BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0175.v1
Online: 4 November 2020 (08:28:30 CET)
Objective: To explore the inter-rater reliability of the Measurement Of adherence Via Exercise Demonstration (MOVED) adherence tool. Design: Reliability study of a patient adherence measurement tool.Setting: Simulated physiotherapist-patient consultations. Participants: Sixteen experienced physiotherapists rated patient adherence to exercise. Interventions: N/A Main Outcome Measure: Inter-rater reliability of MOVED.Methods: The MOVED tool consists of two parts. Part one asks patients to self-report their adherence to exercise dose (including number of completed sessions, sets and repetitions in the last seven days). Part two asks patients to demonstrate each exercise. Component scores are totalled to give an overall level of patient adherence to each exercise.Participants were provided with a copy of five physiotherapist-prescribed exercises. Participants were then shown five corresponding video vignettes of simulated physiotherapist-patient consultations where patients were asked to self-report exercise frequency, sets and repetitions and demonstrate each exercise within the context of a consultation. Participants were asked to rate the level of patient adherence to each of the five exercises using the MOVED tool. Inter-rater reliability of MOVED scores was assessed using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and 95% Confidence Intervals. Results: The ICC of part one (self-report) was .90 (95%CI .74-.98), part two (demonstration) was .98 (95%CI .94-.99) and total score was .96 (95%CI .88-.99), demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability. Conclusion: The MOVED tool, which can highlight whether patients are adhering to exercise technique as well as exercise dose, may provide clinicians and researchers with a more robust measure of exercise adherence when compared with other measures currently available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0759.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: adherence; alcohol; morbidities; mortality; data linkage
Online: 31 March 2021 (11:23:38 CEST)
Objectives We tested the hypothesis that poor adherence is associated with a greater risk of alcohol-caused mortality and morbidities within the first year of discontinuing this medication. Materials and Methods Retrospective cohort study of 3319 individuals who received Acamprosate® in the East of Scotland in a 10-year period using a health informatics approach with record linkage of dispensing data, hospital utilization (SMR) and General Register Office of Scotland (GROS) data. Primary outcome was adherence between one to six months of initiating Acamprosate® medication. Secondary outcome was all cause morbidities and mortality. Results Of the total 3319 individuals identified, good adherence index of >80% was found in 59% of those prescribed Acamprosate® after three months and 6% after six months. There were significant linear trends of poorer adherence with increased risk of alcohol-caused mortality (HR1.2), medical morbidities especially neoplasm (HR 4.1|) and poisoning (HR 1.4) and psychiatric morbidities especially stress (HR 35.1), psychotic (HR 5.6) and neurotic disorders and directly alcohol induced conditions (7.4 HR) after adjustment for other factors within a one-year period of initiation of Acamprosate® treatment. Discussion and Conclusions Further exploratory studies using this digitalized approach should be encouraged in order to capture role of compliance to Acamprosate® and other types of medication that are known to reduce relapse into alcohol dependence and its direct relationship to mortality and morbidities in this population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: adherence; endocarditis; fimbriae; jp2; leukotoxin; periodontitis
Online: 3 October 2019 (14:04:07 CEST)
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative bacterium that is part of the oral microbiota. The aggregative nature of this pathogen or pathobiont is crucial to its involvement in human disease. It has been cultured from non-oral infections for more than a century, while the portrayal as an aetiological agent in periodontitis has emerged more recently. Although A. actinomycetemcomitans encodes several putative toxins, the complex interplay with other partners of the oral microbiota and the suppression of the initial host response may be central for inflammation and infection in the oral cavity. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive update on the clinical significance, classification, and characterisation of A. actinomycetemcomitans, which has exclusive or predominant host specificity for humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0460.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: adherence; COVID-19; arterial hypertension; health services
Online: 26 August 2022 (11:37:35 CEST)
