ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0043.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: rotary machinery; adaptive order tracking; online real-time monitoring.
Online: 3 September 2018 (15:02:45 CEST)
When a rotary machine is running, from which the acquired vibro-acoustic signals enable to reveal its operation status and health condition. The study proposed a DSP-based adaptive angular-velocity Vold-Kalman filtering order tracking (AV2KF_OT) algorithm with an online real-time nature for signal interpretation and machine condition monitoring. Theoretical derivation and numerical implementation of computation schemes are briefly introduced. An online real-time monitoring system based on the AV2KF_OT algorithm, which was implemented through both a digital signal processor and a user interface coded by using LabVIEW, was developed. Two experimental tasks were applied to justify the proposed technique, including (i) the detection of startup on the fluid-induced whirl performed through a journal-bearing rotor rig, and (ii) the separation of close orders from the measured signals of a multifunction transmission-element ball-bearing bench.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: soft-core architecture; system on chip (SoC); radio frequency system on chip (RFSoC); adaptive compute acceleration platform (ACAP); scalar processing; vector processing; I/Q demodulator; odd order sampling; even order sampling; analogue to digital converter (ADC)
Online: 1 September 2019 (14:40:07 CEST)
Soft-Core architecture for Analogue to Digital Converter (ADC) sampling is useful for mixed signal applications. Soft-core architecture for cutting edge odd or even ADC sampling with interface to block RAM memory has not been found. Soft-core architecture as a concept has become popular due to the advantage of customization for different applications as compared to general-core architecture suited for single application. The latest generation of piece wise sampling is odd sampling and was introduced in the second decade of the 20th century. Odd and even order sampling techniques are analogue in nature driven by a tuned (tuned for odd or even) mixer. This paper proposes a third-generation piece wise sampling with soft-core architecture that enables an option to select both odd and even while interfacing to memory mapping. The proposed odd/even has superior SNR performance of 6 dB as compared to existing architecture such as Mod-∆ which recorded worst performance of 18 dB. Advances in soft-core technology have allowed a niche odd/even switching field to be identified and studied, the study has also been extended to include memory architecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0645.v1
Online: 29 October 2018 (02:15:33 CET)
Evolution of cooperation has traditionally been studied by assuming that individuals adopt either of two pure strategies, to cooperate or defect. Recent work have considered continuous cooperative investments, turning full cooperation and full defection into two opposing ends of a spectrum and sometimes allowing for the emergence of the traditionally-studied pure strategies through evolutionary diversification. These studies have typically assumed a well-mixed population in which individuals are encountered with equal probability, Here, we allow for the possibility of assortative interactions by assuming that, with specified probabilities, an individual interacts with one or more other individuals of the same strategy. A closely related assumption has previously been made in evolutionary game theory and has been interpreted in terms of relatedness. We systematically study the effect of relatedness and find, among other conclusions, that the scope for evolutionary branching is reduced by either higher average degree of, or higher uncertainty in, relatedness with interaction partners. We also determine how different types of non-linear dependencies of benefits and costs constrain the types of evolutionary outcomes that can occur. While our results overall corroborate the conclusions of earlier studies, that higher relatedness promotes the evolution of cooperation, our investigation gives a comprehensive picture of how relatedness affects the evolution of cooperation with continuous investments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0061.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: adaptive filtering; set-membership filtering; quaternion; SM-QNLMS; wind profile prediction; quaternionic adaptive beamforming
Online: 5 December 2018 (04:21:21 CET)
In this paper, we propose the set-membership quaternion normalized least-mean-square (SM-QNLMS) algorithm. For this purpose, first, we review the quaternion least-mean-square (QLMS) algorithm, then go into the quaternion normalized least-mean-square (QNLMS) algorithm. By having the QNLMS algorithm, we propose the SM-QNLMS algorithm in order to reduce the update rate of the QNLMS algorithm and avoid updating the system parameters when there is not enough innovation in upcoming data. Moreover, the SM-QNLMS algorithm, thanks to the time-varying step-size, has higher convergence rate as compared to the QNLMS algorithm. Finally, the proposed algorithm is utilized in wind profile prediction and quaternionic adaptive beamforming. The simulation results demonstrate that the SM-QNLMS algorithm outperforms the QNLMS algorithm and it has higher convergence speed and lower update rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0348.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: floods; vulnerability; exposure; adaptive capacity; Uganda
Online: 24 October 2022 (05:08:58 CEST)
The research study assessed the level of household exposure, sensitivity, and capacity to cope with flood hazards in Kasese municipality, Kasese district, Uganda. The study used an indicator-based methodology. About 210 respondents were randomly sampled for interview. Individual weights for each indicator were allocated using Principal Component Analysis. Vulnerability indices were constructed at the household level and then aggregated at the division level. A Chi Square test at a significance level of 5% was used to test for differences in the level of household vulnerability. The results revealed that Nyamwamba division was most exposed while Central was least exposed to floods. The Central division was also found most sensitive while Bulembia was least sensitive to floods. Central division had better capacity to cope with floods while Bulembia had the least capacity. Results revealed a significant difference in the level of households’ vulnerability across the divisions. However, overall, Nyamwamba was found most vulnerable and Central least vulnerable to floods. About 43.8% of the households in Kasese municipality were found highly vulnerable to floods. Therefore, urgent attention by the government through policy action measures towards climate change adaptation should be given to address the high levels of vulnerability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0082.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Trypanosomosis, adaptive immunity, parasitemia control, infection
Online: 6 May 2021 (12:53:49 CEST)
Salivarian trypanosomes are extracellular parasites affecting humans, livestock and game animals. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense are human infective sub-species of T. brucei causing Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT - sleeping sickness). The related T. b. brucei parasite lacks the resistance to survive in human serum, and only inflicts animal infections. Animal Trypanosomosis (AT) is not restricted to Africa, but is present on all continents. T. congolense and T. vivax are the most widespread pathogenic trypanosomes in sub-Sahara Africa. Trough mechanical transmission, T. vivax has however been introduced into South America. T. evansi is a unique animal trypanosome that is found in vast territories around the world and can cause atypical Human Trypanosomosis (aHT). All salivarian trypanosomes are well adapted to survival inside the host’s immune system. This is not a hostile environment for these parasite, but this is the place where they thrive. Here we provide an overview of the latest insights into the host-parasite interaction and the unique survival strategies allowing trypanosomes to outsmart the immune system. In addition, we review new developments in treatment and diagnosis as well the issues that have hampered the development of field-applicable anti-trypanosome vaccines for the implementation of sustainable disease control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0301.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: adaptive; balancing; counterweight; mechatronic system; robot
Online: 17 September 2018 (11:00:54 CEST)
Present paper is dealing with the adaptive static balancing of robot or other mechatronic arms that are moving in vertical plane and whose static loads are variable, by using counterweights and springs. Some simple passive and approximate solutions are proposed and an example is shown. The active and exact solutions by using adaptive real time control in the case of unknown variation of static loads are simulated on VIPRO platform developed at Institute of Solid Mechanics of Romanian Academy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0301.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: machine learning; adaptive control; time-varying systems
Online: 11 March 2021 (08:40:08 CET)
Machine learning (ML) is growing in popularity for various particle accelerator applications including anomaly detection such as faulty beam position monitor or RF fault identification, for non-invasive diagnostics, and for creating surrogate models. ML methods such as neural networks (NN) are useful because they can learn input-output relationships in large complex systems based on large data sets. Once they are trained, methods such as NNs give instant predictions of complex phenomenon, which makes their use as surrogate models especially appealing for speeding up large parameter space searches which otherwise require computationally expensive simulations. However, quickly time varying systems are challenging for ML-based approaches because the actual system dynamics quickly drifts away from the description provided by any fixed data set, degrading the predictive power of any ML method, and limits their applicability for real time feedback control of quickly time-varying accelerator components and beams. In contrast to ML methods, adaptive model-independent feedback algorithms are by design robust to un-modeled changes and disturbances in dynamic systems, but are usually local in nature and susceptible to local extrema. In this work, we propose that the combination of adaptive feedback and machine learning, adaptive machine learning (AML), is a way to combine the global feature learning power of ML methods such as deep neural networks with the robustness of model-independent control. We present an overview of several ML and adaptive control methods, their strengths and limitations, and an overview of AML approaches. A simple code for the adaptive control algorithm used here can be downloaded from: https://github.com/alexscheinker/ES_adaptive_optimization
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Quad-rotor; Parameters identification; CIFER; Adaptive LADRC
Online: 2 November 2018 (10:49:15 CET)
In accordance with problems such as difficulty in obtaining aerodynamic parameters of a quad-rotor model, the change of model parameters with external interference affects the control performances, an aerodynamic parameter estimation method and an adaptive attitude control method based on LADRC are designed. Firstly, the motion model, dynamics model and control distribution model of quad-rotor are established by using the aerodynamic and Newtonian Euler equations. Secondly, the identification tool CIFER is used to identify the aerodynamic parameters with large uncertainties in frequency domain and a more accurate attitude model of the quad-rotor is obtained. Then an adaptive attitude decoupling controller based on LADRC is designed to solve the problem of poor anti-interference ability of the quad-rotor, so that the control parameter b0 can be automatically adjusted to identify the change of the moment of inertia in real time. Finally, a semi-physical simulation platform is used for simulation verification. The results show that the adaptive LADRC attitude controller designed can effectively estimate and compensate the system's internal and external disturbances, and the tracking speed of the controller is faster and the precision is higher which can effectively improve system's anti-interference and robustness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0557.v1
Online: 30 July 2018 (05:11:32 CEST)
A speculative argument is presented which suggests the possible existence of a global metasystem that would be characterized as an emerging from the interaction of the units that make up the planetary system. The metasystem´s units would be the different physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in the subsystems that form the metasystem: magnetosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The revised global metasystem is broader than that considered in the Gaia theory or in Earth System Science, where the Earth's crust and upper atmosphere, i.e., the volume where the presence of life occurs, are considered as the limits of the system. The maintenance of the dynamic state of the global metasystem it is achieved by dissipating the free energy derived from the electromagnetic radiation of the Sun, the obtained from the Earth-Moon gravitational interaction and the energy resulting from the dynamics of the Earth core and mantle, which produces the magnetic field and much of tectonic activity. For the human species, the importance of a greater understanding of global metasystem is based on the fact that natural resources and the climate system are products of the subsystems of the global metasystem. It is possible therefore that human activities that modify the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, change the dynamics of global metasystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0377.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: machine learning; prediction; adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system; adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system; diffuse fraction; multilayer perceptron
Online: 17 September 2020 (05:46:25 CEST)
The accurate prediction of the solar Diffuse Fraction (DF), sometimes called the Diffuse Ratio, is an important topic for solar energy research. In the present study, the current state of Diffuse Irradiance research is discussed and then three robust, Machine Learning (ML) models, are examined using a large dataset (almost 8 years) of hourly readings from Almeria, Spain. The ML models used herein, are a hybrid Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), a single Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) and a hybrid Multi-Layer Perceptron-Grey Wolf Optimizer (MLP-GWO). These models were evaluated for their predictive precision, using various Solar and Diffuse Fraction (DF) irradiance data, from Spain. The results were then evaluated using two frequently used evaluation criteria, the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results showed that the MLP-GWO model, followed by the ANFIS model, provided a higher performance, in both the training and the testing procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0679.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: numerical simulations; adaptive mesh refinement; fire spread; optimization
Online: 28 June 2021 (15:30:15 CEST)
Fires are complex multi-physics problems that span wide spatial scale ranges. Capturing this complexity in computationally affordable numerical simulations for process studies and “outer-loop” techniques (e.g., optimization and uncertainty quantification) is a fundamental challenge in reacting flow research. Further complications arise for propagating fires where a priori knowledge of the fire spread rate and direction is typically not available. In such cases, static mesh refinement at all possible fire locations is a computationally inefficient approach to bridging the wide range of spatial scales relevant to fire behavior. In the present study, we address this challenge by incorporating adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in fireFoam, an OpenFOAM solver for simulations of complex fire phenomena involving pyrolyzing solid surfaces. The AMR functionality in the extended solver, called fireDyMFoam, is load balanced, models gas, solid, and liquid phases, and allows us to dynamically track regions of interest, thus avoiding inefficient over-resolution of areas far from a propagating flame. We demonstrate the AMR capability and computational efficiency for fire spread on vertical panels, showing that the AMR solver reproduces results obtained using much larger statically refined meshes, but at a substantially reduced computational cost. We then leverage the computational efficiency of the AMR solver to demonstrate an optimization framework for fire suppression based on the open-source Dakota toolkit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0288.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Adaptive Protection; Fault Detection; Microgrids; Directional Overcurrent Relay
Online: 11 February 2021 (16:19:02 CET)
In this research work, an adaptive scheme for the coordinated protection of AC Microgrids using directional overcurrent (DOCR) relays is presented. Protection of AC MGs is a complex and challenging issue due to the dynamic nature of the network including, a) its capability to reconfigure the modes of operation ranging from grid-connected to the islanded mode, c) bidirectional-power flow capability, and c) integration of intermittent renewable energy resources with real-time variations in the resource availability. Consequently, the fault current contributions may largely vary depending upon the incident conditions on the network. Conventional protection schemes, generally designed for radial networks, and unidirectional power flow from the source end to the load may either mal-operate or exhibit very poor performance, if not adapted according to the dynamic conditions of the network. To address this issue, a communication-based adaptive protection scheme capable to adapt its settings according to the generation resource availability and network configuration is presented in this work. The proposed scheme consists of an intelligent central protection unit (ICPU) capable to update the settings and communicate it to the individual relays based on the pre-calculated offline settings. The directional overcurrent relays employed in the scheme use two-stage settings, i.e. definite time and inverse definite minimum time characteristics for the effective coordination among the downstream and upstream relays. An adaptive algorithm for ICPU operation is presented and a case study is implemented for a modified IEEE 9-bus system using DigSilent Power factory. The results for various scenarios including, a) grid-connected mode of operation, b) islanded mode of operation, and c) variable distributed generation mode are obtained and compared to the static scheme, which validates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: obesity; bariatric surgery; adaptive complex system; network analysis.
