ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0453.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: ARDS; VIP; Aviptadil; RLF-100; Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; Sepsis
Online: 20 July 2020 (03:46:11 CEST)
Purpose: To assess the clinical safety and possible effectiveness of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in the treatment of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) related to sepsis. Methods: Under FDA Investigational New Drug clearance, 8 patients with ARDS related to sepsis were treated with 50 pmole/kg/hr – 100 pmole/kg/hr of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide by intravenous infusion for 12 hours. All patients were on mechanical ventilation and full telemetery. Results: No drug-related serious adverse events were seen. Hypotension was seen in association with two infusions and diarrhea in association with one, but did not necessitate cessation of therapy. Bigeminy was seen in association with one infusion without sequelae. Seven of eight patients demonstrated a successful course during intensive care and were successfully removed from mechanical ventilation and discharged from intensive care. The eighth patient succumbed to purulent secretions in the lungs. Of those who were discharged from the ICU, six demonstrated successful 30 day survival. The seventh died from a cerebral infract at day 30, deemed unrelated to treatment with VIP. Serum levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor α were obtained in 6 patients at baseline and 24 hours and were seen to decrease with treatment in five patients. Conclusions: Initial clinical results of treatment with VIP in patients with ARDS demonstrated a safety profile consistent with previous studies in normal volunteers. The successful clinical course seen in 7 of 8 patients in the setting of an expected 50% survival may suggest that VIP shows promise in the treatment of other infectious conditions that damage the pulmonary epithelium, particularly COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: pneumonia; acute respiratory distress syndrome; pathogenesis; protein-homeostasis-system; corticosteroid; intravenous immunoglobulin
Online: 18 November 2016 (10:18:58 CET)
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is caused by infectious insults, such as pneumonia from various pathogens or related to other noninfectious events. Clinical and histopathologic characteristics are similar across severely affected patients, suggesting that a common mode of immune reaction may be involved in the immunopathogenesis of ARDS. There may be etiologic substances that have an affinity for respiratory cells and induce lung cell injury in cases of ARDS. These substances originate not only from pathogens, but also from injured host cells. At the molecular level, these substances have various sizes and biochemical characteristics, classifying them as protein substances and non-protein substances. Immune cells and immune proteins may recognize and act on these substances, including pathogenic proteins and peptides, depending upon the size and biochemical properties of the substances (this theory is known as the protein-homeostasis-system hypothesis). The severity or chronicity of ARDS depends on the amount of etiologic substances with corresponding immune reactions, the duration of the appearance of specific immune cells, or the repertoire of specific immune cells that control the substances. Therefore, treatment with early systemic immune modulators (corticosteroids and/or intravenous immunoglobulin) as soon as possible may reduce aberrant immune responses in the potential stage of ARDS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0158.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; accessory protein; mapping; structure; Open reading frame, Orf.
Online: 3 November 2022 (10:27:01 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic first observed in December 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has influenced every individual on the planet. The virus has influenced our lifestyle, education, economy and the environment. Though the vaccines against COVID-19 have provided protection against the disease; new strains of the virus have lowered the efficiency of the vaccines. There is still no effective therapy for the treatment of the disease. Understanding the protein structure of the virus may lead to the development of effective therapies for the disease. We recently mapped the structural proteins and non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2. The accessory proteins (Open reading frames, Orfs) of SARS-CoV-2 modulate the host environment to favor virus replication. This paper reports mapping the accessory proteins (Orfs) of SARS-CoV-2.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0360.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; acute respiratory distress syndrome; hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction; alveolar edema; early low-flow oxygen
Online: 11 February 2021 (11:40:30 CET)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread over the world for more than one year. COVID-19 often develops life-threatening hypoxemia. Endothelial injury caused by the viral infection leads to intravascular coagulation and ventilation-perfusion mismatch. However, besides above pathogenic mechanisms, the role of alveolar edema in the disease progression has not been discussed comprehensively. Since the exudation of pulmonary edema fluid was extremely serious in COVID-19 patients, we bring out a hypothesis that severity of alveolar edema may determine the size of poorly-ventilated area and the blood oxygen content. Treatments to pulmonary edema (alcohol-oxygen vapor therapy and fluid management) may be great helpful for reducing occurrence of severe cases. Given that late mechanical ventilation may cause mucus (edema fluid) to be blown to the deep of the small airways, oxygen therapy should be given at the early stages. The optimal time and SpO2 threshold for oxygen therapy are also discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0097.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: acute respiratory distress syndrome; mesenchymal stem/stromal cells,; exosome; COVID-19; Clinical trials
Online: 4 December 2020 (10:10:11 CET)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has reached a global epidemic across the world after first reported in Wuhan, China’s Hubei province in December 2019. The pandemic is also associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) characterized by excess inflammation, progressive arterial hypoxemia and dyspnea. Mesenchymal stem/ stromal cells (MSCs) have been investigated as treatment for ARDS due to immunomodulatory property. Exosomes derived from MSCs play an important role in paracrine signaling of MSCs, thereby contributed to immunomodulation of the immune microenvironment. Exosomes are emerged as potential alternative to MSC cell therapy with superiority of safety. In this review, we will introduce MSC-derived exosomes and briefly discuss current progress on MSCs and exosomes in ARDS, which may have clinical implications in pathogenesis and treatment of COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0035.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Experimental radiotherapy; radiobiology; Mesenchymal stem cells; Cell therapy; Exosome; Annexin A1; Acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome; COVID-19
Online: 2 August 2020 (14:54:24 CEST)