Access to health services compromises therapeutic adherence in patients with HTN, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. The aim of the research is to determine the influence of access to health services on adherence to antihypertensive treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. We included a cross-sectional analytical study. A survey was applied to 241 hypertensive patients at the Daniel Alcides Carrión Hospital, Callao-Peru. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Absolute and relative frequencies were reported and the chi-square test was applied with a statistical significance level of p<0.05. In addition, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using the Stepwise method. An association was found between non-adherence to treatment and health expenses (ORa: 1.9 CI 95% 1.7-2.2), not receiving care due to lack of a doctor (ORa: 2.8 CI 95% 1.5-3.2), having difficulty with schedules (ORa: 3.7 CI 95% 2. 3-5.5), fear of receiving care at the hospital (ORa: 4.5 CI 95 % 2.7-6.8), trust in health personnel (ORa: 7.5 CI 95% 2.3-10.5) and considering that the physician does not have enough knowledge (ORa: 3.1 CI 95% 2.4-7.8). Therapeutic adherence was associated with physician availability for care, difficulty with schedules, fear of being seen in the hospital, trust in health personnel, and waiting time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0258.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: prostate cancer; androgen deprivation therapy; exercise; adherence
Online: 27 April 2022 (10:43:52 CEST)
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer treatment is associated with adverse physiological changes, however exercise can improve outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine exercise intervention adherence, and its effects on physiological outcomes in men diagnosed with prostate cancer undergoing ADT. Uniquely, this review incorporates a meta-aggregation of qualitative data, providing perspectives from the men’s experiences. A systematic review and meta-analysis were completed following PRISMA Guidelines. Databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, PubMed) were searched for studies using “prostate cancer”, “exercise intervention”, and “androgen deprivation therapy”. Quantitative randomised controlled trials describing adherence to exercise interventions were selected, with qualitative articles selected based on descriptions of experiences around participation. Subgroup meta-analyses of adherence, exercise mode, and intervention duration were completed for quality of life, aerobic fitness, fatigue, and strength. Articles (n=64) articles were identified, with 29 (n=23 quantitative; n=6 qualitative) articles from 25 studies included. Exercise had no effects (p<0.05) on quality of life and fatigue. Significant effects (all p<0.05) were observed for aerobic fitness, and upper- and lower-body strength. Adherence to exercise-based interventions was 80.38%, with improvements observed in aerobic fitness and strength. Subgroup analysis revealed exercise adherence impacted fatigue and strength, with greater improvements observed in programs >12-weeks.
Online: 7 May 2021 (12:58:42 CEST)
Every year, General Practitioners (GPs) see over 13 million patients for dermatological concerns making dermatology the highest referring speciality. Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems could improve system efficiency by supporting clinicians in making appropriate referrals, but they are, like human clinicians, imperfect and there may be a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity that is likely to result in false negatives. In this paper, a study is presented to explore two areas. Firstly, the aptitude of GPs to trust appropriately (or not trust) the outputs of a fictitious AI-based decision support tool when assessing skin lesions. Secondly, to identify which individual characteristics could make GPs less prone to adhere to erroneous diagnostics results and to refrain from passive adherence to AI. Findings suggest that when the AI is correct, there is a positive effect on GPs’ performance and confidence suggesting the potential to reduce referrals for benign lesions. However, when an inexperienced GP is presented with a false-negative result, they may passively deviate from their initial clinical judgement to accept the wrong diagnosis provided. AI systems will have a false-negative rate and, when adopting new technologies, this needs to be acknowledged and fed into risk-benefit discussions and considerations around additional safety measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0487.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: adherence; healthcare providers; infant; Vitamin D; supplementation
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:25:55 CEST)
Background: To determine vitamin D supplementation frequency among infants, factors that influence adherence, and reasons for discontinuation of initiated vitamin D. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire administered to the mothers via a face-to-face interview on 560 infants aged from 1 to 24 months admitted to outpatient clinics from June to December 2017. Results: A total of 351 infants were administered vitamin D, and the rate of supplementation in the first year of life was 83%, while it was only 28% between 13 and 24 months. The rate of vitamin D supplementation was higher among infants who were exclusively formula-fed (p<.05). When the data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis, only visit family physicians seems to be a statistically significant independent variable in increasing supplementation (p<.05). Compared with family refusal, the rate of discontinuation of vitamin D by the healthcare providers was higher after the first year of life (p<.05). The rates of vitamin D discontinuation by healthcare providers, especially by nurses who considered the duration of supplementation adequate, were statistically significantly higher when compared with the fontanel closure and other reasons (p<0.05). Conclusions: The rate of vitamin D supplementation was higher among families who visited family physicians, which suggests the importance of well-baby visits. Since vitamin D supplementation was less common among exclusively breastfed infants, mothers should be educated. Healthcare professionals need further education about the importance of vitamin D supplementation and indications for discontinuation.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: patient empowerment; home-administration; patient preferences; adherence; biologics
