness. Lastly, we examined the activation state of microglia in the striatum and found that DHA supplementation reduced the basal activation state of microglia. These preclinical data suggest that a diet enriched in PUFAs could be used as a treatment to alleviate anxiety induced opioid-seeking behavior and relapse in human opioid addiction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0726.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: oral administration; lactic acid bacteria metabolites; skin barrier function; water content; atopic dermatitis
Online: 30 October 2018 (14:18:16 CET)
The effects of orally administered lactic acid bacteria metabolites on the skin were studied using an atopic dermatitis-like murine model created by feeding mice with HR-AD. The lactic acid bacteria metabolites were obtained by inoculating 35 strains of 16 species of lactic acid bacteria into soy milk and culturing them. The atopic dermatitis-like murine model was created by feeding HR-1 mice HR-AD for 40 days. The skin condition of mice that were fed HR-AD worsened compared with normal mice, i.e., reduced water content in the stratum corneum, increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL), reduced ceramide AP content in the stratum corneum, and increased epidermis thickness. When mice that had been fed the HR-AD diet was administered a raw liquid of lactic acid bacteria metabolites orally, the measured values related to water content in the stratum corneum, TEWL, ceramide AP content in the stratum corneum, and epidermis thickness improved. To find out the active components for these effects, filtrate and residue from the raw liquid of lactic acid bacteria metabolites and lipid components extracted from the raw liquid were examined at the same time. Results showed that the water-soluble components or residue after filtration did not demonstrate effects but the raw liquid and the lipid fraction did. These findings suggest that lactic acid bacteria metabolites improve skin injury in an atopic dermatitis-like murine model.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: 3D data model; underground utility networks; underground space planning; underground mapping; utility cadastre; land administration
Online: 14 August 2019 (07:43:43 CEST)
With the pressure of the increasing density of urban areas, some public infrastructures are moving to the underground to free up space above, such as utility lines, rail lines and roads. In the big data era, the three dimensional (3D) data can be beneficial to understand the complex urban area. Comparing to spatial data and information of the above ground, we lack of the precise and detailed information about underground infrastructures, such as the spatial information of underground infrastructure, the ownership of underground objects and the interdependence of infrastructures in the above and below ground. How to map reliable 3D underground utility networks and use it in the land administration? First, to explain the importance of this work and find a possible solution, this paper observes the current issues of the existing underground utility database in Singapore. A framework for utility data governance is proposed to manage the work process from the underground utility data capture to data usage. This is the backbone to support the coordination of different roles in the utility data governance and usage. Then, an initial design of the 3D underground utility data model is introduced to describe the 3D geometric and spatial information about underground utility data and connect it to the cadastral parcel for land administration. In the case study, the newly collected data from mobile Ground Penetrating Radar is integrated with the existing utility data for 3D modelling. It is expected to explore the integration of new collected 3D data, the existing 2D data and cadastral information for land administration of underground utilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0473.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Indigenous; First Nations; Health Services Accessibility; Health Services Administration; Trust; Communication; Primary Health Care; Health Policy
Online: 22 February 2021 (13:22:45 CET)
Background: Australia’s healthcare system is complex and fragmented which can create challenges in healthcare, particularly in rural and remote areas. Aboriginal people experience inequalities in healthcare treatment and outcomes. This study aimed to investigate barriers and enablers to accessing healthcare services for Aboriginal people living in rural and remote Australia. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with healthcare delivery staff and stakeholders recruited through snowball sampling. The communities were selected for their high proportion of Aboriginal people and geographical representation (coastal, rural, and border). Thematic analysis identified barriers and enablers. Results: Thirty-one interviews were conducted (n =5 coastal, n=13 remote, and n=13 border) and six themes identified: 1) Improved coordination of healthcare services; 2) Better communication between services and patients; 3) Trust in services and cultural safety; 4) Importance of prioritizing health services by Aboriginal people; 5) Importance of reliable, affordable and sustainable services; 6) Distance and transport availability. These themes were often present as both barriers and enablers to healthcare access for Aboriginal people. They were also present across the healthcare system and within all three communities. Conclusions: This study describes a pathway to better healthcare outcomes for Aboriginal Australians by providing insights into ways to improve access.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: mucosal immunization; mucosal vaccine; vaccine delivery; administration volume; targeted vaccines; M cell targeting; dendritic cell targeting; C5aR1; C5a1R; CD88; EP54; EP67