Previously we have shown that the combination of radiotherapy with human-umbilical-cord-derived mesenchymal stem-cell therapy significantly reduces the size of the xenotumours in mice, both in the directly irradiated tumour and in the distant non-irradiated tumour or in its metastasis. We have also shown that exosomes secreted from mesenchymal stem-cells pre-irradiated with 2 Gy are quantitatively, functionally and qualitatively different from the exosomes secreted from non-irradiated mesenchymal cells and also that proteins, exosomes and microvesicles secreted by mesenchymal cells suffer a dramatic change when cells are activated or non-activated, with the amount of protein present in the exosomes of the pre-irradiated cells being 1.5-fold times greater compared to those from non-irradiated cells. This finding correlates with a dramatic increase in the anti-tumour activity of the exosomes secreted by pre-irradiated mesenchymal-cells. After the proteomic analysis of the load of the exosomes released from both irradiated and non-irradiated cells, we conclude that annexin A1 is the most important and significant difference between the exosomes released by the cells in either status. Knowing the role of annexin A1 in the control of hypoxia and inflammation which is characteristic of acute-distress-respiratory syndrome, we have designed a hypothetical therapeutic strategy, based on the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells stimulated with radiation, to alleviate the symptoms of patients who, due to pneumonia caused by COVID-19, require the care of an intensive care unit for patients with life-threatening conditions. With this hypothesis, we would seek to improve the patients’ respiratory capacity and increase the expectations of their cure.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0153.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; 2019-nCoV; COVID-19; angiotensin converting enzyme 2; Receptor; Live Attenuated Oral Vaccine; Intestine; proximal and distal enterocytes; herd immunity
Online: 9 April 2020 (13:10:50 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2/2019-nCoV) infection is an emerging pandemic. The virus binds to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and TMPRSS2 which are abundantly expressed on various human cells including lung epithelial cells and intestinal cells and the virus can infect these cells. Currently no specific treatments or vaccines are available for this disease. A per oral live attenuated vaccine can be beneficial in SARS-Cov-2 infection because the attenuated virus initially infects the gut, stimulates the mucosa associated immune system sparing the respiratory system during the initial immune response. The live virus can also spread in the community boosting herd immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0177.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; acute respiratory distress syndrome; methylprednisolone; mechanical ventilation; ventilator-free days; SARS-CoV-2 infection
Online: 11 January 2021 (10:13:42 CET)
Objectives: There are limited data regarding the efficacy of methylprednisolone in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. We aimed to determine whether methylprednisolone increases the number of ventilator-free days (VFDs) among these patients. Design: Retrospective single-center study Setting: Intensive care unit Patients: All patients with ARDS due to confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation between 1 March and 29 May 2020 were included Interventions: None Measurements and Main Results: The primary outcome was ventilator-free days (VFDs) during the first 28 days, defined as being alive and free from mechanical ventilation. The primary outcome was analyzed with competing-risks regression based on Fine and Gray’s proportional subhazards model. Death before day 28 was considered to be the competing event. A total of 77 patients met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-two patients (41.6%) received methylprednisolone. The median dose was 1 mg.kg-1 (IQR: 1-1.3 mg.kg-1) and median duration of 5 days (IQR:5-7 days). Patients who received methylprednisolone had a mean 18.8 VFDs (95% CI, 16.6-20.9) during the first 28 days vs. 14.2 VFDs (95% CI, 12.6-16.7) in patients who did not receive methylprednisolone (difference, 4.61; 95% CI, 1.10-8.12; P = 0.001). In the multivariable competing-risks regression analysis and after adjusting for potential confounders (ventilator settings, prone position, organ failure support, severity of the disease, tocilizumab, and inflammatory markers), methylprednisolone was independently associated with a higher number of VFDs (subhazards ratio: 0.10, 95%CI: 0.02-0.45; p=0.003). Hospital mortality did not differ between the two groups (31.2% vs. 28.9%, p=0.82). Hospital length of stay was significantly shorter in the methylprednisolone group (24 days [IQR:15-41 days] vs. 37 days [IQR:23-52 days], p=0.046). The incidence of positive blood cultures was higher in patients who received methylprednisolone (37.5% vs. 17.8%, p=0.052). However, 91% of patients who received methylprednisolone also received tocilizumab. The number of days with hyperglycemia was similar in the two groups. Conclusions: Methylprednisolone was independently associated with increased VFDs and shortened hospital length of stay. The combination of methylprednisolone and tocilizumab was associated with a higher rate of positive blood cultures. Further trials are needed to evaluate the benefits and safety of methylprednisolone in moderate or severe COVID-19 ARDS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Acute coronary syndrome; inflammation; neutrophil; outcome
Online: 7 April 2020 (11:18:03 CEST)
Aims: Clinical evidence indicates that innate immune cells may contribute to the onset and outcome of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Our prospective study aimed at analysing neutrophil phenotypes in ACS and their role in predicting 1-year major cardiovascular events. Methods: Blood neutrophil phenotypes were analysed by flow cytometry. Differential blood cell count and plasma levels of soluble markers were recorded at admission and at 6-month follow-up. Results: 108 patients categorized in chronic stable coronary artery disease (n=37), unstable angina (UA) (n=19), Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) (n=25), and ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) (n=27) were included. STEMI and NSTEMI patients displayed higher neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) than stable and UA patients (P<0.0001), which normalized at 6-month after MI. STEMI patients were characterized by elevated percentages of band cells in low-density neutrophils (P=0.007) and in high-density neutrophils (P=0.019) compared to the other patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that plasma levels of total MPO was associated with STEMI when compared to stable (OR: 1.434; 95% CI: 1.119-1.837; P<0.0001), UA (1.47; 1.146-1.886; P=0.002), and NSTEMI (1.213; 1.1-1.134; P=0.0001) patients, while increased neutrophil SSC signal intensity was associated with NSTEMI compared to stable patients (3.828; 1.033-14.184; P=0.045). Based on multivariable Cox regression analysis, elevated plasma levels of PCSK9 and low-density neutrophil percentage predicted 1-year outcome independently of cardiovascular risk factors (c-index: 0.915; IQR: 0.908-0.929). Conclusions: Changes in neutrophil phenotype are concomitant to ACS. These changes may differ between STEMI and NSTEMI. They may also contribute to ACS risk and patient outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1916.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: High flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy; acute respiratory failure; geriatrics; acute non-intensive hospital setting
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:22:17 CEST)
Background. There are scant data about the effectiveness of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy in patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory failure (ARF) in non-intensive medical wards, particularly regarding the effect on arterial oxygenation compared to conventional oxygen therapy (COT) and non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Methods. In a retrospective observational study, oxygenation parameters were measured before and immediately after HFNC initiation in 37 consecutive patients hospitalized in a geriatric ward in 2017. Results. HFNC was used as escalation therapy for untreatable hypoxia after failure of NIV/CPAP (n=18) or COT (n=19). Twenty-two patients died, 2 were transferred to the intensive care unit, while 13 were discharged alive. A “do not intubate” status was identified in 17 of the 22 deceased patients. Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2, p< 0.0001), oxygen saturation (SO2, p< 0.0001), pO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (p=0.004) and peripheral SO2 measured by pulse oximetry (p< 0.0001) significantly increased soon after HFNC application. Oxygenation improvements were greater after escalation from NIV/CPAP and in patients discharged alive. Conclusion. HFNC significantly improved oxygenation in severe ARF after failure of COT or NIV/CPAP and may be particularly suitable for older patients hospitalized in non-intensive medical wards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0019.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Acute Compartment Syndrome; MEMS; Scientific process; biomarker; pressure; sensor; diagnosis; medical device; bioengineering; medicine