Online: 17 December 2021 (11:06:55 CET)
Severe asthma patients are at increased risk of major exacerbations and they need to be monitored regularly. The COVID-19 pandemic has impressively impacted on the health care resources. The telemedicine approach applied to the follow-up of asthmatic patients has been proved to be effective in monitoring their disease and adherence to the therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the satisfaction of severe asthma patients, before the activation of a telemedicine management complemented by a standard of care. An ad hoc questionnaire was developed and sent by e-mail to 180 severe asthma patients. Most of subjects (82%) were confident with the idea of doing self-measurements and self-managing their disease; 77% of subjects favoured to carry out virtual visit and telemedicine. 93% of patients considered easy the self-injection therapy. 94% of subjects felt safe and 93% were not worried while self-administering. Only mild adverse events were reported in 22% subjects after self-administration. Our results showed an agreement between what is considered necessary and practicable by healthcare personnel and what is perceived by the severe asthma patients, in terms of treatment and monitoring of the disease with Telehealth. Biologics have a safety profile and can be easily self-administred at home
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0188.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: cookstoves; LPG; randomized controlled trial; adherence; fidelity; intervention
Online: 9 November 2021 (15:17:51 CET)
Background: Clean cookstove interventions can theoretically reduce exposure to household air pollution and benefit health, but this requires near-exclusive use of the stoves, with simultaneous disuse of traditional stoves. Previous cookstove trials have reported low adoption of new stoves and/or extensive continued traditional stove use. Methods: The Household Air Pollution Intervention Network (HAPIN) trial randomized 3195 pregnant women in Guatemala, India, Peru, and Rwanda either to a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stove and fuel intervention (n = 1590) or to control (n = 1605). The intervention consisted of an LPG stove and two initial cylinders of LPG, free fuel refills delivered to the home, and regular behavioral messaging. We assessed intervention fidelity (delivery of the intervention as intended) and adherence (intervention use) through the end of gestation, as relevant to the first primary health outcome of the trial: infant birth weight. Fidelity and adherence were evaluated using stove and fuel delivery records, questionnaires, visual observations, and temperature-logging stove use monitors (SUMs). Results: 1585 women received the intervention, at a median (interquartile range) of 8.0 (5.0–15.0) days post-randomization and gestational age of 17.9 (15.4–20.6) weeks. Over 96% reported cooking exclusively with LPG at two follow-up visits during pregnancy. Less than 4% reported ever running out of LPG. Complete abandonment of traditional stove cooking was observed in over 67% of intervention households. 31.4% removed their traditional stoves upon receipt of the intervention, and among those who retained traditional stoves, the majority did not use them: traditional stove use was detected via SUMs on a median (interquartile range) of 0.0% (0.0%, 1.6%) of follow-up days (median follow-up = 134 days). Conclusions: Fidelity of the HAPIN intervention, as measured by stove installation, timely ongoing fuel deliveries, and behavioral reinforcement as needed, was high. Exclusive use of the intervention during pregnancy was also high.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0399.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Adherence, Moringa, Plantain, Glycemic control, Ghana
Online: 15 June 2021 (11:40:02 CEST)
Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk-factor for cardiovascular diseases. Plant-based dietary-patterns have been shown to positively impact the effects this cardiovascular risk-factor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of adherence to moringa, plantains, moringa-plantain combined, and other plant based dietary-patterns with glycemic-control among persons with type-2-diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Facility-based cross-sectional-study was conducted among 530 T2DM patients in Ghana. Structured-questionnaires were used to collect demographic, anthropometric, and clinical variables. Adherence to plant-based dietary-patterns were assessed with 24-hour dietary-recall questionnaire. SPSS version-22 was used in data analysis. BMI, HbA1c%, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly correlated with adherence to plant-based dietary-patterns (p-value < 0.05). After adjusting for confounders, adherence to: Plantain diets, standardized regression coefficient β (95%CI): -0.098 (-0.321, -0.022), Yam, β (95%CI): 0.148 (0.066, 0.496), Moringa diets β (95%CI): -0.095 (-0.325,-0.011) and Bean-diets β (95%CI): -0.112 (-0.577-.007) were significantly associated with glycemic control. Also adherence to: Plantain-moriga combined diets β (95%CI): -0.406 (-0.413, -0.049) and Plantain-beans combined diets β (95%CI): -0.128 (-0.188, -0.038) were significantly associated with glycemic control. Adherence to Plantain, Yam, Beans, Plantain-moriga combined diets, and Plantain-beans combined diets could be associated with glycemic control. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Adherence, Moringa, Plantain, Glycemic control, Ghana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0355.v1