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:17:30 CEST)
Generating long-lived mucosal and systemic antibodies through respiratory immunization with protective antigens encapsulated in nanoscale biodegradable particles could potentially decrease or eliminate the incidence of many infectious diseases but requires incorporation of a suitable mucosal immunostimulant. We previously found that respiratory immunization with a model protein antigen (LPS-free OVA) encapsulated in PLGA 50:50 nanoparticles (~380 nm diameter) surface modified with complement peptide-derived immunostimulant 02 (CPDI-02; formerly EP67) through 2kDa PEG linkers increases mucosal and systemic OVA-specific memory T-cells with long-lived surface phenotypes in young, naïve female C57BL/6 mice. Here, we determined if respiratory immunization with LPS-free OVA encapsulated in similar PLGA 50:50 microparticles (~1 μm diameter) surface modified with CPDI-02 (CPDI-02-MP) increases long-term OVA-specific mucosal and systemic antibodies. We found that, compared to MP surface modified with inactive, scrambled scCPDI-02 (scCPDI-02-MP), intranasal administration of CPDI-02-MP in 50 μL sterile PBS greatly increased titers of short-term (14 days post-immunization) and long-term (90 days post-immunization) antibodies against encapsulated LPS-free OVA in nasal lavage fluids, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and sera of young, naïve female C57BL/6 mice. Thus, surface modification of biodegradable microparticles with CPDI-02 is likely to increase long-term mucosal and systemic antibodies against encapsulated protein antigen after respiratory and possibly other routes of mucosal immunization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0083.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: RAMI4.0; Asset Administration Shell (AAS); Multi-Agent Systems (MAS); Evolutionary Assembly Systems (EAS); Engineering Capabilities Based, Production Flow Scheme (PFS); Petri Net (PN).
Online: 18 November 2021 (14:26:42 CET)
Manufacturing systems need to meet I4.0 guidelines to deal with uncertainty in scenarios of turbulent demand for products. The engineering concepts to define the service’s resources to manufacture the products will be more flexible, ensuring the possibility of re-planning in operation. These can follow the engineering paradigm based on capabilities. The virtualization of industry components and assets achieves the RAMI 4.0 guidelines and (I4.0C), which describes the Asset Administration Shell (AAS). However, AAS are passive components that provide information about I4.0 assets. The proposal of specific paradigms is exposed for managing these components, as is the case of multi-agent systems (MAS) that attribute intelligence to objects. The implementation of resource coalitions with evolutionary architectures (EAS) applies cooperation and capabilities’ association. Therefore, this work focuses on designing a method for modeling the asset administration shell (AAS) as virtual elements orchestrating intelligent agents (MAS) that attribute cooperation and negotiation through contracts to coalitions based on the engineering capabilities concept. The systematic method suggested in this work is partitioned for the composition of objects, AAS elements, and activities that guarantee the relationship between entities. Finally, Production Flow Schema (PFS) refinements are applied to generate the final Petri net models (PN) and validate them with Snoopy simulations. The results achieved demonstrate the validation of the procedure, eliminating interlocking and enabling liveliness to integrate elements behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0640.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Databases; database administration; database management systems; counting; storage; structure; search; No SQL; SQL; Oracle; relational databases; non-relational databases; magnetic tapes; punched tapes; relational model; Datamining; BigData; Datawarehouse
Online: 25 March 2021 (16:05:52 CET)
Databases are by far the most valuable asset of companies. Since the need was seen not only to count but also to have some type of record of elements such as crops, animals, money, properties and that this record could be consulted and modified according to the situation, that is where the first database was born. , and after that, these databases cannot be disorganized, they also need to be managed and administered under established standards that facilitate their understanding and management not only by their creators but by the other people who subsequently administer them. Databases and database management systems have an interesting evolutionary history that deserves to be analyzed and this is the objective of this document, where it is sought to understand. Along with databases and their management systems, data mining or Data mining arises that in order not to extend ourselves so much, it is the job of finding common patterns in various data sources and in what way they can be used to predict situations or results of various circumstances; We also focus on the other topic that we will present, Oracle data mining, which roughly is to merge data mining with Oracle, which makes it a powerful tool for obtaining information and predicting results based on statistics.In this article we will study and analyze the ideas, concepts and basic examples that make up SGBD and Data Mining and, we will try to go deeper into this topic, the use of decision techniques such as advanced statistical algorithms. We also present a fictitious example of the application of these techniques: predicting which products can be sold based on their relationship with others. we will give a brief explanation of association rules, data mining cycle and the types of learning and the evolution that data mining has had.