Online: 1 May 2023 (05:24:58 CEST)
Background: Sensor usage in the classical scientific process has allowed new experimentation in medicine. We report on the design process of a MEMS sensor being used for muscle trauma evaluation in diagnosing acute compartment syndrome (ACS), a medical ailment costing society billions of dollars per year. Objectives: Modeling the disease with scientific process allows a more complete under-standing of the disease. The goal was to formulate a hypothesis that could be tested to aid in making the diagnosis of ACS accurately. Methods: Scientific process was observed throughout the disease modelling process. Background information was improved and clarified, new pre-clinical models were de-signed and verified, a hypothesis built on pressure measurement with MEMS sensors was carried out, and the testing of the model as verified against previous clinical data was accomplished. Results: Scientific process resulted in hypothesis generation around the relationship of intracompartmental pressure measurement and the disease process and therapy. This resulted in new understanding of ACS, accurate modelling, and sensor design resulting in a MEMS device that has an extremely high sensitivity and specificity (over 99%) in treating and diagnosing the disease. Conclusion: MEMS sensor technology defines the new gold standard of implanting a sensor in a muscle compartment that allows accurate diagnosis of ACS with continuous trends in pressure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0136.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: acute toxicity; cardiovascular depression; intravenous lipid emulsion; propofol; rat model; respiratory depression
Online: 23 October 2018 (09:34:43 CEST)
Abstract: Background and objective: Propofol is an anesthetic agent that is frequently used in anesthesia induction, maintenance and sedation. Propofol has severe side effects such as hypotension, bradycardia and respiratory depression. Although propofol is commonly used, there is no known antidote for its toxic effects. An approach to prevent toxic effects of propofol would be beneficial. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy in the prevention of depressive effects of propofol on cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. The saline-administered group was determined as the Control group. The second group was administered propofol (PP group); the third group was administered ILE (ILE group), and the fourth was administered propofol with ILE therapy (ILE+PP group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), Respiratory rate (RR), Heart rate (HR) and mortality were recorded at 10 points during 60 minutes. A repeated measures linear mixed-effect model with unstructured covariance was used to compare the groups. Results: In the PP group, SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels were declining steadily; all rats in this group died after 60 minutes. In the ILE+PP group, after a while, the decreased SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels increased SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels of the Propofol group were found to be significantly lower than those of the other groups (p<0.01). The mortality rate was 100% (surviving period, 60 min) for the PP group, whereas 0% for the ILE, ILE+PP and Control groups. Conclusion: Our results suggest that undesirable side effects that can be seen after propofol application such as hypotension, bradycardia and respiratory depression might be prevented by using ILE therapy.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0317.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); COVID19; Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; bioaerosol; aerosol
Online: 30 April 2020 (05:30:30 CEST)
A short review of the important studies was conducted to evaluate the potential of aerosol transmission of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The minimum size of droplets potentially carrying the SARS-CoV-2 was newly estimated and discussed in this review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0250.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: socioeconomic status; indoor air pollution; acute respiratory infection; cooking fuel; under-five children
Online: 23 July 2019 (07:45:08 CEST)
Background: Low-income families often depend on fuels such as wood, coal, and animal dung for cooking. Such solid fuels are highly polluting and are a primary source of indoor air pollutants (IAP). We examined the association between solid fuel use (SFU) and acute respiratory infection (ARI) among under-five children in Afghanistan and the extent to which this association varies by socioeconomic status (SES) and gender. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study based on de-identified data from Afghanistan’s first standard Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2015. The sample consists of ever-married mothers with under-five children in the household (n=27,565). We used mixed-effect Poisson regression models with robust error variance accounting for clustering to examine the associations between SFU and ARI among under-five children after adjusting for potential confounders. We also investigated potential effect modification by SES and sex. Additional analyses were conducted using an augmented measure of the exposure to IAP accounting for both SFU and the location of cooking/kitchen (High Exposure, Moderate, and No Exposure). Results: Around 70% of households reported SFU, whereas the prevalence of ARI was 17.6%. The prevalence of ARI was higher in children living in households with SFU compared to children living in households with no SFU (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]= 1.10; 95%CI: 0.98, 1.23). We did not observe any effect modification by SES or child sex. When using the augmented measure of exposure incorporating the kitchen’s location, children highly exposed to IAP had a higher prevalence of ARI compared to unexposed children (aPR 1.17; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.32). SES modified this association with the strongest associations observed among children from the middle wealth quintile. Conclusion: The findings have significant policy implications and suggest that ARI risk in children may be reduced by ensuring clean cookstove as well as clean fuels and acting on the socio-environmental pathways.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0178.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Aviptadil; Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; VIP; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Corona Virus; Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; ARDS; Acute Lung Injury; ALI; surfactant; Alveolar Type II; ATII
Online: 2 August 2020 (18:16:20 CEST)
RLF-100 (Aviptadil), a synthetic form of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is shown to block replication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and has been granted Fast Track Designation by the US FDA for the treatment of Critical COVID-19 with Respiratory Failure. We describe the clinical course of the first patient treated with this investigational medication in an open label manner -- a 54 year old patient suffering antibody-mediated rejection of his double lung transplant who contracted COVID-19 with respiratory failure refractory to all currently available therapies. He received three infusions of RLF-100 under an FDA-approved emergency use IND. Within 24 hours of the third infusion, substantial improvement in oxygen saturation and radiographic improvement in characteristic COVID-19 pneumonitis was noted. He was discharged from intensive care at that point and scheduled for discharge to home at 1 week on room air. Despite an intervening hospitalization for trauma, he remains alive and free of respiratory failure at 28 days post treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: troponin; high-sensitivity; chronic kidney disease; renal insufficiency; myocardial infarction; acute coronary syndrome
Online: 10 August 2021 (08:45:07 CEST)