Online: 4 February 2021 (11:59:54 CET)
Weight gain affects about 10-20% of patients after bariatric surgery. It is a phenomenon that is difficult to understand and to intervene due to its complexity and etiological heterogeneity. In the present study, we investigated, from a network analysis perspective, the associations between weight regain, psychological, sociodemographic factors and physical activity in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The sample consisted of 124 patients, of both sexes, aged 39 ± 9.1 years, who had undergone surgical intervention for more than 18 months. After voluntary consent, respondents answered questionnaires and instruments directly on the Google Forms platform. The results indicated that weight gain was negatively associated with the items of depression, anxiety and stress, binge eating and with the dimensions of the personality questionnaire (negative affectivity -0.182; detachment -0.078; antagonism -0.107; disinterest - 0.198 and psychoticism -0.158). The centrality indicators revealed that the characteristics of disinterest and negative affectivity and most of the items on the depression, anxiety and stress scale had a greater expected influence (values from 1,043 to 1,502), indicating that these are the most sensitive variables to intervention and who need more attention from health professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0737.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: adaptive design; sustainability of construction; BIM environment; formwork
Online: 29 December 2020 (16:44:42 CET)
Progressive technologies and practices are shifting the possibilities of building design and improving work efficiency. Constantly changing site conditions require different procedures and designs that take into account these changing conditions, whether it is a design solution, a change in environmental conditions, or just sustainability factors. Adaptive building design offers opportunities to cope with changing factors to achieve the highest possible level of building quality. This case study deals with the topic of adaptive formwork design for building renovation, taking into account sustainability. Aim of the article is an investigation and demonstration of the building information modelling (BIM) environment used for the adaptive design of formwork elements for the building renovation in the context of sustainability. The object of the case study is a building in the center of Kosice, Slovakia. BIM environment allows prompt and correct adaptation of the formwork design to changing conditions of lighting, ventilation, heating and temperature during the design of the building.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0482.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Q-learning; Fuzzy logic; Adaptive controller; BLDC motor
Online: 19 November 2020 (10:09:42 CET)
Reinforcement learning (RL) is an extensively applied control method for the purpose of designing intelligent control systems to achieve high accuracy as well as better performance. In the present article, the PID controller is considered as the main control strategy for brushless DC (BLDC) motor speed control. For better performance, the fuzzy Q-learning (FQL) method as a reinforcement learning approach is proposed to adjust the PID coefficients. A comparison with the adaptive PID (APID) controller is also performed for the superiority of the proposed method, and the findings demonstrate the reduction of the error of the proposed method and elimination of the overshoot for controlling the motor speed. MATLAB/SIMULINK has been used for modeling, simulation, and control design of the BLDC motor.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0016.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: mast cells; adaptive immunity; dendritic cells; T cells
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:27:12 CET)
Although Mast cells are known as key drivers of type I allergic reactions, there is increasing evidence for their critical role in host defense. MCs do not only play an important role in initiating innate immune responses, but also influence the onset, kinetic and amplitude of the adaptive arm of immunity, or fine-tune the mode of the adaptive reaction. Intriguingly, MCs have been shown to affect T cell activation by direct interaction or indirectly by modifying properties of antigen-presenting cells, and can even modulate lymph node-borne adaptive responses remotely from the periphery. In this review, we provide a summary of recent findings that explain how MCs act as a link between the innate and the adaptive immunity, all the way from sensing inflammatory insult to orchestrating the final outcome of the immune response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0123.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: positioning system; neural-fuzzy network; adaptive control; buoys
Online: 8 April 2020 (08:51:47 CEST)
Recently, various relations and criteria have been presented to establish a proper relationship between control systems and control Global Positioning System (GPS)-intelligent buoy system. Given the importance of controlling the position of buoys and the construction of intelligent systems, in this paper, dynamic system modeling is applied to position marine buoys through the improved neural network with a backstepping technique. This study aims at developing a novel controller based on adaptive fuzzy neural network to optimally track the dynamically positioned vehicle on water with unavailable velocities and unidentified control parameters. In order to model the network with the proposed technique, uncertainties and the unwanted disturbances are studied in the neural network. The presented study aims at developing a neural controlling which applies the vectorial back-stepping technique to the surface ships, which have been dynamically positioned with undetermined disturbances and ambivalences. Moreover, the objective function is to minimize the output error for the neural network (NN) based on closed-loop system. The most important feature of the proposed model for the positioning buoys is its independence from comparative knowledge or information on the dynamics and the unwanted disturbances of ships. The numerical and obtained consequences demonstrate that the controller system can adjust the routes and the position of the buoys to the desired objective with relatively few position errors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0186.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: preschool; leukaemia; adaptive behaviour; developmental skills; healthy peers
Online: 16 July 2019 (06:04:09 CEST)
Early childhood is considered to be a period of rapid development, with the acquisition of abilities predicting future positive school competences. Motor, cognitive and social difficulties related to cancer therapies heavily impact the development of children with cancer. This study focused on two main aims: to assess the developmental pathways of preschool children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia one year post-treatment and to compare these abilities both with those of a control group of healthy peers and with Italian norms. Forty-four children and their families, recruited through the Haematology-Oncologic Clinic of the Department of Child and Woman Health (University of Padua), agreed to participate to this study. The children’s mean age was 4.52 years (SD = 0.94, range = 2.5-6 years), equally distributed by gender, all diagnosed with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia. Matched healthy peers were recruited through paediatricians’ ambulatories. Each family was interviewed adopting the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales. Paired sample Wilcoxon tests revealed that children were reported to have significantly more developmental difficulties than their healthy peers. When compared with Italian norms they scored particularly low in verbal competence, social and coping skills. No significant association were found between treatment variables and developmental abilities. These findings suggest that the creation of specialized interventions both for parents and children may fill the possible delays in children’s development probably due to stress, lack of adequate stimulation or difficult adaptation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0086.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: preschool; leukaemia; adaptive behaviour; developmental skills; healthy peers
Online: 8 May 2019 (09:39:26 CEST)
Early childhood is considered to be a period of rapid development, with the acquisition of abilities predicting future positive school competences. Motor, cognitive and social difficulties related to cancer therapies heavily impact the development of children with cancer. This study focused on two main aims: to assess the developmental pathways in preschool children with leukaemia one year post-treatment; and to compare these abilities with those of a control group of healthy peers. Forty-eight children and their families, recruited through the Haematology-Oncologic Clinic of the Department of Child and Woman Health (University of Padua), agreed to participate in this study. The children’s mean age was 4.36 years (SD = 1.07, range = 1.91–6 years), equally distributed by gender, most of whom were diagnosed with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (N = 44). Matched healthy peers were recruited through paediatricians’ ambulatories. Each family was interviewed adopting the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales. Paired sample t-tests revealed that children, especially aged 42–72 months, were reported to have significantly more developmental difficulties than their healthy peers, particularly in verbal competence, social and coping skills and gross motor abilities. These findings suggest that the creation of specialized interventions for both parents and children may fill the possible delays in children’s development due to toxic therapies and their associated hospitalisation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0372.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: novel lncRNA; lncRNA conservation; copaifera; epigenetics; adaptive response
Online: 20 July 2018 (04:31:16 CEST)
LncRNA are involved in multiple regulatory pathways, its versatile mode of action has disclosed a new layer in gene regulation. They are reportedly modulated during plant development, with specific tissue functions and in response to stresses. In this study, we analyzed LncRNA from leave samples collected from the legume Copaifera langsdorffii (copaiba) from two divergent ecosystems: Cerrado (CER) and Atlantic Rain Forest (ARF). We identified 8020 novel lncRNAs, from which 2893 transcripts were regulated above 2-fold and 566 above 5-folds in either condition. This putative lncRNA set was compared with seven Fabaceae genomes, of which 1747 and 1879 transcripts (from ARF and CER, respectively) aligned to at least two genomes. Further, 2194 copaiba lncRNAs were successfully mapped to at least one of six Fabaceae transcriptomes. The secondary structures of the lncRNAs that were conserved and differentially expressed between the populations were predicted using in silico methods. Our results indicate the potential involvement of lncRNAs in the adaptation of C. langsdorffii to two different biomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0098.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Adaptive; Tuning; Modelling; Estimation parameters; Propagation loss; NLOS; LOS
Online: 11 April 2022 (13:53:30 CEST)
Wireless cellular communication technology has developed into a very resourceful commodity worldwide. Today, people of all races can hardly live without means of voice and data cellular communication technology. Imprecise propagation loss estimation leads to high power waste, high co-channel interference and poor service quality in cellular communication system networks. This paper proposes a realistic adaptive fine-tuning method for distinctive propagation loss estimation over a microcellular communication radio links based on signal power measurements from Long Term Evolution radio broadband networks, taking non-line of sight (NLOS) and line of sight (LOS) environments into consideration. The methodology is verified by measurements taken in non-line of sight and line of sight signal propagation scenarios. The results showed that the estimated propagation losses using the proposed realistic adaptive tuning models were more accurate than the existing Cost -231 modelling estimation approach
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0095.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Adaptive; Tuning; Modelling; Estimation parameters; Propagation loss; NLOS; LOS
Online: 11 April 2022 (11:03:43 CEST)
Wireless cellular communication technology has developed into a very resourceful commodity worldwide. Today, people of all races can hardly live without means of voice and data cellular communication technology. Imprecise propagation loss estimation leads to high power waste, high co-channel interference and poor service quality in cellular communication system networks. This paper proposes a realistic adaptive fine-tuning method for distinctive propagation loss estimation over a microcellular communication radio links based on signal power measurements from Long Term Evolution radio broadband networks, taking non-line of sight (NLOS) and line of sight (LOS) environments into consideration. The methodology is verified by measurements taken in non-line of sight and line of sight signal propagation scenarios. The results showed that the estimated propagation losses using the proposed realistic adaptive tuning models were more accurate than the existing Cost -231 modelling estimation approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0648.v1
Online: 26 April 2021 (10:22:54 CEST)
The runtime environment is an important concern for self-adaptive systems (SASs). Although researchers have proposed many approaches for developing SASs that address the issue of uncertain runtime environments, the understanding of these environments varies depending on the objectives, perspectives, and assumptions of the research. Thus, the current understanding of the environment in SAS development is ambiguous and abstract. To make this understanding more concrete, we describe the landscape in this area through a systematic literature review (SLR). We examined 128 primary studies and 14 unique environment models. We investigated concepts of the environment depicted in the primary studies and the proposed environment models based on their ability to aid in understanding. This illustrates the characteristics of the SAS environment, the associated emerging environmental uncertainties, and what is expressed in the existing environment models. This paper makes explicit the implicit understanding about the environment made by the SAS research community and organizes and visualizes them.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0477.v1
Subject: Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomeylitis, Adaptive Immunity, Innate Immunity
Online: 18 November 2020 (12:50:18 CET)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by varying degrees of demyelination of uncertain etiology, and is associated with specific environmental and genetic factors. Upon recognition of CNS antigens, the immune cells initiate an inflammatory process which leads to destruction and deterioration of the neurons. Innate immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells and natural killer cells are known to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of MS. Also, the activation of peripheral CD4+ T cells by CNS antigens leads to their extravasation into the CNS causing damages that exacerbates the disease. This could be accompanied by dysregulation of T regulatory cells and other cell types functions. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a mouse model used to study the pathophysiology of MS disease. In this review, we highlight the roles of innate and adaptive immune players in the pathogenesis of MS and EAE.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: data transmission; erasure communication channel; adaptive coding; satellite formation
Online: 3 November 2020 (12:39:08 CET)
The paper deals with the navigation data exchange between two satellites moving in a swarm. It is focused on reduction of the inter-satellite demanded communication channel capacity taking into account dynamics of the satellites relative motion and possible erasing in the channel the navigation data. The feedback control law is designed ensuring regulation of the relative satellites motion. The adaptive binary coding/decoding procedure for the satellites navigation data transmission over the limited capacity communication channel is proposed and studied for the cases of ideal and erasure channels. Dependence of the regulation time on the data transmission rate is numerically evaluated. Results of the numerical study of the closed-loop system performance and accuracy of the data transmission algorithm on the communication channel bitrate and erasure probability are obtained based on the extensive simulations. These results provide dependence of the required load of the communication channel on the desired quality of the regulation process. It is shown that both data transmission error and regulation time depend inversely proportional on the communication rate, and that for the significantly high data transmission rate erasure of data in the channel with probability up to 0.3 does not make an effect on the regulation time.