Online: 14 June 2021 (11:45:29 CEST)
Objective: In India, yearly, estimated one million TB cases are missing from notification, mostly from private sector. The large number of patients in private sector has raised concerns for suboptimal quality of care. This study was conducted to find out the treatment adherence status among the private TB patients and factors associated with poor adherence.Data Source: Secondary project data, obtained through adherence monitoring house visit by NGO workers. Data collected by reviewing different records available with the patients & data was entered into the CommCare HQ, an open-source mobile platform designed for data collection.Methods: Descriptive observational study.Results: Default rate among private patients was 5%. Commonest reasons stated for being a defaulter were ‘Medicine is not good’ (30%), ‘Travel’ (28.6%), ‘Cost of treatment’ (21.8%) and ‘Side effects’ (11.6%). Despite best of efforts only 36.9% defaulter could be retrieved. Higher default rate was associated with 15-59 years age, males, earning member of the family, addiction, DR-TB, continuation phase of treatment, previous history of TB, presence of symptoms and inability to walk.Conclusion: Privately treated TB patients are vulnerable to non-adherence. Once defaulted, it is difficult to retrieve them. Economically productive age group is at higher risk of being defaulter. Strict adherence monitoring for private TB patients and extensive advocacy communication & social mobilization program in the community, workplaces and institutions is a need of hour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0223.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases; psychometric testing; Treatment Adherence and Compliance
Online: 5 November 2020 (19:17:33 CET)
Purpose: Determine the internal consistency and reproducibility test-retest of the Barrier Scale for Cardiac Rehabilitation (BSCR) in Colombian population. Methods: 190 patients (67% men, average age = 65 ± 12 years) completed the scale in two moments, with an average of eight days between applications. Cronbach's Alpha and Intraclass Correlation (ICC) coefficients were calculated. Results: The internal consistency of the Colombian version of the BSCR was good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.85). The ICC of the instrument was 0.69 (95% CI 0.61-0.76), 0.78 (95% CI 0.71-0.84) when used in the interview type, and 0.47 (95% CI 0, 21-0.67) when it was self-completing. Conclusions: The EBRC has an acceptable reliability in the Colombian population, however, its reproducibility decreases when it is self-directed. Identifying barriers using this scale will allow developing strategies to increase participation and adherence to cardiac rehabilitation programs focused on the real needs of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0451.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: adherence; adhesion; surface tackiness; PDMS; characterization; organo sheet
Online: 19 September 2020 (08:28:08 CEST)
Damage and fibre misalignment of woven fabrics during discontinuous polymer processing remain challenging. To overcome these, a promising switchable elastomeric adherence gripper is introduced here. The inherent surface tackiness is utilized for picking and placing large sheets. Due to the elastomer’s viscoelastic material behavior, the surface properties depend on loading speed and temperature. Different peeling speeds result in different adherence strength of an interface between the gripper and the substrate. This feature is mechanically characterized and the viscoelastic behavior of the stamp is examined. Based on this experimental characterization, an empirical model is proposed. Furthermore, a discussion of the applicability and limitation of the elastomeric gripper is given.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0025.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Medication adherence, definition, disorder, perspective, healthcare professional, disorder
Online: 3 June 2019 (14:11:22 CEST)
It is not new in medical history to propose a global concern to be classified as a disease. Defining a concern into disease allows to assign ethical responsibilities to develop powerful and effective interventions. It also allow to appropriate distribute the resources uniformly economically and morally. In 2003, World Health Organization report stated that 30-50 % of patients do not take their medications as prescribed associated with morbidity, mortality and health cost. It was considered a global concern, however, irrespective of decades of researches conducted on medication adherence, we are still unable to state that medication adherence issues are being resolved. In this review, we have described few apprehensions in current understandings of medication adherence that have limited its research. We have also proposed medication adherence as disorder and provided its’ definition and classification
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Medication-related burden; Questionnaire; chronic disease conditions; adherence
Online: 25 June 2018 (14:35:31 CEST)