Background: Patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD G4-G5) often have chronically elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) values above the 99th percentile of the upper reference limit. In these patients, optimal cutoff levels for diagnosing non-ST-elevation acute cor-onary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) requiring revascularization remain undefined. Methods: Of 11,912 patients undergoing coronary angiography from 2012 to 2017 for suspected NSTE-ACS, 325 (3%) had severe CKD. Of these, 290 with available serial hs-cTnT measurements were included and 300 matched patients with normal renal function were selected as a control cohort. Results: Diagnostic performance for patients with severe CKD was high at presentation and similar to that of the control population (AUC, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.75-0.87 versus 0.85, 0.80-0.89, p=0.68) and the ROC-derived cutoff value at presentation was 4 times higher compared to the conventional 99th percentile. Combining the ROC-derived cutoff levels for hs-cTnT at presentation and absolute 3-hour changes, sensitivity increased to 98%, PPV and NPV improved up to 93% and 86%, re-spectively. (4) Conclusions: In patients with severe CKD and suspected ACS the diagnostic accu-racy of hs-cTnT for the diagnosis of NSTE-ACS requiring revascularization is improved by using higher assay specific cutoff levels combined with early absolute changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0117.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: acute compartment syndrome; negative pressure wound therapy; vacuum assisted wound closure; fasciotomy
Online: 8 April 2020 (04:50:32 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is an emergency condition of the lower limb in which prophylactic fasciotomy is required to prevent complications. A negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) used to the treatment of fasciotomy wounds provide beneficial clinical results. This study aimed to exchange the authors’ experience of using the NPWT installation system on the lower limb wounds after fasciotomy in ACS. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study enrolled consecutive patients with ACS, who underwent fasciotomy and was treated with the NPWT installation system at Department of Vascular Surgery, Provincial Hospital in Kielce from April 2016 to July 2017. Results: The study enrolled 15 patients with a diagnosis of ACS (87% men, mean age 65 years old). An open four-compartment fasciotomy (87%) or two-compartment fasciotomy (13%) was performed. The NPWT was applied on the first day after fasciotomy in 87% of patients. Therapy was initiated by the negative pressure of 125 mm Hg, which maintained at this level until the therapy was finalized. In 80% of patients, the vacuum-assisted wound closure (VAC) dressing changes were performed every 3 days. The first approximation of fasciotomy wounds margins occurred on the 4th day after surgery among 67% of individuals. The average time of using VAC on fasciotomy wounds was 9 days. The average time to definitive closure edges of fasciotomy wounds was 12 days. The average time of hospital stay was 17 days. Conclusions: Our experience indicates the legitimacy of using NPWT in wound treatment after fasciotomy in ACS. The NPWT enables faster primary closure of wounds, reduces edema, as well as decreases hospitalization time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0392.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV2), COVID-19, molecular diagnostics, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)
Online: 23 August 2022 (03:55:44 CEST)
Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2. In Colombia, many commercial methods are now available to perform the RT-qPCR assays, and the laboratories must evaluate its diagnostic accuracy to ensure reliable results to suspected COVID-19 patients. The purpose of the study was to compare four commercial RT-qPCR assays for detection of SARS-CoV2 virus, from nasopharyngeal swab samples referred to Laboratorio Carvajal IPS, SAS of Tunja, Boyacá - Colombia. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 152 samples of respiratory tract samples (Nasopharyngeal Swab) from patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. Diagnostic accuracy of GeneFinderTM COVID-19 Plus RealAmp (In Vitro diagnostic), One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR (Vitro Master diagnostica), Berlin modified protocol and gold standard Berlin protocol (Berlin Charite Probe One-Step RT-qPCR Kit, New England Biolabs) as reference was assessed. Operational characteristics were estimated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, agreement, and predictive values. Results: Using Berlin Charite Probe One-Step RT-qPCR Kit as reference, the sensitivity/specificity for the diagnostic tests were found to be GeneFinderTM COVID-19 Plus RealAmp Kit 100%/92.7%, One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR, One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR 92.75%/67.47%, and Berlin modified protocol 100%/96.39%. The results of four commercially available methods were found to be consistent with those obtained from Berlin Modified protocol analysis for % of the samples and showed good agreement (κ= 0.96). Concordant SARS-CoV2 negative and positive RT-qPCR results were reported for xxx and xxx samples, respectively. Summarize something about the Ct. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that all commercially available methods are rapid and reliable for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 virus associated with COVID-19. One-Step RT-qPCR Kit and GeneFinderTM COVID-19 Plus RealAmp assay show optimal sensitivity compared with Belin modified protocol. In addition, there is no significant correlation between xxxxx
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0040.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: human bocaparvovirus; acute gastroenteritis; children
Online: 4 April 2023 (05:19:34 CEST)
Human bocavirus (HBoV) is an emerging virus that has been detected worldwide that could be associated with cases of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). However, its contribution to AGE has not been elucidated. This study aimed to describe the frequency, clinical features, and HBoV genotypes circulation in children up to 5 years with or without AGE symptoms in Acre, Northern Brazil. A total of 480 stool samples were collected between January and December 2012. Fecal samples were used for extraction, nested PCR amplification, and sequencing for genotyping. Statistical analysis was applied to verify the association between epidemiological and clinical characteristics. Overall HBoV-positivity was 10% (48/480), being HBoV-positivity rates of 8.4% (19/226) and 11.4% (29/254) recorded among diarrheic and non-diarrheic children, respectively. The most affected age group was between 7 and 24 months (50%). HBoV infection was more frequent in children living in urban areas (85.4%), using water from the public network (56.2%), and living with adequate sewage facilities (50%). Co-infection with other enteric viruses was 16.7% (8/48) and the most prevalent coinfection was RVA+ HBoV (50%, 4/8). HBoV‐1 was the most frequent species detected, responsible for 43.8% (21/48) of cases, followed by HBoV-3 (29.2%, 14/48) and HBoV-2 (25%, 12/48). In the present study, HBoV infections are not associated with AGE, as most HBoV cases belonged to the non-diarrheal group without AGE symptoms. Future studies are warranted to determine the role of HBoV in causing acute diarrhea disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0323.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: miRNA; IKZF1; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Online: 17 August 2022 (11:29:02 CEST)