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: adaptive death; ageing; altruism; C. elegans; kin selection; salmon
Online: 4 August 2020 (11:26:31 CEST)
Standard evolutionary theory, supported by mathematical modelling of outbred, dispersed populations predicts that ageing is not an adaptation. We recently argued that in clonal, viscous populations, programmed organismal death could promote fitness through social benefits and has, in some organisms (e.g. Caenorhabditis elegans), evolved to shorten lifespan. Here we review previous adaptive death theory, including consumer sacrifice, biomass sacrifice, and defensive sacrifice types of altruistic adaptive death. In addition we discuss possible adaptive death in semelparous fish, coevolution of reproductive and adaptive death, and adaptive reproductive senescence in C. elegans. We also describe findings from recent tests for the existence of adaptive death in C. elegans using computer modelling. Such models have provided new insights into how trade-offs between fitness at the individual and colony levels mean that senescent changes can be selected traits. Exploring further the relationship between adaptive death and social interactions, we consider examples where adaptive death results more from action of kin than from self-destructive mechanisms and, to describe this, introduce the term adaptive killing of kin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0272.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: adaptive capacity; climate change vulnerability; exposure; resilience; sensitivity; vegetation
Online: 22 May 2019 (09:55:45 CEST)
We applied a framework to assess climate change vulnerability of 52 major vegetation types in the western United States to provide spatially-explicit input to adaptive management decisions. The framework addressed climate exposure and ecosystem resilience; the latter derived from analyses of ecosystem sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Measures of climate change exposure used observed climate change (1981-2014) and then climate projections for the mid-21st century (2040-2069 RCP 4.5). Measures of resilience included (under ecosystem sensitivity) landscape intactness, invasive species, fire regime alteration, and forest insect & disease risk, and (under adaptive capacity), measures for topo-climate variability, diversity with functional species groups, and vulnerability of any keystone species. Outputs are generated per 100km2 hexagonal area for each type. As of 2014, moderate climate change vulnerability was indicated for >50% of the area of 50 of 52 types. By the mid-21st century, all but 19 types face high or very high vulnerability with >50% of the area scoring in these categories. Measures for resilience explain most components of vulnerability as of 2014, with most targeted vegetation scoring low in adaptive capacity measures and variably for specific sensitivity measures. Elevated climate exposure explains increases in vulnerability between the current and mid-century time periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0101.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: adaptive capacity; multiple stressors; sustainable livelihoods; organic cattle raising
Online: 10 January 2019 (15:42:26 CET)
Using the sustainable livelihoods analytical framework, adaptability of cattle raising to multiple stressors (e.g. climate change and market conditions) in the dry tropics of Chiapas, Mexico was evaluated. Three case studies located in the Frailesca region of Chiapas were analyzed: (I) peasant cattle raising in a rural village in the Frailesca Valley; (II) peasant cattle raising in a rural village in a natural protected area in the Frailesca Highlands; and (III) holistic cattle raising by farmers with private land ownership in the Frailesca Valley. Adaptability was evaluated using an index on a scale of one to a hundred; average values were: case I = 20.9 ± 1.4; case II = 32.1 ± 1.8; and case III = 63.6 ± 3.5. In order to increase farms adaptability and reduce the vulnerability of cattle raising families, there is a need to modify public policy to take into account the conditions of the most vulnerable farmers (cases I and II). Given the economic, environmental, and social context of Mexico´s dry tropics, establishing ecological or organic cattle raising and silvopastoral systems may reduce the vulnerability of farm families and increase their level of adaptability of their farms to multiple stressors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Adaptive Force; maximal isometric Adaptive Force; holding capacity; muscle function; Long COVID; post COVID syndrome; muscle weakness; fatigue; neuromuscular control; biomechanical parameter
Online: 22 November 2022 (03:04:41 CET)
Neuromuscular symptoms in long COVID patients are common. Since adequate diagnostics are still missing, investigating muscle function might be beneficial. The holding capacity (maximal isometric Adaptive Force; AFisomax) was previously suggested to be especially vulnerable for impairments. This longitudinal, non-clinical study aimed to investigate the AF in long COVID patients in recovery process. AF parameters of elbow/hip flexors were assessed in 17 patients at three timepoints (pre: long COVID state, post: immediately after first treatment, end: recovery) by an objectified manual muscle test. The tester applied an increasing force on the limb of the patient, who had to resist isometrically for as long as possible. The intensity of 13 common symptoms were queried. At pre, patients started to lengthen their muscles at ~50% of the maximal AF (AFmax), which was then reached during eccentric motion, indicating unstable adaptation. At post and end, AFisomax increased significantly to ~99% and 100% of AFmax, respectively, reflecting stable adaptation. AFmax was statistically similar for all three timepoints. Symptoms intensity decreased significantly from pre to end. In conclusion, maximal holding capacity seems to be impaired in long COVID patients and increases with substantial health improvement. AFisomax might be a suitable sensitive functional parameter to assess long COVID patients and to support therapy process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0392.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: forest management methods; adaptive forest management; climate change; ecological norm
Online: 27 July 2022 (04:40:00 CEST)
The compelling effects of climate change on forests may have been underestimated in the past few decades in practical forestry. Although the first attempts to draw attention to this complex problem appeared almost half a century ago, the debate has been conceptual rather than experimental and applicative. At first glance, the con-cerns were mainly related to sustainable forest management (SFM) issues, which obviously needed attention. Over time, the effects of climate change have been mainly considered in the context of the SFM; they started from various and somewhat different scales and goals. Over time, more research and awareness of the im-portance of SFM under the pressure of climate change have led to the development of a clearer field that can be defined as ‘adaptive forest management’ - to climate change. One of the characteristics of this discipline is to be featured by the absence of univocal methods and / or objectives to be pursued but to identify, verify, and adapt methods to the various climatic and forest types and conditions found in the field. Therefore, this work shows some phases of forest planning and management concepts and criteria over time and recalls some innovative and / or adaptive methods related to the approach to forest planning and management under climate change
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0337.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Transfer learning; Reinforcement learning; Adaptive operator selection; Artificial bee colony
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:41:06 CET)
In the past two decades, metaheuristic optimization algorithms (MOAs) have been increasingly popular, particularly in logistic, science, and engineering problems. The fundamental characteristics of such algorithms are that they are dependent on a parameter or a strategy. Some online and offline strategies are employed in order to obtain optimal configurations of the algorithms. Adaptive operator selection is one of them, and it determines whether or not to update a strategy from the strategy pool during the search process. In the filed of machine learning, Reinforcement Learning (RL) refers to goal-oriented algorithms, which learn from the environment how to achieve a goal. On MOAs, reinforcement learning has been utilised to control the operator selection process. Existing research, however, fails to show that learned information may be transferred from one problem-solving procedure to another. The primary goal of the proposed research is to determine the impact of transfer learning on RL and MOAs. As a test problem, a set union knapsack problem with 30 separate benchmark problem instances is used. The results are statistically compared in depth. The learning process, according to the findings, improved the convergence speed while significantly reducing the CPU time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0699.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: adaptive computing; dynamic deep neural structure; adpative convolution; dynamic training
Online: 30 July 2021 (12:25:45 CEST)
The colossal depths of the deep neural network sometimes suffer from ineffective backpropagation of the gradients through all its depths. Whereas, The strong performance of shallower multilayer neural structures prove their ability to increase the gradient signals in the early stages of training which easily gets backpropagated for global loss corrections. Shallow neural structures are always a good starting point for encouraging the sturdy feature characteristics of the input. In this research, a shallow, deep neural structure called PrimeNet is proposed. PrimeNet is aimed to dynamically identify and encourage the quality visual indicators from the input to be used by the subsequent deep network layers and increase the gradient signals in the lower stages of the training pipeline. In addition to this, the layerwise training is performed with the help of locally generated errors which means the gradient is not backpropagated to previous layers, and the hidden layer weights are updated during the forward pass, making this structure a backpropagation free variant. PrimeNet has obtained state-of-the-art results on various image datasets, attaining the dual objective of (1) compact dynamic deep neural structure, which (2) eliminates the problem of backwards-locking. The PrimeNet unit is proposed as an alternative to traditional convolution and dense blocks for faster and memory-efficient training, outperforming previously reported results aimed at adaptive methods for parallel and multilayer deep neural systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0361.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: adaptive streaming; HTTP/3; QUIC; cross-protocol; unfairness; congestion control
Online: 14 June 2021 (12:53:47 CEST)
With the introduction of HTTP/3, whose transport is no longer the traditional TCP protocol but the novel QUIC protocol, research for solutions to the unfairness of Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (HAS) has become more challenging. That is, because of different transport layers, the HTTP/3 may not be available for some networks and the clients have to use HTTP/2 for their HAS applications instead. Therefore, the scenario that HAS over HTTP/3 (HAS/3) compete against HTTP/2 (HAS/2) must be considered seriously. However, there have been a shortage of investigations on the performance and the origin of the unfairness in such a cross-protocol scenario in order to produce proper solutions. Therefore, this paper provides a performance evaluation and root-cause analysis of the cross-protocol unfairness between HAS/3 and HAS/2. It is concluded that, due to differences in the congestion control mechanisms of QUIC and TCP, HAS/3 clients obtain larger congestion windows, thus requesting higher video bitrates than HAS/2. As the problem lies in the transport layer, existing client-side ABR-based solutions for the unfairness from the application layer may perform suboptimally for the cross-protocol case.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0465.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: terrestrial orchids; threatened; species; conservation; propagation; translocation; pollination; adaptive management
Online: 26 April 2020 (02:17:01 CEST)
This paper presents a comprehensive and adaptive framework for orchid conservation programs illustrated with data from published and unpublished case studies. There is a specific focus on West Australian terrestrial orchids, but many of the approaches have universal relevance. Aspects of the framework include (1) setting appropriate objectives, (2) establishing effective collaborations between scientists, volunteers and regulators to fill knowledge and funding gaps, (3) use of survey and demographics data to determine extinction risks and management requirements for species, (4) effective habitat management to overcome threats such as grazing, (5) finding potential new habitats by modelling climate and site data, (6) investigating the effectiveness of pollinators and (7) using seed baiting to detect mycorrhizal fungi. The relative cost and effectiveness of different methods used to propagate orchids for translocation are compared. Methods known to be successful, in order of complexity, include placement of seed in situ, vegetative propagation, symbiotic germination in non-sterile organic matter, symbiotic germination in sterile culture, asymbiotic sterile germination and clonal division in tissue culture. These form a continuum of complexity, cost, time required, faculties needed, as well as the capacity to maintain genetic diversity and produce seedlings preadapted to survive in situ. They all start with seed collection and lead to seed storage, living collections used as tuber banks and seed orchards, as well as translocation for conservation. They could also lead to commercial availability and sustainable ecotourism, both of which are needed to reduce pressure on wild plants. Overall, there has been a strong preference to use relatively complex, expensive and time-consuming methods for orchid conservation, despite evidence that simpler approaches have also been successful. These simpler methods, which include in situ seed placement and non-sterile germination on inorganic substrates, should be trialled in combination with more complex orchid propagation methods as part of an adaptive management framework. It is essential that orchid conservation projects harness the unique biological features of orchids, such as abundant seed production and mycorrhizal fungi which are far more widespread than their hosts. This is necessary to increase the efficiency and coverage of recovery actions for the largest and most threatened plant family.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0315.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: adaptive streaming; HTTP/2; server push; unfairness; network-assisted; proxy
Online: 20 March 2020 (10:13:07 CET)
HTTP/2 video streaming has caught a lot of attentions in the development of multimedia technologies over the last few years. In HTTP/2, the server push mechanism allows the server to deliver more video segments to the client within a single request in order to deal with the requests explosion problem. As a result, recent research efforts have been focusing on utilizing such a feature to enhance the streaming experience while reducing the request-related overhead. However, current works only optimize the performance of a single client, without necessary concerns of possible influences on other clients in the same network. When multiple streaming clients compete for a shared bandwidth in HTTP/1.1, they are likely to suffer from unfairness, which is defined as the inequality in their bitrate selections. For HTTP/1.1, existing works have proven that the network-assisted solutions are effective in solving the unfairness problem. However, the feasibility of utilizing such an approach for the HTTP/2 server push has not been investigated. Therefore, in this paper, a novel proxy-based framework is proposed to overcome the unfairness problem in adaptive streaming over HTTP/2 with the server push. Experimental results confirm the outperformance of the proposed framework in ensuring the fairness, assisting the clients to avoid rebuffering events and lower bitrate degradation amplitude, while maintaining the mechanism of the server push feature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0172.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Fixed-time stabilization; Sliding mode control; Adaptive control; Neural network
Online: 16 September 2019 (16:47:55 CEST)
In this paper, the fixed-time stabilization problem for a class of uncertain chained system is addressed by using a novel nonsingular recursive terminal sliding mode control approach. A fixed-time controller and an adaptive law are designed to guarantee the uncertain chained form system both Lyapunov stable and fixed-time convergent within the settling time. The advantage of the controller based on the sliding mode is that the settling time does not depend on the system initial state. Furthermore, we use RBF neural network to estimate the uncertainty of the system. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the performance of the control laws.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0195.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: adaptive bilateral; marker watershed; PSO; fuzzy C-mean; GLCM; SVM
Online: 20 June 2019 (09:22:05 CEST)
Recently, the medical image processing is extensively used in several areas. In earlier detection and treatment of these diseases is very helpful to find out the abnormality issues in that image. Here there are number of methods available for segmentation to detect the lung nodule of computer tomography (CT) image. The main result of this paper, the earlier detection of lung nodules using Pre-processing techniques of top-hat transform, median and adaptive bilateral filter was compared both filtering methods and proved the adaptive bilateral filter is suitable method for CT images. The proposed segmentation technique uses novel strip method and the image is split into number of strips 3, 4, 5 and 6. A marker- watershed method based on PSO and Fuzzy C-mean Clustering method was proposed method. Firstly, the input image was reduced noise reduction and smoothing and the filter image is using strips method and then the image is segmented by marker watershed method. Secondly, the enhanced PSO technique was used to locate the better accurate value of the clustering centers of Fuzzy C-mean Clustering. Final stage, with the accurate value of centers and the enhanced target function and the small region of the segmented object was clustered by Fuzzy C-mean. In segmentation algorithm presented in this paper gives 95% of accuracy rate to detect lung nodules when strip count is 5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0102.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: line array cameras; pavement crack detection; feature analysis; adaptive lifting
Online: 15 February 2018 (16:41:25 CET)
This paper proposes a crack recognition method based on high-resolution line array cameras and adaptive lifting algorithm. By defining the crack rate, this algorithm calculates the ratio of the crack area to the area of the entire collected image to characterize the damage extent of the current section. The algorithm first uses image preprocessing to reduce the image noise, then uses histogram equalization to enhance the feature of the crack region, divides the whole image into multiple sub-blocks, and extracts region features in the sub-block. At the same time, this algorithm defines related feature descriptors, and constructs weak classifiers according to each feature descriptor, and converts the weak classifiers into strong classifiers by using an adaptive lifting algorithm. Finally, this algorithm realizes the division of the crack regions. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can meet the actual needs and is better than other classical algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0092.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: idiographic approach; computerized adaptive practicing; intraindividual variation; cognitive development; mathematics
Online: 13 February 2018 (08:40:04 CET)
Molenaar’s manifesto on psychology as idiographic science brought the N = 1 times series perspective firmly to the attention of developmental scientists. The rich intraindividual variation in complex developmental processes requires the study of these processes at the level of the individual. Yet, the idiographic approach is all but easy in practical research. One major limitation is the collection of short interval times series of high quality data on developmental processes. In this paper we present a novel measurement approach to this problem. We developed an online practice and monitoring system which is now used by thousands of Dutch primary school children on a daily or weekly basis, providing a new window on cognitive development. We will introduce the origin of this new instrument, called Math Garden, explain its setup, and present and discuss ways to analyze children’s individual developmental pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0063.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire; French translation; France; Canada; psychometrics
Online: 14 June 2017 (06:36:48 CEST)
This study presents a French translation and validation of the Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ), an instrument for assessing adaptive traits known to correlate with the psychopathic personality. Bilingual (French and English) individuals from France and Canada (N = 141, 52% in France, Mage = 29.73, SD = 9.09) completed both versions of the DAPTQ (French and English), alongside measurements of perceived stress, trait anxiety, authentic leadership and creativity. Correlation between the DAPTQ total and subscales across versions showed strong associations (r = .84 to .96). The DAPTQ – French version also demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .87), convergent validity, and concurrent validity. These findings support the cross-cultural equivalence of the DAPTQ and therefore its effectiveness as a valid assessment method of adaptive traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: morphing blade; adaptive geometry; computational fluid dynamics; fluid-structure coupling
Online: 16 May 2017 (13:06:29 CEST)
The concept of smart morphing blades, which can control themselves to reduce or eliminate the need for active control systems, is a highly attractive solution in blade technology. In this paper an innovative passive control system based on Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) is proposed. On the basis of previous thermal and shape characterization of a single morphing blade for a heavy-duty automotive cooling axial fan, this study deals with the numerical analysis of the aerodynamic loads acting on the fan. By coupling CFD and FEM approaches it is possible to analyze the actual blade shape resulting from both the aerodynamic and centrifugal loads. The numerical results indicate that the polymeric blade structure ensures proper resistance and enables shape variation due to the action of the SMA strips.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0370.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: socio-ecological systems; sustainability; adaptive cycle; panarchy; commodity frontiers; world-ecology.