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the perceived medication-related burden among patients with multiple non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and to investigate the association between perceived burden and adherence to medication therapy. Medication-related burden was measured in three primary care clinics in Qatar using the Living with Medicines Questionnaire (LMQ) among adults with diabetes, with or without other comorbidities. Adherence was measured using the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS). Two hundred ninety-three eligible patients participated in the study. Majority of participants reported experiencing minimum (66.6%) to moderate (24.1%) medication-related burden. There was a significant positive correlation between the medication-related burden (measured by the LWQ) and medication adherence (measured by ARMS) (rs (253) = 0.317, p <0.0005). The duration of diabetes diagnosis, adherence score, marital status, employment status, and presence diagnosis of hypertension were significant predictors of medication burden. A considerable proportion of the patients in this study have reported experiencing medication-related burden. Healthcare providers should seek strategies to address this burden especially among patients with risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, non-adherent to their medication therapy, living alone, or non-employed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Treatment adherence; child; adolescent; trend; outpatient clinic; new patient
Online: 14 May 2021 (08:48:07 CEST)
This study analysed trends of first-time patients visiting the paediatric psychiatry clinic in a university hospital. The medical records from 2009 to 2016 of first-time patients visiting the Kyung Hee university hospital were reviewed, focusing on children in grades 1–12. We analysed the prevalence rate of psychiatric disorders per 100,000 general populations by gender and grade, and the characteristics of patients who sought outpatient care more than three times. The study included 1,467 participants, of which 931 were males (63.5%). The number of male patients per 100,000 populations significantly decreased from 4.14 in 2009 to 2.03 in 2016. While hyperkinetic disorders had the highest prevalence in males, neurotic disorders were most frequent in females. Prevalence of disruptive behaviour disorders in males and mental retardations in females decreased significantly during the study period. The factors affecting continuity were being female, studying in grades 7–12, and diagnosis of depressive, hyperkinetic, and tic disorders. Physicians should consider the new paediatric patients’ gender, grade, and expected diagnosis from their first visit to improve treatment compliance.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0404.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Polypill; Cardiovascular Risk; Primary Prevention; Secondary Prevention; Adherence; Cost-effectivity
Online: 31 March 2022 (10:01:28 CEST)
INTRODUCTION: Primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention programs present less efficacy than desired due to the professionals’ lack of adherence when prescribing different drugs to the same patient, and due to patients’ lack of adherence in the medium and long term to medications prescribed. Polypills are considered as a possible solution to these problems. An evidence-based review about a cardiovascular prevention polypill efficacy and a guide for its use is presented.METHODS: Comprehensive bibliographical review of the evidence published on the polypill as a mechanism for facilitating medication adherence in primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention.RESULTS: A total of 31 published articles were included, showing the options of the polypill as a method of primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention. Polypill can increase the therapeutic adherence of patients in the medium and long term, also increasing therapeutic results compared to the administration of the same different drugs separately. Based on the evidence, a flow chart for the prescription of a polypill has been developed.DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The use of a polypill increases the effectiveness and adherence of patients to primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention programs, without increasing the cost of the intervention. The use of a polypill in cardiovascular prevention can be effective as a prescription tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0204.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: computer vision; image processing; medication adherence; object detection; pill detection
Online: 17 February 2022 (08:45:14 CET)
Objective tools to track medication adherence are lacking. A tool to monitor pill intake that can be implemented in mHealth apps without the need for additional devices was developed. We propose a pill intake detection tool that uses digital image processing to analyze images of a blister to detect the presence of pills. The tool uses the circular Hough transform as a feature extraction technique and is therefore primarily useful for the detection of pills with a round shape. This pill detection tool is composed of two steps. First, the registration of a full blister and storing of reference values in a local database. Second, the detection and classification of taken and remaining pills in similar blisters, to determine the actual number of untaken pills. In the registration of round pills in full blisters, 100% of pills in gray blisters or blisters with a transparent cover were successfully detected. In counting of untaken pills in partially opened blisters, 95.2% of remaining and 95.1% of taken pills were detected in gray blisters, while 88.2% of remaining and 80.8% of taken pills were detected in blisters with a transparent cover. The proposed tool provides promising results for the detection of round pills. However, the classification of taken and remaining pills need to be further improved, in particular for the detection of pills with non-oval shapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0392.v1