The hematopoietic transcription factor Ikaros (IKZF1) regulates normal B cell development and functions as a tumor suppressor in precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that through post-transcriptional gene regulation play critical roles in intracellular processes including cell growth in cancer. However, the role of Ikaros in the regulation of miRNA expression in developing B cells is unknown. In this study, we examined the Ikaros-regulated miRNA targets using patient-derived IKZF1-mutated B-ALL xenograft-derived cell lines. Inducible expression of wild-type Ikaros (the Ik1 isoform) caused B-ALL growth arrest and exit from the cell cycle. Global miRNA expression analysis revealed a total of 31 miRNAs regulated by IK1, and ChIP-seq analysis showed that Ikaros bound to several Ik1-responsive miRNA genes. Examination of the prognostic significance of miRNA expression in B-ALL indicate that the IK1-regulated miRNAs hsa-miR-26b, hsa-miR-130b and hsa-miR-4649 are significantly associated with outcome in B-ALL. Our findings establish a potential regulatory circuit between the tumor-suppressor Ikaros and the oncogenic miRNA networks in IKZF1-mutated B-ALL. These results indicate that Ikaros regulates the expression of a subset of miRNAs, of which several may contribute to B-ALL growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: acute malnutrition; combined protocol; community-based management of acute malnutrition; ef-fectiveness; Mali; mid-upper-arm circumference; moderate acute malnutrition; ready-to-use ther-apeutic food; treatment; severe acute malnutrition; simplified protocol; wasting
Online: 7 September 2022 (05:21:16 CEST)
The simplified, combined protocol admits children with a mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) of <125 mm or edema to malnutrition treatment with ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) prescribing 2 daily RUTF sachets to children with MUAC <115 mm or edema and 1 daily sachet to those with MUAC ≥115 mm but <125 mm. This treatment has previously been shown to result in non-inferior programmatic outcomes compared to standard treatment. We aimed at observing its effectiveness in a routine setting at scale, including via delivery by community health workers (CHW). A total of 27 601 children were admitted to the simplified, combined treatment. Treatment resulted in 96% overall recovery with a mean LOS of 40 days and a mean RUTF consumption of 63 sachets per child treated. Among children admitted with MUAC <115 mm or edema 94% recovered with a mean LOS of 55 days and consuming an average of 97 RUTF sachets. Recovery in all sub-groups studied exceeded 90%.Treatment by CHWs resulted in similar (96%) recovery as treatment by formal health care workers (96%). The simplified, combined protocol results in high recovery and low RUTF consumption per child treated, and can safely be adopted by CHWs to provide treatment in the community-level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0693.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: acute myocardial infarction; case fatality; registry
Online: 27 November 2020 (14:12:24 CET)
Background: This study aimed to present the development process and characteristics of the Korean Registry of Acute Myocardial Infarction for Regional Cardiocerebrovascular Centers (KRAMI-RCC). Methods: We developed KRAMI-RCC, a web-based registry for patients with AMI. Patients from 14 RCCs were registered for more than 3 years from July 2016. It includes an automatic error-checking system, and user training and on-site monitoring are performed to manage data quality. Results: A total of 11,700 AMI patients were registered in KRAMI-RCC over 3 years (73.9% men). The proportions of patients with ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction at discharge were 43.4% and 56.6%, respectively. Of the total 3-year patients, 5.6% died in the hospital and 4.4% died 12 months after discharge. The case fatality within 12 months was 9.7%. Prehospital care data showed delayed arrival time after onset of symptoms (median 153 min) and low transportation rate by public ambulance (25.2%). Post-hospital care data showed lower participation rate in the second rehabilitation program (16.8%). Conclusions: The recently developed KRAMI-RCC registry has been more focused on pre-hospital and post-hospital data, which will be helpful in understanding the current state of AMI disease management and in making policy decisions to reduce case fatality in Korea.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0177.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Cataract surgery, acute endophthalmitis, chronic endophthalmitis
Online: 14 May 2019 (15:28:30 CEST)
Background: The assessment of the incidence and characteristic of acute and chronic post-operative endophthalmitis (POE) after cataract surgery in Poland during 2010 - 2015. Patients and methods: All hospitalizations of patients, in the National Database of Hospitalizations, who underwent cataract surgery alone or in combined procedures in Poland between January 2010 and December 2015, with a billing code of endophthalmitis, were selected. Acute endophthalmitis was identified if symptoms occurred within 1 - 42 days from the cataract surgery and chronic endophthalmitis if symptoms occurred ≥ 43 days after cataract surgery, respectively. Results: In total, 1331 cases of POE after 1,218,777 cataract extractions were identified. The overall incidence of POE decreased from 0.125% in 2010 to 0.066% in 2015. In multiple logistic regression analyses, increasing age was significantly associated with acute POE, while type II diabetes mellitus, extracapsular cataract extraction and one-day surgery were significantly associated with chronic POE. The combined cataract surgery and male sex were significant risk factors for both acute and chronic POE. A total of 62.51% of all eyes affected by POE received antibiotic treatment and 37.49% had vitrectomy treatment. Conclusions: During the study period, the total incidence of post-operative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery decreased significantly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Geriatrics; Prehabilitation; Surgery; Acute Care Surgery
Online: 12 August 2017 (04:30:56 CEST)
INTRODUCTION Recently there has been a significant increase in age in the United States. It is necessary to better understand the physiological and surgical needs of these patients in order to optimize outcomes. The vast majority of procedures performed in adult patients are low-risk operations, such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Our aim is to investigate the outcomes, including length of stay, morbidity, mortality, re-admission and discharge disposition of the elderly population (>80) undergoing low-risk operations in our tertiary community hospital. METHODS A retrospective chart review was done at a tertiary community hospital. The time frame utilized was 2011-2015. Patients were excluded only on the basis of their age (< 80) at the time of operation. RESULTS There were a total of 30 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy from 2011 to 2015. 21 patients (70%) were female and 9 (30%) were male. No patients were converted to an open procedure. The average age was 86.4 years and average ASA classification prior to surgery was 2.88. Higher ASA class, specifically those that were class III/IV were more likely to have an increased length of stay that was statistically significant. Overall age greater than 80 was an independent risk factor for transfer to a higher level of care upon discharge (SNF, LTAC, etc.), a surrogate marker for physical decompensation following surgery. CONCLUSIONS Routine surgery, such as the laparoscopic cholecystectomy, effects the elderly population in a more substantial way, and early recognition coupled with increased education for physicians regarding geriatric patients can help to reduce length of stay, morbidity, and overall physical and mental deconditioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0108.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: contrast induced nephropath; acute myocardial infarction
Online: 21 November 2016 (12:13:30 CET)