Online: 25 October 2022 (02:03:32 CEST)
This article investigates the dynamics of socio-ecological systems (SESs) unsustainability. By adopting a theoretical standpoint grounded in systems’ theory, the analysis shows how SESs’ teleology (or final cause) is of the utmost relevance for understanding unsustainability and how it is pivotal for envisioning possible evolutionary trajectories towards sustainability. Building on the contributions of both system and social scientists, the study argues that SES’s teleology is determined by dominant social ontologies that require a dialectical lens to be properly dealt with. The article therefore proposes the adoption of the adaptive cycle heuristic complemented by an historical-geographical approach based on world-ecology theory as a means to dynamically model of SESs’ behaviour. Such a perspective allows for the direct comparison between the four stages of the panarchy cycle (reorganization, exploitation, conservation, and release) and the four stages theorized by the world-ecology dialectics (expansion, appropriation, capitalization, crisis). In conclusion, the article claims that both system and social scientists would benefit from including in their analysis concepts and definitions from the other field, since both provide valuable insights about SESs' processes of change and both are necessary to envision transition pathways towards sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Adaptive radiotherapy; Lymph node; MR-linac; MRgRT; Oligometastases; SBRT; prostate cancer
Online: 14 October 2022 (08:53:36 CEST)
Introduction: The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of a daily-adaptive MR-guided SBRT on 1.5 T MR-linac in patients affected by lymphnode oligometastases from PCa. Materials and Methods: The present study is a prospective observational study conducted in a single institution (protocol n°: MRI / LINAC n. 23748). Patients with oligometastatic lymphnodes from PCa treated with daily-adaptive MR-guided SBRT on 1.5T MR-linac were included in the study. Minimum required follow-up of 3 months after SBRT. Primary end-point was local progression-free survival (LPFS). Secondary end-points were: nodal progression-free survival (NPFS), and progression-free survival (PFS), and toxicity. Results: 118 lymphnode oligometastases from PCa were treated with daily-adaptive 1.5T MR-guided SBRT in 63 oligometastatic patients. 63.5% patients were oligoprogressive and 36.5% oligoprogressive. Two-year LPFS was 94.5%. Median NPFS was 22.3 months, and the 2-year NPFS was 46.5%. Having received hormone therapy before SBRT was correlated with lower NPFS at the multivariate analysis (1-y NPFS 87.1% versus 42.8%; p= 0.002 - HR 0.199, 95% CI 0.073-0.549). Furthermore, the oligorecurrent state during ADT was correlated with a lower NPFS than the oligoprogressive state. Median PFS was 10.3 months, the 2-year PFS was 32.4%. Patients treated with hormone therapy before SBRT had a significantly lower 1-year PFS the others (28% versus 70.4%; p= 0.01 - HR 0.259, 95% CI 0.117-0.574). No acute and late toxicities occurred during treatment. Conclusion: the present is the largest prospective study of 1.5T lymphnode SBRT on MR-linac in patients with PCa. Lymphnode SBRT by 1.5T MR-linac provides high local control rates with an excellent toxicity profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: energy policy; stakeholder requirements; adaptive/transformative; heat decarbonisation; energy system architecture
Online: 1 September 2022 (09:15:02 CEST)
It is a truism that whole energy system models underpin the development of policies for energy system decarbonisation. But recent reviews have thrown doubt on the appropriateness of such models for addressing the multiple goals for future energy systems, in the face of emergent real-world complexity and the evolution of stakeholder’s priorities. Without an understanding of the changing priorities of policy makers and expectations of stakeholders for future systems, system objectives and constraints are likely to be ill-defined, and there is a risk that models may be inadvertently instrumentalised. Adopting a system architecture perspective, the authors have undertaken a three-year programme of research to explore strategies for decarbonising heat in the UK, with interaction with and elicitation of needs from stakeholders at its heart. This paper presents the procedure, methods, and results of an exercise in which experts from stakeholder organisations across the energy system were interviewed. Analysis of interview data reveals two broad approaches to heat decarbonisation which can be broadly defined as either adaptive or transformative. Specific insights gained from these interviews enabled our modelling teams to refocus their work for exploration with a wider circle of stakeholders. Results suggests that this iterative approach to formalising model-policy interaction could improve the transparency and legitimacy of modelling and enhance its impact on policy making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: sedentary behaviour; smartphone; mobile app; just-in-time adaptive intervention (JITAI)
Online: 19 August 2022 (05:29:57 CEST)
Breaking up prolonged sitting by short bouts of light physical activities including standing and walking has been shown to be beneficial for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This paper presents the development of an android mobile app to deliver a just-in-time adaptive intervention (JITAI) to reduce sedentary time in people with T2D. A total of six design workshops were conducted with seven experts to identify design requirements, a behavioural framework, and required contextual adaptations for the development of a bespoke mobile app (iMOVE). Moreover, a focus group was conducted among people with T2D as potential end-users (N=10) to ascertain their perceptions of the app. Feedback from the focus group was used in subsequent iterations of the iMOVE app. Data were analysed using an inductive qualitative thematic analysis. Based on workshops, key features of iMOVE were developed, including simplicity (e.g., navigation, login), colours and font sizes, push notifications, messaging algorithms and a triggering system for breaking up sitting time and moving more. Based on the user testing results, a goal setting tab was added, font sizes were made larger, the brightness of colours was reduced, and a colour indicator was used to indicate device connectivity with an activity tracker. A user-centric app was developed to support people with T2D to transition from sedentary to active lifestyles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0249.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Adaptive Cruise Control; Driver behvaiour; Deep learning; Engine Operating Point; NARX
Online: 18 October 2021 (14:48:11 CEST)
The ACC feature when activated augments the engine performance in real-time. This article presents a novel methodology to predict the optimal adaptive cruise control set speed profile (ACCSSP) by considering all the effecting parameters. This paper investigates engine operating conditions (EOC) criteria to develop a predictive model of ACCSSP in real-time. We developed a deep learning (DL) model using the NARX method to predict engine operating point (EOP) mapping the vehicle-level vectors (VLV). We used real-world field data obtained from Cadillac test vehicles driven by activating the ACC feature for developing the DL model. We used a realistic set of assumptions to estimate the VLV for the future time steps for the range of allowable speed values and applied them at the input of the developed DL model to generate multiple sets of EOP’s. We imposed the defined EOC criteria on these EOPs, and the top three modes of speeds satisfying all the requirements are derived for each second. Thus three eligible speed values are estimated for each second, and an additional criterion is defined to generate a unique ACCSSP for future time steps. Performance comparison between predicted and constant ACCSSPs indicates that the predictive model outperforms constant ACCSSP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0479.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: software quality, Adaptive Neural Fuzzy, ISO standard, quality model, Inference system
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:31:56 CEST)
Computer systems are involved in many critical human applications today, so that a small error can lead to serious and dangerous problems. These errors can be from an error in the incorrect design of the user interface to an error in the program code. The success of a software product depends on several factors. Given that different organizations and institutions use software products, the need to have a quality and desirable Software according to the goals and needs of the organization makes measuring the quality of software products. an important issue for most organizations and institutions, To be sure of having the right software. It is necessary to use a standard quality model to examine the features and sub-features for a detailed and principled study in the quality discussion. In this study, the quality of Word software was measured by Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System. In recent years, powerful systems called fuzzy inference systems on The basis of adaptive neural network (ANFIS) has been used in various sciences. Using the power of neural network training and the linguistic advantage of fuzzy systems, these types of systems have been able to realize the advantages of the two in terms of analyzing very powerful complex processes. Considering the importance of software quality and to have a good and usable software in terms of quality and measuring the quality of software during the study. It was applied at different levels to make the result of measuring the quality of Word software more accurate and closer to reality. In this research, the quality of the software product is measured based on the adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system in ISO standard. According to the results obtained in this study, it is understood that quality is a continuous and hierarchical concept and the quality of each part of the software at any stage of production can lead to high quality products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0619.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Adaptive Island; Minimum spanning tree; Load forecasting; Controllable switches; Distributed generations
Online: 24 December 2020 (12:35:42 CET)
The power system vulnerability leads to faults and the severity of the fault may lead to prolonged load-shedding. The power system needs to be configured in extreme failure scenarios for protecting the network from further contingencies and prolonged load-shedding. Distributed generation resources (DGs) can be useful to form intentional islands after faults to maintain the continuity of power supply to loads based on their weightage during faulty periods and to reduce overall load shedding duration. Power system is bound to collapses and secondary collapse in the formed island is possible. This research represents a novel method of impedance based path finding for intentional islanding, which adapts itself with the changes in the demands, DGs outputs or further severities during restoration period. In this adaptive islanding approach, network adjusts itself with the changes in either the load demands or renewable DGs outputs and rearranges the restoration plan by curtailing or adding some of the loads through controllable switches. Further a secondary collapse in the existing island is studied by injecting multiple faults at various positions of the network to validate the system resilience to cope with severities. A short-term load forecasting approach is used to predict changes in load demands and variations in DG outputs during the islanding scheme. During the restoration period, these variations are tracked and the islands are modified accordingly. In order to minimize the overall generation cost by using less fuel, an economical approach is used in the selection of controllable DGs. The proposed approach is formulated as a multi-objective, that incorporates several operational constraints and simulation is carried out using the modified IEEE 69-bus distribution system to assess the efficacy of the proposed model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0159.v1
Online: 14 June 2020 (03:18:35 CEST)
Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected nearly 7 million individuals and claimed more than 0.4 million lives to date. There are several reports of gender differences related to infection and death due to COVID-19. This raises important questions such as “Whether there are differences based on gender in risk and severity of infection or mortality rate?” and “What are the biological explanation and mechanisms underlying these differences?” Emerging evidence has proposed sex-based immunological, genetic, and hormonal differences to explain this ambiguity. Besides biological differences, women have also faced social inequities and economic hardships due to this pandemic. Several recent studies have shown that independent of age males are at higher risk for severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Although susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 was found to be similar across both genders in several disease cohorts, a disproportionate death ratio in men can be partly explained by the higher burden of pre-existing diseases and occupational exposures among men. From an immunological point of view, females can engage a more active immune response, which may protect them and counter infectious diseases as compared to men. This attribute of better immune responses towards pathogens is thought to be due to high estrogen levels in females. Here we review the current knowledge about sex differences in susceptibility, the severity of infection and mortality, host immune responses, and the role of sex hormones in COVID-19 disease.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: airborne wind energy; kite system; system identification; adaptive algorithms; pole placement
Online: 11 January 2020 (14:32:48 CET)
This paper presents a comparison between a kite model with a constant-length tether and a model based on a system identification algorithm. The concept of system identification is applied to predict the uncertainties related to the variation of the wind speed and the shape deformation of the tethered membrane wing during flight. A pole-placement controller is used to ensure that the kite follows the planned flight path. Thus, we can determine the required locations of the closed loop poles, and then enforce them by changing the controller's gains in real-time. The capability of the system identification algorithm to recognize sudden changes in the dynamic model, and the ability of the controller to stabilize the system in the presence of such changes are confirmed. Furthermore, the system identification algorithm is applied to determine the parameters of a kite with variable-length tether used in a flight test of the 20 kW kite power system of TU Delft. Experimental data of this test were compared with the system identification results in real-time and significant changes were observed in the parameters of the dynamic model which heavily affect the resulting response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: adaptive lens; piezoelectric devices; fluid-structure interaction; moving mesh; thermal expansion.