Subject: Keywords: Age; adherence; anti-hypertensive; Controlled hypertension; clinic; hypertension; Prevalence; Systemic
Online: 17 May 2021 (15:57:01 CEST)
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of controlled systemic hypertension and its associated risk factors among the hypertensive patients who attended the clinic at Mbeya Zonal Referral Hospital in Tanzania. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study was used determine the prevalence of co to 252 hypertensive patients were recruited during clinic visit from September to November 2020 and participant was randomly selected interviews using structured self-administered questionnaires. Data was analyzed using chi square test to find the risk factors associated with controlled hypertension. Results: Among 252 participants, 94(39.7%) individuals with controlled hypertension giving the prevalence of controlled hypertension. The proportion of females with controlled hypertension was slightly higher than male (49 females to 45 males). The prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension was 152(60.3%) participants. The prevalence of controlled hypertension was higher among patients who have regular clinic visit (p< .05) and have daily adherence to their anti-hypertensive medication. A similar trend was observed among participants without financial challenges to attend clinic, short duration of illness, higher level of education and there was no association between age, sex, marital status, smoking, alcohol consumption, having health insurance and having chronic illness. Conclusion: Prevalence of controlled hypertension is higher among patients who have regular clinic visit and have daily adherence to their anti-hypertensive medication. Also, it is higher among participants without financial challenges to attend clinic so they can have regular clinic visit and checkup. Reinforcement on regular drug intake and clinic visit, good nutrition and reduced salt intake and modifying lifestyles of patient with hypertension is important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: feasibility; acceptability; adherence; attrition rate; periodontal therapy; milk fortification; pregnancy
Online: 10 September 2020 (04:44:05 CEST)
This study aims to assess the acceptability, adherence, and retention of a feasibility trial on milk fortification with calcium and vitamin D (Ca+VitD) and periodontal therapy (PT) among low income Brazilian pregnant women with periodontitis (IMPROVE trial). This 2x2 factorial feasibility trial used a mixed-methods evaluation. 69 pregnant women were randomly allocated to four groups: 1.fortified sachet with Ca+VitD and milk plus early PT (throughout gestation); 2.placebo and milk plus early PT; 3.fortified sachet with Ca+VitD and milk plus late PT after childbirth; 4.placebo and milk plus late PT. Data were collected via questionnaires, field notes, participant flow logs, treatment diary, and focal group discussions. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using appropriate descriptive statistics and content analysis, respectively. Eligibility rate (12%) was below the target of 15%, but participation (76.1%) and recruitment rate (2 women/week) exceeded the targets. Retention rate (78.6%) was slightly below the target (80%). Adherence to the PT was significantly higher in the early treatment groups (98.8%) compared to the late treatment groups (29%). All women accepted the random allocation and baseline groups were balanced. There was no report of adverse events. This multi-component intervention is acceptable, well-tolerated, and feasible among low-risk pregnant women in Brazil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0085.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: occupational health; diabetes; glycaemia impairment; impaired fasting glucose; adherence; compliance
Online: 12 March 2018 (07:07:52 CET)
Worldwide epidemiological data indicates insufficient diagnosis of diabetes as an increasing problem of public health. Searching for solutions in this disadvantageous situation, occupational medicine health services seem to open up a unique opportunity to recognize some abnormalities in early steps, especially among the asymptomatic working-age population. 316 workers underwent obligatory prophylactic examinations. In patients with twice assayed FGL ≥ 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) the additional intervention was implemented, including further diagnostic process and therapy in General Practice (GP), followed by examination by an occupational health specialist within 3 months. The diagnosis of previously unknown diabetes was established among 2.5% of examined workers. All patients referred to the GP due to detected glycaemia impairment visited their doctor and finished the diagnostic process, took up therapy constrained by the occupational health physician to show the effects of intervention within 3 months. Prophylactic medical check-ups allow improved compliance and medical surveillance over glycaemia impairment in patients with prediabetes states, unknown diabetes or uncontrolled clinical course of diabetes. Considering fasting glucose level during mandatory prophylactic examination helps effective prevention of diabetes and its complications and thus give public health system benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0498.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Osteoporosis; anti-resorptive drugs; therapeutic adherence; bone mineral density; biochemical markers