Background: The morbidity of myocardial infarction is keeping raise in this decade. Because of high safety and operability , percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) has been used to conquer this disease for more than 20 years.An important complication of PCI is contrast induced nephropathy(CIN), which raises our attention. Previously, we started a study to explore the correlation between acute kidney injury and myonecrosis after scheduled percutaneous coronary intervention. Our study showed that the rate of CI-AKI in patients with post-procedural myocardial injury and undergoing elective PCI was higher than that in patients free of injury. Methods: In this study,forty male rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (n=8), CM group (n=12), AMI group (n=8) and AMI+CM group (n=12), then velocity of renal artery blood flow (VRABF), computer tomography (CT), serum creatinine(Scr), reactive oxidative species (ROS), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and TUNEL were used to estimate the injury of kidney. We analyzed 327 non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome subjects undertaking elective PCI. Serum levels of creatinine (SCr) and the eGFR before coronary angiography, and 24–72 h after contrast administration were recorded to assess the renal function. Results: The data showed that VRABF was lower in AMI+CM group than CM group from 0 minute to 24h and CT number in cortex was higher in AMI+CM group than CM group at 4-hour. As well as the level of Scr in AMI+CM group displayed a significantly increase at 24-hour compared with CM group. The histopathologic scores and percentage of tubular cell apoptosis were higher in AMI+CM group at 24-hour. In 327 patients, we found that CI-AKI occurred more often in subjects with post-procedural myonecrosis (PMN) than in those without PMN (20.8% versus 5.8%, respectively, P=0.001). Conclusion: Compared to the elective patient, the injury of CIN exhibited a higher severity in AMI patient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0231.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: etiology; leukemia; acute lymphoblastic leukemia; acute myeloblastic leukemia; genetics; causes; occupations; hobbies; genetic; infections; mycovirus; aspergillus
Online: 9 February 2021 (10:09:21 CET)
Acute leukemias constitute some of the most common malignant disorders. Despite significant progress made in the treatment of these disorders, their etiology remains unknown. A large and diverse group of genetic and environmental variables have been proposed. The role of a variety of factors, including pre-existing and acquired genetic mutations, exposure to radiation and various chemicals during pre-conception, pregnancy and throughout life have been explored. The effects of inherited genetic variations and disorders, pre-existing diseases, infectious agents, hobbies, occupations, prior treatments and a host of other factors have been proposed, but none is universally applicable to all cases. Variation in the incidence and prognosis based on the age, sex, race, type of the disease, geographic area of residence and other factors are intriguing, but remains unexplained. Advances in genomic profiling, including genome‐wide gene expression, DNA copy number, and single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] genotype may shed some light on the role of genetics in these disparities. Separate two-hit hypothesis for the development of acute myeloblastic and lymphoblastic leukemia have been proposed. The latter combines genetics and infection factors resulting in leukemogenesis. A number of pre- and post-natal environmental conditions and exposure to infections, including a mycovirus infected Aspergillus flavus, have been suggested. The exact nature, timing, sequence of the events and mechanisms resulting in occurrence of leukemia requires further investigations. This review summarizes some of the above factors and the direction for future research on the etiology of acute leukemias.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0605.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: acute fluorosis; tetramethylpyrazine; liver; oxidative damage; Nrf2
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:34:59 CEST)
Excessive intake of fluoride, one of the trace elements to maintain health, leads to liver injury. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine monomer with good antioxidant and hepatoprotective function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TMP on liver injury induced by acute fluorosis. A total of 60 1-month-old male Institute of Cancer Research mice without carriage of pathogenic bacteria were selected. All mice were fed adaptively for one week, and then randomly divided into 5 groups: control (K) group, model (F) group, low-dose (LT) group, medium-dose (MT) group and high-dose (HT) group. The control and model group were given distilled water, while 40 mg/kg (LT), 80 mg/kg (MT) and 160 mg/kg (HT) TMP were fed by gavage for two weeks with the maximum gavage volume of mice is 0.2ml/10g/d. Except for the control group, all groups were given fluoride (35 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection on the last day of the experiment. The results of this study showed that compared with the model group, TMP alleviated the pathological changes of liver induced by fluoride and improved the ultrastructure of liver cells; TMP significantly decreased the levels of ALT, AST and MDA (P <0.05), and increased the levels of T-AOC, T-SOD and GSH (P <0.05). The results of mRNA detection showed that TMP significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, CAT, GSH-Px and SOD in liver compared with model group (P <0.05). In conclusion, TMP can inhibit oxidative stress by activating Nrf2 pathway and alleviate liver injury induced by fluoride.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0277.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Long Covid; post Covid; Post-acute COVID
Online: 21 March 2022 (08:25:20 CET)
Abstract: COVID-19 Long Haulers, an estimated 3% to 12% of people infected globally with coronavirus having latter devasting symptoms 12 weeks after the initial infection is on the rise. We conducted a collaborative study with the long covid patient organization in Greece in order to estimate the prevalence, symptoms and problems that adult long haulers experience and then propose a management plan for these patients. Symptoms were obtained from 208 patients using unstructured qualitative free text entries in an anonymized online questionnaire. The majority of respondents (68.8%) were not hospitalized and had been diagnosed more than six months ago with lingering symptoms (66,8%). Eighteen different symptoms (fatigue, tachycardia, shortness of breath, parosmia etc) were mentioned in both hospitalized and community patients. Interestingly, patients with initial mild symptoms suffer from the same persistent symptoms as those who were hospitalized. Awareness of long covid sequelae seems to be low even among medical doctors. Treatment options incorporating targeted rehabilitation programs are either not available or still excluded from the management plan of long covid patients. Since long COVID is a multi-systemic entity, we propose a holistic interventional approach using a multidisciplinary medical team in order to securely and effectively diagnose and treat these specific patients. Academic and medical community must collaborate with long covid patients’ organizations so as to provide personalized medicine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0193.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Epitranscriptomics, acute myeloid leukemia, microRNA, CISH, Immunotherapeutics.
Online: 10 May 2021 (13:53:12 CEST)
Epigenetic alterations have contributed greatly to human carcinogenesis. Conventional epigenetic studies have been predominantly focused on DNA methylation, histone modifications and chromatin remodelling. However, recently, RNA modification (m6A-methylation) also termed ‘epitranscriptomics’ has emerged as a new layer of epigenetic regulation due to its diverse role in various biological processes. In this review, we have summarized the therapeutic potential of m6A-modifiers in controlling haematological disorders especially acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It is a type of blood cancer affecting specific subsets of blood-forming hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) which proliferate rapidly and acquire self-renewable capacities with impaired terminal cell-differentiation and apoptosis leading to abnormal accumulation of white blood cells, and thus an alternative therapeutic approach is required urgently. Here, we have described how RNA m6A-modification machineries EEE (Editor/writer: Mettl3, Mettl14; Eraser/remover: FTO, ALKBH5 and Effector/reader: YTHDF-1/2) could be reformed into potential druggable candidate or as RNA modifying drug (RMD) to treat leukemia. Moreover, we have shed-light on the role of microRNA and suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS/CISH) in increasing anti-tumor immunity towards leukemia. We anticipate, our investigation will provide a fundamental knowledge in nurturing the potential of RNA modifiers in discovering novel therapeutics or immunotherapeutic procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Heart Failure; Acute Kidney Injury; Prognosis; Mortality.