Online: 21 October 2019 (13:02:57 CEST)
In this paper, we present a finite element simulation of an adaptive piezoelectric fluid-membrane lens modeled in COMSOL Multiphysics. The simulation couples the piezoelectric effect with the fluid dynamics to model the interaction between piezoelectric forces and fluid forces. Also, the simulation is extended to model the thermal expansion of the fluid. Finally, we compare the simulation and experimental results of the adaptive lens refractive power at different actuation levels and temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0060.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: hyperspectral image; spectral characteristics of plants; spectral adaptive grouping; compressive sensing
Online: 8 May 2017 (11:45:34 CEST)
With the development of hyperspectral technology, to establish an effective spectral data compressive reconstruction method that can improving data storage, transmission and maintaining spectral information is critical for quantitative remote sensing research and application in vegetation. By introducing the idea of compressive sensing in compressed reconstruction, the spectral adaptive grouping distributed compressive sensing algorithm is proposed, which enables a distributed compressed sensing reconstruction of plant hyperspectral data. The experimental results showed that comparing with orthogonal matching pursuit(OMP) and gradient projection reconstruction(GPSR), the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the visual effect of image reconstruction in the spatial domain. The PSNR in low sampling rate(sampling rate is lower than 0.2) increases by 13.72dB than OMP and 1.66dB than GPSR. In the spectral domain, the average normalized root mean square error、the mean absolute percentage error and the mean absolute error of the proposed algorithm is35.38%，31.83% and 33.33% lower than GPSR respectively.. Therefore, the proposed algorithm can achieve relatively high reconstructed efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: hybrid adaptive; unscented kalman filtering; maximum a posteriori; maximum likelihood criterion
Online: 17 March 2017 (01:49:42 CET)
In order to overcome the limitation of the traditional adaptive Unscented Kalman Filtering (UKF) algorithm in noise covariance estimation for statement and measurement, we propose a hybrid adaptive UKF algorithm based on combining Maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion and Maximum likelihood (ML) criterion, in this paper. First, to prevent the actual noise covariance deviating from the true value which can lead to the state estimation error and arouse the filtering divergence, a real-time covariance matrices estimation algorithm based on hybrid MAP and ML is proposed for obtaining the statement and measurement noises covariance, respectively; and then, a balance equation the two kinds of covariance matrix is structured in this proposed to minimize the statement estimation error. Compared with the UFK based MAP and based ML, the proposed algorithm provides better convergence and stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0385.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: hysteresis; Ben-Wien model; adaptive observer; exponential dissipativity; Lyapunov vector function; uncertainty
Online: 16 January 2023 (01:54:15 CET)
The adaptive identification method developed to evaluate the parameters of the Bouc-Wen hysteresis (BWH). The adaptive approach based on the use of adaptive observers. We synthesize adaptive identification algorithms using the second Lyapunov method. The boundedness of adaptive system processes shown in coordinate and parametric spaces. We prove exponential dissipativity of processes in an adaptive system. Estimating method proposed for signaling uncertainty in the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0429.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Digital Twin; hazard; vulnerability; resilience; adaptive climate adaptation; groundwater; DK-model HIP
Online: 24 November 2022 (02:47:00 CET)
The paper analyses the national DK-model Hydrological Information and Prediction (HIP) system and HIP portal viewed as a ‘Digital Twin’ and how the introduction of real-time dynamic updating of the DK-model HIP simulations can give room for plug-in sub-models with real-time boundary conditions made available from a HIP portal. The possible feedback to a national real-time risk knowledge base during extreme events (flooding and drought) is also discussed. Under climate change conditions, Denmark is likely to experience more rain in winter, more evapotranspiration in summer, intensified cloudbursts, drought, and sea level rise. These challenges have been addressed as part of the Joint Governmental Digitalization Strategy 2016-2020 for better use and sharing of public data about the terrain, water, and climate to support climate adaptation, water management, and disaster risk reduction. This initiative included the development of a new web-based data portal (HIP portal) developed by the Danish Agency for Data Supply and Infrastructure (SDFI). GEUS delivered 5 terra-byte of hydrological model data to the portal with robust calibration methods and hybrid Machine Learning (ML) being key parts of the deliverables. The paper discusses the challenges and potentials of further developing the HIP Digital Twin with ‘plug-in Digital Twins’ for local river basins including feedback to the national level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0256.v3
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Fuzzy control; PSS; AVR; mechanical angle; power angle; oscillation damping; adaptive contro
Online: 17 February 2022 (10:17:20 CET)
Abstract. This article proposes new fuzzy controller to regulation the voltage, damp the oscillations and limit the overshoot behavior in single-machine infinite-bus power system. Two different independent MISO fuzzy controllers are designed. First controller, is voltage stabilizer and it composes of two adaptive fuzzy modules and proportional gain AVR. The voltage stabilizer is designed to regulate the terminal voltage, damp the voltage oscillation and limit the voltage overshoot to the industrial maximum allowable limit. The input signals of this stabilizer is are taken from the terminal voltage and the imposed voltage disturbance that can be read from any smart relay. The fuzzy output is used as feedback signal to control the AVR in order to achieve stabilized voltage equal to the reference voltage. The second fuzzy controller is designed with two input signals; “mechanical angle” and its derivative, and one output which is used as feedback signal to adapt the damping torque in order to damp the mechanical oscillation fast and with maximum overshoot not exceeding 10%, and hence damp the power angle oscillation that is important in the PSS improvement. MATLAB-SIMULINK was used for modelling and the test cases simulation. The results show very good performance for the proposed fuzzy controllers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0421.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Unmanned Surface Vehicle; Guidance; Navigation and Control; Path Following; Adaptive Sliding Mode
Online: 23 November 2021 (12:37:17 CET)
This paper investigates the path following control problem for a unmanned surface vehicle (USV) in the presence of unknown disturbances and system uncertainties. The simulation study combines two different types of sliding mode surface based control approaches due to its precise tracking and robustness against disturbances and uncertainty. Firstly, an adaptive linear sliding mode surface algorithm is applied, to keep the yaw error within the desired boundaries and then an adaptive integral non-linear sliding mode surface is explored to keep an account of the sliding mode condition. Additionally, a method to reconfigure the input parameters in order to keep settling time, yaw rate restriction and desired precision within boundary conditions is presented. The main strengths of proposed approach is simplicity, robustness with respect to external disturbances and high adaptability to static and dynamics reference courses without the need of parameter reconfiguration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0037.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Urban morphology; Transitional morphologies; Assemblage; Urban coding; Adaptive city; Permutation; Parametric Design
Online: 1 April 2021 (17:46:19 CEST)
Grounded on urban morphology studies, the research tries to overcome the analysis of the permanents elements of the city seeking for a transitional paradigm in urban morphology, aiming at grasping the dynamics in urban evolution and providing operative tools for urban regeneration design in an adaptive approach. A combination of four actions of urban analysis is here suggested to highlight urban dynamics: a. Sorting the transitional steps of urban morphologies (within rapid market processes), b. Underlining rules and Processes characterizing urban coding in transition, c. Mapping urban assemblages in the adaptive city and d. Reading and representing urban permutation phenomenon. The results of this multifaced and multidimensional set of analytical tools allow to outline a new design thinking paradigm moving towards a parametric approach to urban design of cities in transition broadening the extent of urban regeneration process and supporting urban policies in the framework community based approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0370.v1
Subject: Keywords: Seasonal Variance; Pedestrians Thermal Comfort; Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET); Adaptive Thermal Comfort
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:14:58 CET)
Season plays a key role in the development of outdoor spaces for pedestrians in hot humid cities. This research studies the influence of seasonal variations on pedestrian thermal comfort on the pedestrian level by means of meteorology and field observations of selected footpaths in the major tourist area of Malacca. This experiment was carried out on selected clear calm days indicative of each season during the development of a research project, and hourly meteorological transects from 10:00 am to 6:00 pm and questioned 200 respondents on their thermal awareness, comfort, and preferences were conducted. Adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, age, season and hour of the day were significant non-meteorological factors, apart from meteorological information. The findings of analyzes showed that the thermal experience and expectation existed and in different seasons people changed perceptions for the outside thermal environment. Almost 80% local tourist and 55 % international tourist was accepted Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) range affected by the local climate and thermal adaptation. The subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature generated an acceptable physiological equivalent temperature of 32.6°C to 36.8°C based on the seasonal variations for Malacca tourist zone in Malaysia. These findings shed light on the optimal design of outdoor spaces for increasing the utilization rate. The seasonal variation must be taken into account so that the outdoor landscape design provides more opportunities for different seasons to communicate with the atmosphere and so enhance thermal comfort and utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0496.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Hungateiclostridium thermocellum; adaptive laboratory evolution; RNA-seq; cellulosomal genes; EMP pathway; monosaccharides
Online: 21 December 2020 (10:36:00 CET)
Hungateiclostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 is a promising bacterium with a robust ability to degrade lignocellulosic biomass complexes, including crystalline cellulose components, through a multienzyme cellulosomal system. In contrast, it exhibits poor growth on simple monosaccharides such as fructose and glucose. This phenomenon raises many important questions concerning its glycolytic pathways and sugar transport systems. Until now, the detailed mechanisms of H. thermocellum adaptation to growth on monosaccharides have been poorly explored. In this study, adaptive laboratory evolution was applied to train the bacterium on monosaccharides, and genome resequencing was used to detect the genes that had mutated during adaptation. RNA-seq data of the 1st-generation culture growing on either fructose or glucose revealed that several glycolytic genes in the EMP pathway were expressed at lower levels in these cells than in cellobiose-grown cells. After 8 generations of culture on fructose and glucose, the evolved H. thermocellum strains grew faster and yielded greater biomass than the nonadapted strains. Genomic screening also revealed several mutation events in the genomes of the evolved strains, especially in genes responsible for sugar transport and central carbon metabolism. Consequently, these genes could be applied as targets for further metabolic engineering to improve this bacterium for bioindustrial usage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0064.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: manual muscle testing; neuromuscular diagnostics; force profiles; reproducibility; Adaptive Force; handheld device
Online: 2 November 2020 (16:36:04 CET)
The manual muscle test (MMT) is a flexible diagnostic tool, which is used in many disciplines, applied in several ways. The main problem is the subjectivity of the test. The MMT in the version of a “break test” depends on the tester’s force rise and the patient’s ability to resist the applied force. As a first step, the investigation of the reproducibility of the testers’ force profiles is required for valid application. The study examined the force profiles of n=29 testers (n=9 experiences (Exp), n=8 little experienced (LitExp), n =12 beginners (Beg)). The testers performed 10 MMTs according to the test of hip flexors, but against a fixed leg to exclude the patient’s reaction. A handheld device recorded the temporal course of the applied force. The results show significant differences between Exp and Beg concerning the starting force (padj=0.029), the ratio of starting to maximum force (padj=0.005) and the normalized mean Euclidean distances between the 10 trials (padj=0.015). The slope is significantly higher in Exp vs. LitExp (p=0.006) and Beg (p=0.005). The results also indicate that experienced testers show inter-tester differences and partly even a low intra-tester reproducibility. That highlights the necessity of an objective MMT-assessment. Furthermore, an agreement on a standardized force profile is required – a suggestion is given.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0053.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Mast cells; innate immunity; adaptive immunity; wound healing; Immunoglobin E; vaccine adjuvants
Online: 2 November 2020 (14:59:10 CET)
Mast cells are long-lived, granular, myeloid-derived leukocytes that have significant protective and repair functions in tissues. Mast cells sense disruptions in the local microenvironment and are first responders to physical, chemical and biological insults. When activated, mast cells release growth factors, proteases, chemotactic proteins and cytokines thereby mobilizing and amplifying the innate and adaptive immune system. Mast cells are therefore significant regulators of homeostatic functions and may be essential in microenvironmental changes during pathogen invasion and disease. During infection by helminths, bacteria and viruses, mast cells release antimicrobial factors to facilitate pathogen expulsion and eradication. Mast cell-derived proteases and growth factors protect tissues from insect/snake bites and exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Finally, mast cells release mediators that promote wound healing in the inflammatory, proliferative and remodeling stages. Since mast cells have such a powerful repertoire of functions, targeting mast cells may be an effective new strategy for immunotherapy of disease and design of novel vaccine adjuvants. In this review, we will examine how certain strategies that specifically target and activate mast cells can be used to treat and resolve infections, augment vaccines and heal wounds. Although these strategies may be protective in certain circumstances, mast cells activation may be deleterious if not carefully controlled and any therapeutic strategy using mast cell activators must be carefully explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0388.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Adaptive Educational System; E-Learning; Machine Learning; Semantics; Recommendation System; Ontologies Matching.