Online: 21 December 2020 (10:42:15 CET)
Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes RANKL, a cytokine able to interact with the RANK receptor on preosteoclasts and osteoclasts, decreasing their recruitment and differentiation, leading to a decreased bone resorption. The aim of this observational real-life study was to analyze adherence to denosumab therapy, its effectiveness in increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and in modulating biochemical skeletal markers upon previous treatments with bisphosphonates in a group of post-menopausal women affected by osteoporosis. Women were recruited in the specialized center from March 2012 to September 2019. Biochemical markers were recorded at baseline and every six months prior to subsequent drug injection. Dual X-ray Absorptiometry was requested at baseline and after 18/24 months. Comparing BMD at baseline and after denosumab therapy in naive patients and in those previously treated with bisphosphonates, a positive therapeutic effect was observed in both groups. The results of our real-life study demonstrate, as expected, that BMD values significantly increased upon denosumab treatment. Interestingly, denosumab showed an increased effectiveness in patients previously treated with bisphosphonates. Moreover, biochemical markers data indicate that osteoporotic patients, without other concomitant unstable health conditions, could be evaluated once a year, decreasing the number of specialistic center access.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0596.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Atopic dermatitis; Patient Reported Outcome Measures; Dupilumab; Quality of life; Satisfaction; Efficacy; Safety; Adherence
Online: 25 May 2021 (09:15:21 CEST)
Dupilumab is used to treat atopic dermatitis patients who have proven to be refractory to previous treatments. The aim of this study was to assess evolution and patient reported outcome measures in adult patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis treated with Dupilumab in routine clinical practice. The outcomes were evaluated and registered at baseline and weeks-16, 40 and 52. The variables evaluated were: diseases severity, pruritus, stressful life events, difficulty to sleep, anxiety and depression, quality of life, satisfaction, adherence to the treatment, efficacy and safety. Eleven patients were recruited between Nov 14th 2017 and Jan 16th 2018. Demographic variables: 90% Caucasian, 82% women. Clinical variables: Mean duration of AD =17.7 (±12.8), 91% had severe disease severity. At baseline, SCORAD mean score = 61.7 (±15.5); itch was reported by 100% of patients; itch Visual Analogue Scale mean range of 8 (6-10); HADS mean total score =13.9 (±5.5); DLQI mean score =13.3 (±8.3): EQ-5D-3L mean range = 57 (30-99). At week-52 there is a significant reduction of SCORAD scores, HADS total score and improved quality of life. ¡This study confirms that Dupilumab, used for 52-weeks under routine clinical practice, maintains the improved atopic dermatitis signs and symptoms obtained at week-16, with a good safety profile.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: new materialism; assemblage; storyboarding; HIV; adherence; antiretroviral therapy; young people; perinatal infection; qualitative evidence synthesis; biopsychosocial
Online: 21 June 2022 (10:54:56 CEST)
Young people living with perinatal infections of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (YLPHIV) face a chronic disease, with treatment including adherence to life-long antiretroviral treatment (ART). The aim of this QES was to explore adherence to ART for YLPHIV as an assemblage within the framework of the BPS model with a new materialist perspective. We searched up to November 2021 and followed the ENTREQ and Cochrane guidelines for QES. All screening, data extraction and critical appraisal was done in duplicate. We analysed and interpreted the findings innovatively, by creating images of meaning, a storyboard, and storylines. We then reported the findings in a narrative first person story. We included 47 studies and identified 9 storylines. We found that treatment adherence has less to do with humans’ preferences, motivations, needs and dispositions, and more to do with how bodies, viruses, things, ideas, institutions, environments, social processes, and social structures assemble. This QES highlights that adherence to ART for YLPHIV is a multisensorial experience in a multi agentic world. Future research into rethinking the linear and casual inferences we are accustomed too in evidence-based health care is needed if we are to adopt multidisciplinary approaches to address pressing issues such as adherence to ART.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0324.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: celiac disease; gluten-free diet; effectiveness; adherence; nutritionists; clinic; serology; duodenal biopsies; structured questionnaires; peptides derived from gluten in feces and urine.