Online: 2 November 2020 (08:09:49 CET)
Introduction: Decompensated heart failure (HF) is a complex and debilitating syndrome, which constitutes a severe emergency condition with high morbidity and mortality. The kidneys play fundamental roles in the pathophysiology of HF and, in the context of decompensations, acute kidney injury (AKI) has a bilateral cause-and-effect relationship, which can significantly worsen prognosis. However, the interaction between AKI and decompensated HF is poorly understood. Objective: This study aimed to assess the occurrence of AKI in patients hospitalized due to decompensated HF and to analyze its prognostic impact during hospitalization. Methods: Prospective single-center observational study that included patients hospitalized due to decompensated HF in a tertiary-level teaching hospital, conducted between July 2017 and January 2020. Patients who developed AKI during hospitalization were compared with those who did not develop it, until hospital discharge or death. AKI was defined as a serum creatinine increase greater than or equal to 0.3 mg/dl in 48 hours, a 1.5-fold increase in baseline creatinine in seven days or urinary volume <0.5 ml/kg/h during six hours, according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. The endpoints analyzed were death, need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and length of hospital stay. The Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and unpaired student t tests were used. Results: Ninety-nine patients were included, with a mean age of 65.4 ± 14 years, of which 47 (47.5%) were male and 52 (52.5%) were female. Reduced ejection fraction was observed in 77.8% of patients, whilst 22.2% had a diagnosis of HF with preserved EF. The decompensation clinical classifications were: dry and warm = 7 (7.1%), wet and warm = 72 (72.7%), wet and cold = 15 (15.1%) and dry and cold = 5 (5.1%). The average left ventricular ejection fraction was 38.3% ± 15. AKI ocurred in 22 patients (22.2%). Comparison between patients who evolved with and without AKI showed higher mortality (36.4% vs 10.4%, p = 0.004) and the need for IMV (54.5% vs 13%, p = 0.0001) in the first group. There was no significant difference regarding the length of in-hospital stay (22.9 ± 19 vs 18.8 ± 16 days, p = 0.26). Conclusions: The occurrence of AKI was frequent in patients with decompensated HF requiring hospitalization, affecting approximately one out of five patients. This complication was significantly associated with increased mortality and the need for IMV during hospitalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0212.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Geophila obvallata; toxicity; Sub-acute; Drug therapy
Online: 13 April 2020 (11:38:46 CEST)
The study evaluates the toxic effects of acute and sub-acute oral administration of methanol extracts of Geophila obvallata in rats. During acute study, a dose of 1600, 2900 and 5000 mg/kg bw of extract was orally administered to rats. Rats were observed for signs of toxicity for two weeks. During sub-acute study (28 days), the extract, at doses of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw were administered orally to rats while control rats were given only tap water. At the end of the study, samples were collected for analyses. In acute toxicity studies, the extract did not induce death after single dose administration. Hence, the LD50 was estimated above 5000mg/kg. The results of sub-acute toxicity study show that no significant changes were observed in the body weights, organ weights, kidney function and organ histology. There were significant changes in hematology and biochemical indices investigated at elevated doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw compared to the control. GOE may be considered non-toxic at a dose of 100 mg/kg with promising applications in drug therapy.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: aflatoxins; tumorigenicity; carcinogenicity; acute toxicity; immunogenicity; genotoxicity
Online: 25 December 2019 (03:07:58 CET)
There are presently more than 18 known aflatoxins (>18) most of which have been insufficiently studied for their incidence, health-risk, and mechanisms of toxicity to allow effective intervention and control means that would significantly and sustainably reduce their incidence and adverse effects on health and economy. Among these, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has by far been the most studied; and yet, many aspects of the range and mechanisms of the diseases it causes remain to be elucidated. Its mutagenicity, tumorigenicity, and carcinogenicity, which are the best known still suffer from many limitations regarding the relative contribution of the oxidative stress and the reactive epoxide derivative (Aflatoxin-exo 8,9-epoxide) in the induction of the diseases, as well as its metabolic and synthesis pathways. Additionally, despite the well-established additive effects for carcinogenicity between AFB1 and other risk factors, e.g., hepatitis viruses B and C, and the algal hepatotoxic microcystins, the mechanisms of this synergy remain unclear. This study reviews the most recent advances in the mechanisms of toxicity of aflatoxins and the adverse health effects that they cause in humans and animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0017.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: childhood malnutrition; community-based management of acute malnutrition–CMAM; moderate acute malnutrition–MAM; supplementary feeding programs–SFP; Zambia
Online: 1 June 2018 (12:04:50 CEST)
Background: Evaluation of nutrition programs is essential to guarantee the effectiveness of community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM). Methods: The Rainbow Project Supplementary Feeding Programs (SFPs) in Zambia were evaluated between years 2015-17, following implementation of new recommendations based on previous evaluations (years 2012-14). Outcomes of the program were compared with International Standards and with those of 2012-14. Cox proportional risk regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of mortality and defaulting. Results: Data for 900 under age 5 years malnourished children (48.8% male; mean age 19.7months ±9.9) were analyzed. Rainbow 2015-17 program outcomes met International Standards, for general malnutrition or stratified moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM). When comparing with 2012-14 outcomes, better performance was noted: mortality rates were reduced by half (5.6% vs 3.1%, p = 0.01; for SAM: 12.4% vs 6.7%, p = 0.006), with significant improvement in average weight gain and mean length of stay (p<0.001), and increased awareness of HIV status (+30%; p < 0.001). HIV infection (5.5; 1.9–15.9), WAZ < −3 at baseline (4.6; 1.3–16.1) and kwashiorkor (3.5; 1.2–9.5) remained the major predictors of mortality. Conclusion: The effectiveness of the Rainbow SFPs for child malnutrition treatment and prevention in Zambia has significantly improved after evaluation and implementation activities, with impressive outcomes which resulted in a 50% reduction in mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1137.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: antioxidant; anticancer; glucosidase, physic-chemistry characteristics; acute toxicity
Online: 16 May 2023 (09:31:46 CEST)