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:46:19 CEST)
The implementation of teaching interventions in learning needs has received considerable attention, as the provision of the same educational conditions to all students, is pedagogically ineffective. In contrast, more effectively considered the pedagogical strategies that adapt to the real individual skills of the students. An important innovation in this direction is the Adaptive Educational Systems (AES) that support automatic modeling study and adjust the teaching content on educational needs and students' skills. Effective utilization of these educational approaches can be enhanced with Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies in order to the substantive content of the web acquires structure and the published information is perceived by the search engines. This study proposes a novel Adaptive Educational eLearning System (AEeLS) that has the capacity to gather and analyze data from learning repositories and to adapt these to the educational curriculum according to the student skills and experience. It is a novel hybrid machine learning system that combines a Semi-Supervised Classification method for ontology matching and a Recommendation Mechanism that uses a hybrid method from neighborhood-based collaborative and content-based filtering techniques, in order to provide a personalized educational environment for each student.
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: unmanned air vehicles; mission planning; routing; weapon configuration; adaptive large neighborhood search
Online: 16 April 2019 (10:40:24 CEST)
There is an increasing trend that Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles (UCAVs) are employed to complete different combat missions in modern wars. This paper investigates a UCAV routing problem, which simultaneously considers the decisions for the configuration of weapons carried by the UCAV subject to its capacity and the allocation of weapons to the targets subject to their destroying requirements. An integer linear programming model is developed to formulate the problem. An adaptive large neighborhood search (ALNS) heuristic is proposed to solve the problem, in which seven neighborhood structures are designed and employed. Randomly generated instances covering the small, medium and large sizes are used to test the proposed ALNS algorithm. CPLEX is also utilized to solve the small-size instances, whose results are compared with that obtained by the ALNS algorithm. And the extensive experimental results confirm the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed ALNS algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0282.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: adaptive forestry; dendroecology; diffuse–porous wood; drought years; vessel traits; wood anatomy
Online: 12 November 2018 (10:31:23 CET)
The distribution of Mexican Magnolia species´ occur under restricted climatic conditions. As many other tree species from the tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF), Magnolia species appear to be sensitive to drought. Through the use of dendrochronological techniques, this study aims to determine the climate influence on the vessel traits of M. vovidesii and M. schiedeana which are endangered tree species that are endemic to the Sierra Madre Oriental in eastern Mexico. Because most of the tree species in TMCFs are sensitive to climate fluctuations, it is necessary to investigate the differences in the climatic adaptability of the vessel architecture of these trees. This could allow us to further understand the potential peril of climate change on TMCFs. We compared vessel frequency, length and diameter in drought and non–drought years in two Mexican Magnolia species. We used tree–rings width and vessel traits to assess the drought effects on Magnolias’ diffuse–porous wood back to the year 1929. We obtained independent chronologies for M. vovidesii with a span of 75 years (1941–2016), while for M. schiedeana we obtained a span of 319 years (1697–2016). We found that temperature and precipitation are strongly associated with differences in tree–ring width (TRW) between drought and non–drought years. Our results showed anatomical differences in vessel trait response between these two Magnolia species to climatic variation. We suggest that our approach of combining dendroclimatic and anatomical techniques is a powerful tool to analyse anatomic wood plasticity to climatic variation in Magnolia species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0720.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: electroencephalogram; event-driven signal acquisition; activity selection; data compression; adaptive rate filtering
Online: 30 October 2018 (09:22:56 CET)
The segmentation and de-noising are basic operations, required in every signal processing and classification system. The classical segmentation and de-noising approaches are time-invariant. Consequently, it results in the post processing of an unnecessary information and causes an increase in the system processing activity and power consumption. In this context, an efficient event-driven segmentation and de-noising technique is proposed. It is founded on the principles of level crossing and activity selection. Therefore, it can adapt its sampling frequency, segmentation window length and position along with the filter order by analyzing the input signal local characteristics. As a result, the computational complexity and the power consumption of the proposed system is reduced compared to the counter ones. The suggested system performance is compared with the classical one. It is done for the case of a multi-channel Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Results show a noticeable compression gain with an effective adaptation of the de-noising filters order. It aptitudes a significant computational gain, transmission data rate reduction and power consumption reduction of the proposed technique, compared to the counter ones. It shows that the proposed solution is an attractive candidate to embed in the new generation EEG wearables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0253.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: adaptive filtering; set-membership filtering; affine projection; data censoring; big data; outliers
Online: 12 October 2018 (04:57:08 CEST)
In this paper, the set-membership affine projection (SM-AP) algorithm is utilized to censor non-informative data in big data applications. To this end, the probability distribution of the additive noise signal and the excess of mean-squared error (EMSE) in steady-state are employed in order to estimate the threshold parameter of the single threshold SM-AP (ST-SM-AP) algorithm aiming at attaining the desired update rate. Furthermore, by defining an acceptable range for the error signal, the double threshold SM-AP (DT-SM-AP) algorithm is proposed to detect very large errors due to the irrelevant data such as outliers. The DT-SM-AP algorithm can censor non-informative and irrelevant data in big data applications, and it can improve misalignment and convergence rate of the learning process with high computational efficiency. The simulation and numerical results corroborate the superiority of the proposed algorithms over traditional algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0517.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: fractal dimension; surface defect identification; adaptive fractal filtering; edge extraction; image denoising
Online: 30 August 2018 (05:53:25 CEST)
In addition to image filtering in the spatial and frequency domains, fractal characteristics induced algorithms offers considerable flexibility in the design and implementations of image processing solutions in areas such as image enhancement, image restoration, image data compression and spectrum of applications of practical interests. Facing up to a real-world problem of identifying workpiece surface defects, a generic adaptive fractal filtering algorithm is proposed, which shows advantages on the problems of target recognition, feature extraction and image denoising at multiple scales. First, we reveal the physical principles underlying between signal SNR and its representative fractal dimension indicative parameters, validating that the fractal dimension can be used to adaptively obtain the image features. Second, an adaptive fractal filtering algorithm (Abbreviated as AFFA) is proposed according to the identified correlation between the image fractal dimensions and the scales of objects, and it is verified by a benchmarking image processing case study. Third, by using the proposed fractal filtering algorithm, surface defects on a flange workpiece are identified. Compared to conventional image processing algorithms, the proposed algorithm shows superior computing simplicity and better performance Numerical analysis and engineering case studies show that the fractal dimension is eligible for deriving an adaptive filtering algorithm for diverse-scale object identification, and the proposed AFFA is feasible for general application in workpiece surface defect detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0069.v1
Subject: Chemistry, General & Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics; molecular dynamics; adaptive QM/MM; condensed matter; solvation
Online: 4 July 2018 (10:46:45 CEST)
For condensed systems, the incorporation of quantum chemical solvent effects into molecular dynamics simulations has been a major concern. To this end, quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) techniques are popular and powerful options to treat gigantic systems. However, they cannot be directly applied because of temporal and spatial discontinuity problems. To overcome these problems, in a previous study, we proposed a corrective QM/MM method, size-consistent multipartitioning (SCMP) QM/MM, and successfully demonstrated that, using SCMP, it is possible to perform stable molecular dynamics simulations by effectively taking into account solvent quantum chemical effects. The SCMP method is characterized by two original features: size-consistency of a QM region among all QM/MM partitioning and partitioning update. However, in our previous study, the performance was not fully elicited compared to the theoretical upper bound, and the optimal partitioning update protocol and parameters were not fully verified. To elicit the potential performance, in the present study, we simplified the theoretical framework and modified the partitioning protocol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0377.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: land cover change detection; adaptive contextual information; bi-temporal remote sensing images
Online: 29 April 2018 (10:52:26 CEST)
Land cover change detection (LCCD) based on bi-temporal remote sensing images plays an important role in the inventory of land cover change. Due to the benefit of having spatial dependency properties within the image space while using remote sensing images for detecting land cover change, many contextual information based change detection methods have been proposed during past decades. However, there is still a space for improvement in accuracies and usability of LCCD. In this paper, a LCCD method based on adaptive contextual information is proposed. First, an adaptive region is constructed by gradually detecting the spectral similarity surrounding a central pixel. Second, the Euclidean distance between pairwise extended regions is calculated to measure the change magnitude between the pairwise central pixels of bi-temporal images. While the whole bi-temporal images are scanned pixel-by-pixel, the change magnitude image (CMI) can be generated. Then, the Otsu or a manual threshold is employed to acquire the binary change detection map (BCDM). The detection accuracies of the proposed approach are investigated by two land cover change cases with Landsat bi-temporal remote sensing images. In comparison to several widely used change detection methods, the proposed approach can achieve a land cover change inventory map with a competitive accuracy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0070.v3
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: guilt; shame; emotion; functionalist; social-adaptive; test of self-conscious affect; TOSCA
Online: 7 December 2017 (05:50:39 CET)
Within the field of guilt and shame, two competing perspectives have been advanced. The first, the social-adaptive perspective, proposes that guilt is an inherently adaptive emotion and shame is an inherently maladaptive emotion; thus, those interested in moral character development and psychopathology should work to increase an individual’s guilt-proneness and decrease an individual’s shame-proneness. The functionalist perspective, in contrast, argues that both guilt and shame can serve a person adaptively or maladaptively—depending on the situational appropriateness, duration, intensity, and so forth. This paper reviews the research conducted supporting both positions, critiques some issues with the most widely used guilt- and shame-proneness measure in the social-adaptive research (the TOSCA), and discusses the differences in results found when assessing guilt and shame at the state versus trait level. The conclusion drawn is that although there is broad support for the functionalist perspective across a wide variety of state and trait guilt/shame studies, the functionalist perspective does not yet have the wealth of data supporting it that has been generated by the social-adaptive perspective using the TOSCA. Thus, before a dominant perspective can be identified, researchers need to (1) do more research assessing how the social-adaptive perspective compares to the functionalist perspective at the state level, and (2) do more trait research within the functionalist perspective to compare functionalist guilt- and shame-proneness measures with the TOSCA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0084.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Passive Sonar; Target Detection; Adaptive Threshold; Bayesian Classifier; K-Mean; Particle Filter
Online: 18 September 2017 (17:04:13 CEST)
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation about target detecting with passive sonar in Persian Gulf. Detecting propagated sounds in the water is one of the basic challenges of the researchers in sonar field. This challenge will be complex in shallow water (like Persian Gulf) and noise less vessels. Generally, in passive sonar the targets are detected by sonar equation (with constant threshold) which increase the detection error in shallow water. Purpose of this study is proposed a new method for detecting targets in passive sonars using adaptive threshold. In this method, target signal (sound) is processed in time and frequency domain. For classifying, Bayesian classification is used and prior distribution is estimated by Maximum Likelihood algorithm. Finally, target was detected by combining the detection points in both domains using LMS adaptive filter. Results of this paper has showed that proposed method has improved true detection rate about 27% compare other the best detection method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0031.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Spatially Adaptive De-normalization (SPADE); Super-Resolution; Convolutional Neural Network; Generative Adversarial Network)
Online: 9 January 2023 (02:15:56 CET)
With the development of deep learning technology, various structures and research methods for super-resolution restoration of natural images and document images have been introduced. In particular, a number of recent studies have been conducted and developed in image restoration using generative adversarial network. Super-resolution restoration is ill-posed problem because of some complex restraints such as a lot of high-resolution images being restored for the same low-resolution image and also difficulty in restoring noises like edges, light smudging, and blurring. In this study, we utilized the spatially adaptive de-normalization (SPADE) structure for document image restoration to solve previous problems such as edge unclearness, hardness to catch features of texts, and the image color transition. Consequently, it can be confirmed that the edge of the character and the ambiguous stroke are restored more clearly when contrasting with the other previously suggested methods. Also, the proposed method’s PSNR and SSIM scores are geting 8% and 15% higher, respectively, compared to the previous methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0570.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: adaptive CVT; two degrees of freedom; additional constraint; digital twin method for diagnosis.