Online: 15 October 2018 (16:27:32 CEST)
Celiac disease (CD) is a genetically conditioned autoimmune process that appears in susceptible people. It can affect people of any age, and slightly predominates in females. It has a fairly homogenous global distribution, with an average prevalence of 1-2%, the frequency having increased in recent decades. The only effective treatment is a strict and permanent gluten-free diet (GFD), although the level of compliance with it is poor, at about 50% of cases. To monitor the effectiveness of the GFD, several procedures involving various approaches are employed: a) periodic interviews by nutritionists; b) clinical follow-up; c) serological controls of specific antibodies; d) endoscopies with collection of duodenal biopsies; e) structured questionnaires; f) determination of gluten peptides derived from gluten in feces and/or urine. All of these procedures are useful when applied, alone or in combination, depending on the cases. Some patients will only need to consult to their doctors, while others will require a multidisciplinary approach to assess their compliance with the GFD. In children, normalization of duodenal mucosa was achieved in 95% of cases within 2 years, while it is more delayed in adults, whose mucosa take longer to heal completely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0232.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: mHealth; ODK scan; mobile health application; digitizing data collection; data management processes; paper-to-digital system; technology-assisted data management; treatment adherence
Online: 2 September 2016 (03:17:38 CEST)
The present grievous situation of the tuberculosis disease can be improved by efficient case management and timely follow-up evaluations. With the advent of digital technology this can be achieved by quick summarization of the patient-centric data. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of the ODK Scan paper-to-digital system during testing period of three months. A sequential, explanatory mixed-method research approach was employed to elucidate technology use. Training, smartphones, application and 3G enabled SIMs were provided to the four field workers. At the beginning, baseline measures of the data management aspects were recorded and compared with endline measures to see the impact of ODK Scan. Additionally, at the end, users’ feedback was collected regarding app usability, user interface design and workflow changes. 122 patients’ records were retrieved from the server and analysed for quality. It was found that ODK Scan recognized 99.2% of multiple choice bubble responses and 79.4% of numerical digit responses correctly. However, the overall quality of the digital data was decreased in comparison to manually entered data. Using ODK Scan, a significant time reduction is observed in data aggregation and data transfer activities, however, data verification and form filling activities took more time. Interviews revealed that field workers saw value in using ODK Scan, however, they were more concerned about the time consuming aspects of the use of ODK Scan. Therefore, it is concluded that minimal disturbance in the existing workflow, continuous feedback and value additions are the important considerations for the implementing organization to ensure technology adoption and workflow improvements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: domestic violence during lockdown; healthcare denial; poor adherence to self-quarantine; natural Disasters amid Covid-19; repatriation of migrant workers; supply chain crisis
Online: 15 May 2020 (18:09:10 CEST)
COVID-19 has affected 212 countries around the world, killing nearly 300,000 and infecting more than 4.4 million by May 14, 2020. Bangladesh, a South Asian low-middle-income economy, has experienced a demographic and epidemiological transition with rapid urbanization and a gradual increase in life expectancy. It is the seventh most populous country in the world and population of the country is expected to be nearly double by 2050. The increasing burden of communicable diseases in Bangladesh can be attributable to rapid urbanization and nearly 50% of all slum dwellers of the country live in Dhaka division. In 2017, National Rapid Response Team of IEDCR investigated 26 incidents of disease outbreak. The joint survey of the Power and Participation Research Centre and BRAC Institute of Governance and Development reveals that per capita daily income of urban slum and rural poor drops by 80% due to present countrywide shutdown enforced by the government to halt the spread of Covid-19. 40%-50% of these population took loans to meet the daily expenses. However, the country has just 127,000 hospital beds, 91,000 of them in government-run hospitals. Researchers say, the country’s economy is economy is losing BDT 33 billion every day from its service and agriculture sectors during the nationwide shutdown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0332.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS); children and adults; motor and vocal/phonic tics; obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS); gluten-free diet; one-year adherence
Online: 26 April 2018 (06:26:55 CEST)
The Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and Non-Coeliac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS) may be associated. We analyse the efficacy of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in 29 patients with GTS (23 children; 6 adults) in a prospective pilot study. All of them followed a GFD for one year. The YGTSS, Y-BOCS/CY-BOCS and GTS-QOL questionnaires were compared before and after the GFD. 74% of children and 50% of adults were males, not significant (NS). At the beginning of the study, 69% of children and 100% of adults had associated OCD (NS). At baseline, the YGTSS scores were 55.0 ± 17.5 (children) and 55.8 ± 19.8 (adults) (NS), the Y-BOCS/CY-BOCS scores were 15.3 (SD = 12.3) (children) and 26.8 (9.2) (adults) (p = 0.043), and the GTS-QOL scores were 42.8 ± 18.5 (children) and 64 ± 7.9 (adults) (p = 0.000). NCGS was frequent in both groups, with headaches reported by 47.0% of children and 83.6% of adults (p = 0.001). After one year on a GFD there was a marked reduction in measures of tics (YGTSS) (p = 0.001), and the intensity and frequency of OCD (Y-BOCS/CY-BOCS) (p = 0.001), along with improved QOL (p = 0.001) in children and adults. In conclusion, a GFD maintained for one year in GTS patients led to a marked reduction in tics and OCD both in children and adults.