Online: 30 November 2022 (10:03:12 CET)
The development of the automotive industry leads to the improvement of the designs of automatic transmissions and drives and to the development of methods for monitoring and diagnosing their condition. The trend of improving transmissions comes down mainly to the endless improvement of existing designs of CVTs and variators, which inevitably leads to the complication of designs and methods for their control and diagnostics.There is a need to create a fundamentally new simplified gearbox based on the scientific achievements of mechanics. However, the created structures remained inoperable due to the lack of theoretical justification.The adaptive gear variator developed by the author, which has CVT functions, is a mechanism with two degrees of freedom and with an additional constraint of a fundamentally new type, called a force - speed constraint. The force - speed constraint imposes a force restriction on the movement of links, while maintaining the number of degrees of freedom in the kinematics. Monitoring the state of the developed gearbox in the form of a non-switchable gear variator is greatly simplified, since the largest number of faults occur in the control system, and there is no control system in the gear variator. It seems possible to apply the digital twin method to diagnose the developed simplified CVT.The proposed article is devoted to a theoretical description of a fundamentally new adaptive gearbox, created on the basis of the latest achievements in mechanics, with the prospect of developing a simplified monitoring and diagnostic system for it
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Morphing Wings; Adaptive Structures; Control Systems; Embedded Kinematics; Distributed Actuator and Sensor Networks
Online: 7 December 2021 (14:39:02 CET)
In a previous paper, the authors dealt with the current showstoppers for morphing systems and with the reasons that have inhibited their commercial applicability. In this work, the authors ex-press a critical vision of the current status of the proposed architectures and the needs that should be accomplished to make them viable for installation onboard of commercial aircraft. The distinc-tion is essential because military and civil issues and necessities are very different, and both the solutions and difficulties to be overcome are widely diverse. Yet, still remaining in the civil seg-ment, there can be other differences, depending on the size of the aircraft, from large jets to com-muters or general aviation, in turn classifiable in tourism, acrobatic, ultralight and so on, each with their own peculiarities. Therefore, the paper wants to try to trace a common technology de-nominator, if possible, and envisage a future perspective of actual applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0051.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Topology Optimization; Morphing Wing; Aerospace Design Optimization; Smart and Adaptive Structures; Feature Mapping
Online: 2 July 2021 (12:28:24 CEST)
This work proposes a systematic topology optimization approach to simultaneously design the morphing functionality and actuation in three-dimensional wing structures. The actuation is assumed to be a linear strain-based expansion in the actuation material and a three-phase material model is employed to represent structural and actuating materials, and void. To ensure both structural stiffness with respect to aerodynamic loading and morphing capabilities, the optimization problem is formulated to minimize structural compliance while morphing functionality is enforced by constraining a morphing error between actual and target wing shape. Moreover, a feature mapping approach is utilized to constrain and simplify actuator geometries. A trailing edge wing section is designed to validate the proposed optimization approach. Numerical results demonstrate that three-dimensional optimized wing sections utilize a more advanced structural layout to enhance structural performance while keeping morphing functionality than two-dimensional wing ribs. The work presents the first step towards systematic design of three-dimensional morphing wing sections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0171.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: microgravity; spaceflight; immunology; pathogens; macrophages; bacteria; viruses; innate immune response; adaptive immune response
Online: 11 January 2021 (09:44:52 CET)
Immune dysfunction has long been reported by medical professionals regarding astronauts suffering from opportunistic infections both during their time in space and a short time period afterwards once back on Earth. Various species of prokaryotes on board these space missions or cultured in a microgravity analogue exhibit increased virulence, enhanced formation of biofilms, and in some cases develop specific resistance for specific antibiotics. This poses a substantial health hazard to the astronauts confined in constant proximity to any present bacterial pathogens on long space missions with a finite number of resources including antibiotics. Furthermore, some bacteria cultured in microgravity develop phenotypes not seen in Earth gravity conditions, providing novel insights into bacterial evolution and research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0337.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system; ANFIS-PSO; ANFIS-GA; HVAC; hybrid machine learning
Online: 24 February 2020 (01:55:59 CET)
The hybridization of machine learning methods with soft computing techniques is an essential approach to improve the performance of the prediction models. Hybrid machine learning models, particularly, have gained popularity in the advancement of the high-performance control systems. Higher accuracy and better performance for prediction models of exergy destruction and energy consumption used in the control circuit of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems can be highly economical in the industrial scale to save energy. This research proposes two hybrid models of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system-particle swarm optimization (ANFIS-PSO), and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system-genetic algorithm (ANFIS-GA) for HVAC. The results are further compared with the single ANFIS model. The ANFIS-PSO model with the RMSE of 0.0065, MAE of 0.0028, and R2 equal to 0.9999, with a minimum deviation of 0.0691 (KJ/s), outperforms the ANFIS-GA and single ANFIS models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0253.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: structural health monitoring; sensor fusion; adaptive Kalman Filter; displacement estimation; reference-free displacement
Online: 22 January 2020 (03:08:35 CET)
Structural displacement is an important metric for assessing structural conditions because it has a direct relationship with the structural stiffness. Many bridge displacement measurement techniques have been developed, but most methods require fixed reference points in the vicinity of the target structure which limits field implementations. A promising alternative is to use reference-free measurement techniques that indirectly estimate the displacement by using measurements such as acceleration, and strain. This paper proposes novel reference-free bridge displacement estimation by the fusion of single acceleration with pseudo-static displacement derived from co-located strain measurements. First, we propose a conversion of the strain at the center of a beam into displacement based on the geometric relationship between strain and deflection curves with reference-free calibration. Second, an adaptive Kalman filter is proposed to fuse the displacement generated by strain with acceleration by recursively estimate the noise covariance of displacement from strain measurements which is vulnerable to measurement condition. Both numerical and experimental validations are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0272.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: adaptive modulation; TVWS; CRSN; RRA; smart grid; Distributed Heterogeneous Clustered (DHC); dynamic radio
Online: 24 November 2019 (05:20:58 CET)
A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) based Smart Grid (SG) is a new paradigm for a modern SG. It is totally different from the traditional power grid and also different from the conventional SG that uses a static resource allocation technique to allocate resources to sensor nodes and communication devices in the SG network. Due to the challenges associated with competitive sensor nodes and communication devices in accessing and utilizing radio resources, the need for dynamic radio resource allocation (RRA) has been proposed as a solution for allocating radio resources to sensor nodes in a CRSN based smart grid ecosystem (network). These challenges include energy/power constraints, poor quality of service (QoS), interference, delay, spectrum efficiency issues, and excessive spectrum hand-offs. Hence, the optimization of resource allocation criteria, such as energy efficiency, throughput maximization, QoS guarantee, fairness, priority, interference mitigation/avoidance, etc., will go a long way in addressing the problems of RRA in a CRSN based SG. Consequently, this work explores RRA in CRSNs for SGs. Various resource allocation schemes, as well as its architecture in a CRSN for SG environment, are presented. The work reported in this paper introduces a model called the “guaranteed network connectivity channel allocation” for throughput maximization (GNC-TM) and optimal spectrum band determination in RRA for improved throughput criteria in CRSNs for SGs. The results show that the model outperforms the existing protocol in terms of throughput and error probability. Finally, the contribution to knowledge and future research direction, such as energy efficiency and hybrid energy harvesting schemes are highlighted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: adaptation; adaptive capacity; adaptation tracking; climate change; systematic review; vulnerability; developed nation; Australia
Online: 13 August 2018 (10:13:42 CEST)
We develop and apply a systematic literature review methodology to identify and characterize the ways in which the peer-reviewed literature depicts how climate change adaptation is occurring in Australia. We reviewed the peer-reviewed, English-language literature between January 2005 and January 2018 for examples of documented adaptation actions. Our results challenge previous assumptions that adaptation action is not happening in Australia and describes adaptation processes that are underway. For the most part, actions can be described as preliminary or groundwork, with a particular focus on documenting stakeholder perspectives on climate change and adaptation, and modelling or scenario planning in the coastal zone, agriculture and health sectors. Where concrete adaptations are reported, they are usually in the agricultural sector and are most common in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia’s food basket. The findings of the review advance our understanding of adaptation to climate change as a process and the need to consider different stages in the process when tracking adaptation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0083.v2
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Adaptive mechanisms; antioxidative metabolism; chloroplast; osmotic regulation; oxidative stress; photosynthesis; salinity; water relations
Online: 24 February 2017 (10:21:50 CET)
This review deals with the adaptive mechanisms that plants can implement to cope with the challenge of salt stress. Plants tolerant to NaCl implement a series of adaptations to acclimate to salinity, including morphological, physiological and biochemical changes. These changes include increases in the root/canopy ratio and in the chlorophyll content in addition to changes in the leaf anatomy that ultimately lead to preventing leaf ion toxicity, thus maintaining the water status in order to limit water loss and protect the photosynthesis process. Furthermore, we deal with the effect of salt stress on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence and some of the mechanisms thought to protect the photosynthetic machinery, including the xanthophyll cycle, photorespiration pathway and water-water cycle. Finally, we also provide an updated discussion on salt-induced oxidative stress at the subcellular level and its effect on the antioxidant machinery in both salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive plants. The aim is to extend our understanding of how salinity may affect the physiological characteristics of plants.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: adaptive significance; evolution of gall insects; gall-inducing insects; gall formation mechanism; insect effectors
Online: 24 August 2021 (13:04:19 CEST)
Galls are characteristic plant structures formed by cell size enlargement and/or cell proliferation induced by parasitic or pathogenic organisms. Insects are a major inducer of galls, and insect galls can occur on plant leaves, stems, floral buds, flowers, fruits, or roots. Many of these exhibit unique shapes, providing shelter and nutrients to insects. To form unique gall structures, gall-inducing insects are believed to secrete certain effector molecules and hijack host developmental programs. However, the molecular mechanisms of insect gall induction and development remain largely unknown due to the difficulties associated with the study of non-model plants in the wild. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing have allowed us to determine the biological processes in non-model organisms, including gall-inducing insects and their host plants. In this review, we first summarize the adaptive significance of galls for insects and plants. Thereafter, we summarize recent progress regarding the molecular aspects of insect gall formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0425.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: natural heritage; World Heritage; protected areas; Outstanding Universal Value (OUV); adaptive heritage; climate change
Online: 19 July 2021 (16:15:07 CEST)
Protected areas, such as natural World Heritage sites, RAMSAR wetlands, and Biosphere reserves are ecosystems within landscapes. Each site meets certain criteria that allow it to qualify as heritage or protected. Both climate change and human influence (e.g., incursion, increased tourist visitation) are altering biophysical conditions at many such sites. As a result, conditions at many sites are falling outside the criteria for their original designation. The alternatives are to change the criteria, remove protection from the site, change site boundaries such that the larger or smaller landscape meets the criteria, or manage the existing landscape in some way that reduces the threat. This paper argues for adaptive heritage, an approach that explicitly recognizes changing conditions. We discuss the need to view heritage areas as parts of a larger landscape, and to take an adaptive approach to management of that landscape. We offer five themes of adaptive heritage: 1) treat sites as living heritage, 2) employ innovative governance, 3) embrace transparency and accountability, 4) invest in monitoring and evaluation, and 5) manage adaptively. We offer the Australian Wet Tropics as an example where aspects of adaptive heritage currently are practiced, highlighting the tools being used. This paper offers guidance supporting decisions about natural heritage in the face of climate change and non-climatic pressures. Rather than delisting or lowering standards, we argue for adaptive approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0036.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: Cultural Heritage; Adaptive Reuse; Urban Regeneration; Community-Based Approach; Decision-Making Process, Intrinsic Value
Online: 2 November 2020 (11:36:31 CET)
The international debate on the adaptive re-use of cultural heritage sites following the Sustainable Development Goals becomes more central than ever in the implementation of circular economy models for urban policies. The new values that characterise the cultural assets, considered as the result of a collaborative process, can enhance both the manufactured capital and the human capital, and to carry out the system of relationships that bind them. At the same time, the values of historical-artistic assets and produced by community-based regeneration processes are particularly relevant when they characterise abandoned commons and cult buildings, to which communities attribute an identity and symbolic value. Starting from the definition of the concept of Complex Social Value, we propose a methodological process that combines approaches and techniques typical of deliberative evaluations and collaborative decision-making processes. The aim is to identify the complex value chains generated by adaptive re-use, in which intrinsic values can play a driving role in the regeneration strategies of discarded cultural heritage. The experimentation, tested with the project “San Sebastiano del Monte dei Morti Living Lab” (SSMOLL), activates a creative and cultural Living Lab in the former church of “Morticelli”, in the historic centre of Salerno, in southern Italy. The re-use project is part of a more comprehensive process of social innovation and culture-led urban regeneration triggered in Salerno starting from SSMOLL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0002.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: adaptive security; evolutionary game; Internet of Things; Smart grid; advanced metering infrastructure; smart home
Online: 2 November 2020 (08:08:12 CET)
We applied evolutionary game theory to extend a resource constrained security game model for confidentiality attacks in an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), which is a component of IoT-enabled Smart Grids. The AMI is modelled as a tree structure where each node aggregates the information of its children before encrypting it and passing it on to its parent. As a part of the model, we developed a discretization scheme for solving the replicator equations. The aim of this work is to explore the space of possible behaviours of attackers and to develop a framework where the AMI nodes adaptively select the most profitable strategies. Using this model, we simulated the evolution of a population of attackers and defenders on various cases resembling the real life implementation of AMI. We discuss in depth how to enhance security in AMI using evolutionary game theory either by a priori analysis or as a tool to run dynamic and adaptive infrastructure defence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0526.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: SLA; Violation; Adaptive SLA Template; Ontology; Context-aware; Virtual, Dynamic adaptation; Context-Aware Application
Online: 24 August 2020 (10:06:00 CEST)
During recent decades, contextual computing applications have emerged in the field of healthcare and particularly in the field of telemonitoring of patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). According to WHO rankings, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Various research works are therefore carried out to improve the health of patients and the monitoring of patients in the comfort of their home environment. To this end, several telemonitoring systems are designed to COPD patients. These systems are connected to health center. Emergency physicians follow the patients subscribed to these systems remotely. These systems focus mainly on prediction, decision-making and the requirements of the healthcare profession, and do not address the quality control aspects of services or QoS based on service level agreements (SLAs). This situation can be dangerous for patients in case of extreme exacerbation of COPD patients. For example, the unavailability of the monitoring system can lead to the death of the patient because the emergency physician could not have access to the patient's data in real time in the context of COPD Patient Monitoring. In addition, Remote medical monitoring platforms are manipulating large volumes of data and the risks of data lost or data quality are real. It is therefore important to have the mechanisms to continuously improve the quality of service of these monitoring platforms in general and COPD patients particularly. In this article, we propose an ontology that uses SLA information from COPD monitoring platforms with dynamic data from the patient context. The purpose of this article is to propose a dynamic mechanism model for evaluating SLA violations. This solution allows retrieving knowledge from the main items of the SLA document based on XML and the COPD patient context data dynamically from a COPD SLA ontology. These data retrieved in real time allow the calculation of SLO-based metrics and display a SLA template available on the supplier and consumer interfaces. The information of the SLA violation control Interface changes dynamically depending the context-aware system and SLA document data. The SLA parties can dynamically control their Key Performance Indicators (KPI) Target.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0018.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: visual-inertial integrated navigation system (VINS); visual odometry; autonomous driving; adaptive tuning; urban canyons
Online: 2 March 2020 (00:38:17 CET)
Visual-inertial integrated navigation system (VINS) has been extensively studied over the past decades to provide accurate and low-cost positioning solutions for autonomous systems. Satisfactory performance can be obtained in an ideal scenario with sufficient and static environment features. However, there are usually numerous dynamic objects in deep urban areas, and these moving objects can severely distort the feature tracking process which is fatal to the feature-based VINS. The well-known method mitigates the effects of dynamic objects is to detect the vehicles using deep neural networks and remove the features belongs to the surrounding vehicle. However, excessive exclusion of features can severely distort the geometry of feature distribution, leading to limited visual measurements. Instead of directly eliminating the features from dynamic objects, this paper proposes to adopt the visual measurement model based on the quality of feature tracking to improve the performance of VINS. Firstly, a self-tuning covariance estimation approach is proposed to model the uncertainty of each feature measurements by integrating two parts: 1) the geometry of feature distribution (GFD), 2) the quality of feature tracking. Secondly, an adaptive M-estimator is proposed to correct the measurement residual model to further mitigate the impacts of outlier measurements, such as the dynamic features. Different from the conventional M-estimator, the proposed method effectively alleviates the reliance of excessive parameterization of M-estimator. Experiments are conducted in a typical urban area of Hong Kong with numerous dynamic objects, and the results show that the proposed method could effectively mitigate the effects of dynamic objects and improved accuracy of VINS is obtained when compared with the conventional method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0148.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: chronic hepatitis C; chronic hepatitis B; innate immune response; adaptive immune response; cytokine; chemokine
Online: 12 April 2019 (10:59:21 CEST)
Background: Cytokines and chemokines are critical regulators of innate and adaptive immunities during viral infection. We examined innate and adaptive immune responses to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) at baseline and against controls. Methods: Twenty-seven cytokines were evaluated before treatment in 27 patients with chronic hepatitis C(CHC) [genotype1 (n=20), genotype2 (n=7), HCVRNA 5.72IU/ml] and 12 chronic hepatitis B(CHB) [e-antigen (Ag) (+) (n=5), e-Ag (-) (n=7), HBVDNA 6.191.31Logcopies/ml] and against controls(n=5). Results: Th1 and Th2 cytokines were significantly higher (p<0.05) in CHB than in CHC. The levels of IL-IL10 in CHC and CHB, and IL15 in CHC(genotype2) and CHB were significantly lower (p<0.05) than in controls. The levels of CXCL8 in CHC and CHB, IL12 in CHC and CHB [e-Ag (-)] and CXCL10 in CHC and CHB were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in controls. IFN-γwas higher in CHB than in controls. Conclusion: Cytokines levels differed between CHB and CHC before treatment. Innate immune responses were impaired in CHB with HBeAg(-) and CHC, but not in CHB with HBeAg(+) with high viral loads. Adaptive immune responses were impaired in CHB and CHC and appear to reflect the distinct state of virus-host immune interactions between CHB and CHC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0086.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Cryptococcal meningitis; Cryptococcus; HIV; CD4 T cells; CD8 T cells; adaptive immune response; IRIS
Online: 8 April 2019 (11:02:55 CEST)
Cryptococcal meningitis remains a significant opportunistic infection among HIV-infected patients, contributing 15%-20% of HIV-related mortality. A complication of initiating Antiretroviral therapy (ART) following opportunistic infection is Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS). IRIS afflicts 10-30% of HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis (CM), but its immunopathogenesis is poorly understood. We compared circulating T cell memory subsets and cytokine responses among 17 HIV-infected Ugandans with CM: 11 with and 6 without CM-IRIS. At meningitis diagnosis, stimulation with cryptococcal capsule component, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) elicited consistently lower frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell memory subsets expressing intracellular cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17) among subjects who subsequently developed CM-IRIS. After ART initiation, T cells evolved to show a decreased CD8+ central memory phenotype. At the onset of CM-IRIS, stimulation more frequently generated polyfunctional IL-2+/IL-17+ CD4+ T cells in patients with CM-IRIS. Moreover, CD8+ central and effector memory T cells from CM-IRIS subjects also demonstrated more robust IL-2 responses to antigenic stimulation vs. controls. Thus, ART during CM elicits distinct differences in T cell cytokine production in response to cryptococcal antigens both prior to and during the development of IRIS, suggesting an immunologic foundation for the development of this morbid complication of CM infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0739.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Event-Driven Processing, Speech recognition, Adaptive Resolution Analysis, Features extraction, Dynamic Time Warping, Classification
Online: 31 October 2018 (08:14:15 CET)
This paper proposes a novel approach, based on the adaptive rate processing and analysis, for the isolated speech recognition. The idea is to smartly combine the event-driven signal acquisition and windowing along with adaptive rate processing, analysis and classification for realizing an effective isolated speech recognition. The incoming speech signal is digitized with an event-driven A/D converter (EDADC). The output of EDADC is windowed with an activity selection process. These windows are later on resampled uniformly with an adaptive rate interpolator. The resampled windows are de-noised with an adaptive rate filter and their spectrum are computed with an adaptive resolution short time Fourier transform (ARSTFT). Later on, the magnitude, Delta and Delta-Delta spectral coefficients are extracted. The Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) technique is employed to compare these extracted features with the reference templates. The comparison outcomes are used to make the classification decision. The system functionality is tested for a case study and results are presented. An 8.2 times reduction in acquired number of samples is achieved by the devised approach as compared to the classical one. It aptitudes a significant computational gain and power consumption reduction of the proposed system over the counter classical ones. An average subject dependent isolated speech recognition accuracy of 96.8% is achieved. It shows that the proposed approach is a potential candidate for the automatic speech recognition applications like rehabilitation centers, smart call centers, smart homes, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0431.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban resilience; regional resilience; sustainability; cities; multi-level approach; complex systems; panarchy; adaptive cycles
Online: 19 October 2018 (04:16:55 CEST)
This study aims to understand the current state of research in urban resilience and to open a discussion about multi-level perspectives for this concept. Starting with the history of the concept of resilience, we identify three main stages in resilience concept’s evolution: conceptualization, contextualization and operationalization. Confusion occurs between sustainability and resilience, therefore we clearly separate these two concepts by creating conceptual maps. Such maps also underline the specificities of urban and regional resilience discourses. We illustrate that urban resilience research, operating within intra-urban processes, is oriented towards natural disasters, while regional resilience research, operating mostly within inter-urban processes, is oriented towards economic shocks. We show that these two approaches to resilience – urban and regional – are complementary, and we propose to integrate them into a multi-level perspective. By combining these two discourses, we propose a multi-level approach to urban resilience that takes into account both top-down and bottom-up resistance processes. In the discussion section, we propose to take the panarchy perspective as a theoretical framework for multi-level urban resilience, that explains the interactions between different levels through adaptive cycles, relationships between which can help to explain urban resilience.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: ultrasound image; speckle noise; wiener filter; average filter; wavelet filter; adaptive filter; fractional filter
Online: 15 March 2018 (06:47:19 CET)
Speckle noise corrupt the major part of ultrasound image, because of which the quality deteriorate and loss of valuable information leads to false diagnosis. A large community of images like synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image, Synthetic image, and simulated ultrasound image, require despeckling at pre-processing stage for better processing. Cleaning the speckle from image and preserving the edge details is a vital task. Nowadays not only despeckling is considered as an important process but also preserving information at boundary and edges of image is also important. As most of the algorithms able to remove speckle noise but fails to preserve the details of edges. This paper covers several recent methods for removal of speckle noise along with various metrics opted for comparisons. The distinctive part of this paper is, a mathematical and parametric review has been done. Also a table is also included which summarizes the entire paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0332.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Near-net-shaped Blade; Adaptive Machining; Small Object Detection; Neural Network; Transformer; Real-Time Detection
Online: 4 January 2022 (11:12:43 CET)
In the leading/trailing edge’s adaptive machining of the near-net-shaped blade, a small portion of the theoretical part is retained for securing aerodynamic performance by manual work. However, this procedure is time-consuming and depends on the human experience. In this paper, we defined retained theoretical leading/trailing edge as the reconstruction area. To accelerate the reconstruction process, an anchor-free neural network model based on Transformer was proposed, named LETR (Leading/trailing Edge Transformer). LETR extracts image features from an aspect of mixed frequency and channel domain. We also integrated LETR with the newest meta-Acon activation function. We tested our model on the self-made dataset LDEG2021 on a single GPU and got an mAP of 91.9\%, which surpassed our baseline model, Deformable DETR by 1.1\%. Furthermore, we modified LETR’s convolution layer and named the new model after GLETR (Ghost Leading/trailing Edge Transformer) as a lightweight model for real-time detection. It is proved that GLETR has fewer weight parameters and converges faster than LETR with an acceptable decrease in mAP (0.1\%) by test results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0499.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: seismic isolation; asymmetric building; mode-adaptive bidirectional pushover analysis (MABPA); seismic retrofit; momentary energy input
Online: 29 September 2021 (14:26:15 CEST)
In this article, the main building of the former Uto City Hall, which was severely damaged in the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake, is investigated as a case study for the retrofitting of an irregular Reinforced Concrete building using the base-isolation technique. Its peak response is predicted via mode-adaptive bidirectional pushover analysis (MABPA), which was originally proposed by the authors. In the prediction step of MABPA, the peaks of the first and second modal responses are predicted considering the energy balance during a half cycle of the structural response. The numerical analysis results show that the peak relative displacement can be properly predicted by MABPA. The results also show that the performance of the retrofitted building models is satisfactory for the ground motion considered in this study, including the recorded motions in the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: flexible robot arm; robust-adaptive control, sliding mode variable structure control; actuator dynamics; zero dynamics
Online: 15 September 2021 (10:22:41 CEST)
Modelling errors, robust stabilization/tracking problems under parameter and model uncertainties complicate the control of the flexible underactuated systems. Chattering-free sliding-mode based input-output control law realizes robustness against the structured and unstructured uncertainties in the system dynamics and avoids excitation of unmodeled dynamics. The main purpose is to propose a robust adaptive solution for stabilizing and tracking direct-drive (DD) flexible robot arms under parameter and model uncertainties, as well as external disturbances. A lightweight robot arm subject to external and internal dynamic effects was taken into consideration. The challenges are compensating actuator dynamics with the inverter switching effects and torque ripples, stabilizing the zero dynamics under parameter/model uncertainties and disturbances while precisely track the predefined reference position. The precise control of this kind of system demands an accurate system model and knowledge of all sources that excite unmodeled dynamics. For this purpose, equations of motion for a flexible robot arm were derived and formulated for the large motion via Lagrange’s method. The goals were determined to achieve high-speed, precise position control, and satisfied accuracy by compensating the unwanted torque ripple and friction that degrades performance through an adaptive robust control approach. The actuator dynamics and their effect on the torque output were investigated due to the transmitted torque to the load side. The high-performance goals, precision&robustness issues, and stability concerns were satisfied by using robust-adaptive input-output linearization-based control law combining chattering-free sliding mode control (SMC) while avoiding the excitation of unmodeled dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0288.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Fuzzy Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization; Graph Transformation System; Model Checking; Reachability Property; State Space Explosion
Online: 14 October 2020 (08:21:28 CEST)
Nowadays, model checking is applied as an accurate technique to verify software systems. The main problem of model checking techniques is the state space explosion. This problem occurs due to the exponential memory usage by the model checker. In this situation, using meta-heuristic and evolutionary algorithms to search for a state in which a property is satisfied/violated is a promising solution. Recently, different evolutionary algorithms like GA, PSO, etc. are applied to find deadlock state. Even though useful, most of them are concentrated on finding deadlock. This paper proposes a fuzzy algorithm in order to analyze reachability properties in systems specified through GTS with enormous state space. To do so, we first extend the existing PSO algorithm (for checking deadlocks) to analyze reachability properties. Then, to increase the accuracy, we employ a Fuzzy adaptive PSO algorithm to determine which state and path should be explored in each step to find the corresponding reachable state. These two approaches are implemented in an open-source toolset for designing and model checking GTS called GROOVE. Moreover, the experimental results indicate that the hybrid fuzzy approach improves speed and accuracy in comparison with other techniques based on meta-heuristic algorithms such as GA and the hybrid of PSO-GSA in analyzing reachability properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0334.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: industrial wireless sensor networks; IEEE~802.15.4g; smart utility networks; link reliability; adaptive techniques; modulation diversity
Online: 23 March 2020 (04:34:16 CET)
Adaptive mechanisms, such as channel hopping and packet replication, are used in low-power wireless networks to deal with the spatial and temporal variations in the link quality, and meet the reliability requirements of industrial applications (i.e., PDR>99%). However, the benefits of such mechanisms are limited and may have a large impact on end-to-end latency and energy consumption. Hence, in this paper we propose using adaptive modulation diversity, which allows to dynamically select different modulations, to improve link reliability. We present three adaptive modulation diversity selection strategies and validate them using the data derived from a real-world deployment using the IEEE 802.15.4g SUN modulations (i.e., SUN-FSK, SUN-OQPSK and SUN-ODFM) in an industrial environment. The results show that by using adaptive modulation diversity it is possible to improve link reliability regardless of node conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Lithium ion battery pack; state of charge; square root; unscented Kalman filter; adaptive covariance matching
Online: 10 October 2018 (14:45:10 CEST)
The state of charge estimation is an important part of the battery management system, the estimation accuracy of which seriously affects the working performance of the lithium ion battery pack. The unscented Kalman filter algorithm has been developed and applied to the iterative calculation process. When it is used to estimate the SOC value, there is a rounding error in the numerical calculation. When the sigma point is sampled in the next round, an imaginary number appears, resulting in the estimation failure. In order to improve the estimation accuracy, an improved adaptive square root - unscented Kalman filter method is introduced which combines the QR decomposition in the calculation process. Meanwhile, an adaptive noise covariance matching method is implied. Experiments show that the proposed method can guarantee the semi-positive and numerical stability of the state covariance, and the estimation accuracy can reach the third-order precision. The error remains about 1.60% under the condition of drastic voltage and current changes. The conclusion of this experiment can provide a theoretical basis of the state of charge estimation in the battery management of the lithium ion battery pack.