Alginate extraction is from seaweed, and lignin separation is from by-product corn (stalks and leaves). Alginate/lignin is a synthetic polymer rich in biological activity of great interest. Antioxidant activities of alginate/lignin were evaluated, such as total antioxidant activity, reducing power activity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, and α – glucosidase inhibition activity. The test of anticancer activity was on four cell lines (Hep G2, fibroblast, MCF-7, and NCI H460). Determination of physical-chemistry characteristics of alginate/lignin was through FTIR, DSC, SEM_EDS, SEM_EDS mapping, XRD, XRF, and 1H-NMR. A study of acute toxicity of alginate/lignin was on Swiss albino mice. The results showed alginate/lignin possessed antioxidant activity such as total antioxidant activity, reducing power activity, especially, α – glucosidase inhibition activity, and no free radical scavenging activity. Alginate/lignin did not be typical in cancer cell lines. Alginate/lignin existed in a thermally stable regular spherical shape in the investigated thermal region. Some specific functional groups of alginate and lignin did not exist in alginate/lignin crystal. Elements such as C, O, Na, and S were popular in the alginate/lignin structure. LD0 and LD100 of alginate/lignin in mice were 3.91 g/kg and 9.77 g/kg, respectively. Alginate/lignin is the potential for application as pharmaceutical materials, functional foods, and supporting diabetes treatment.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0719.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Epstein-Barr virus; acute infectious diseases; salivary shedding
Online: 10 May 2023 (09:07:35 CEST)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a widely disseminated herpesvirus for which antibodies have been demonstrated in over 90% of adults worldwide. After subclinical primary EBV infections, as well as after infectious mononucleosis, the virus can be shed in saliva for a prolonged period of time. Diseases and disorders that can induce EBV salivary shedding include mental disorders and sex, connective tissue disease, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, malaria and HIV infection. As the occurrence of EBV in saliva during acute infectious diseases has not been systematically researched so far, this pilot cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between acute infectious diseases and salivary shedding of EBV. A total of 40 patients with acute infectious diseases was enrolled, along with 41 adults free of acute infections. Peripheral venous blood samples for serodiagnosis and saliva samples for EBV PCR testing were collected from both groups. The most common acute infectious disease was COVID-19 pneumonia, followed by haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Crude proportions of people with positive serological test results and those with saliva viral shedding were similar in the two groups. The presented preliminary data does not indicate acute infectious conditions as a marked “contributor” in increasing salivary EBV shedding.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0643.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Acute Wounds; Cellular Infiltrate; Chronic Wounds; Keloids; Scars
Online: 9 May 2023 (11:06:05 CEST)
Abstract: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent knowledge on the main processes that occur during wound healing, including the responses of various cell types and the molecular mechanisms involved. Particular attention is also dedicated to new therapies often involved in the resolution of wounds, whether acute or chronic. Awareness of these dynamics is important for the various professional figures who are confronted with these kinds of problem daily. However, the study of the healing mechanisms has yet to be defined in detail, in fact there are alterations of variously coordinated events which lead to a delayed resolution or, as in the case of keloids, to pathological states consisting in the excessive formation of scars with consequences yet to be seen. to define. Therefore, it is necessary to know the most feasible approaches and the most effective therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0149.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Acute liver failure; viral hepatitis; sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 3 May 2023 (12:40:38 CEST)
Though there has been a decline in the number of new cases of viral hepatitis-induced acute liver failure in Europe and the United States of America, viral hepatitis still remains the leading cause of acute liver failure in Asia-Pacific and South America. However, the epidemiology of viral-hepatitis-induced acute liver failure in sub-Saharan Africa-the world epicenter of viral hepatitis-is unclear. The aim of this review was to collate data on the incidence, prevalence, specific etiologic agents, features/diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of viral-induced acute liver failure in sub-Saharan Africa. One hundred and forty-seven cases of viral-induced acute liver failure were recorded in 11 studies conducted in six countries between 1981-2020. Etiological agents were: Hepatitis viruses A, B, C, and E, as well as Adenovirus, Enterovirus, Parvovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and EBV. HAV was the most frequent in paediatric subjects: (11/16) 69% and (19/30) 63%. HBV was the only etiological agent in the study that only included adults. HEV (genotype 2 in one study) contracted amidst hepatitis E outbreaks was the most commonly reported cause of ALF in pregnant women. Treatment was mainly supportive, and liver transplantation reported only in South Africa. Where reported, case fatality rates were high. In conclusion, viral-hepatitis induced acute liver failure is largely understudied in sub-Saharan Africa. The few available data are consistent with literature from the other parts of the world regarding aetiologic agents. Liver transplantation is not available in most sub-Saharan African countries, and short-term case fatality rates of individuals with acute liver failure could outstrip current rates from the other world regions.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Genomics; Epigenetics; Targeted Therapy
Online: 1 October 2021 (12:23:33 CEST)
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common malignancy in children and is characterized by numerous genetic and epigenetic abnormalities. Epigenetic mechanisms, which involve DNA methylations and histone modifications, result in the heritable silencing of genes without a change in their coding sequence. Emerging studies are increasing our understanding of the epigenetic role of leukemogenesis and have demonstrated the potential of DNA methylations and histone modifications as a biomarker for lineage and subtypes classification, predicting relapse, and disease progression in ALL. Epigenetic abnormalities are relatively reversible when treated with some small molecule-based agents compared to genetic alterations. In this review, we conclude the genetic and epigenetic characteristics in ALL and discuss the future role of DNA methylation and histone modifications in predicting relapse, finally focus on the individual and precision therapy targeting epigenetic alterations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0490.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: miRNAs; stroke; acute ischemic stroke; biomarkers; meta-analysis.
Online: 21 July 2021 (11:57:02 CEST)
Background: Acute ischemic stroke is among the main causes of mortality worldwide; a rapid and opportune diagnosis is crucial to improve a patient's outcome. MicroRNAs are quite useful for a rapid and accurate diagnosis.Methods: We perform both structural networks approach and a meta-analysis (using a random-effect model to evaluate the heterogeneity and risk bias, according to the PRISMA statement) to analyze the feasibility to develop a microRNA-based biomarker panel for an opportune AIS diagnosis. Results: Structural networks identify a set of eight miRNAs (miR-16, miR-124-3p, miR-484, miR-15a, miR-4454, miR-107, miR-125b-5p and miR-320b) as preliminary microRNA-based biomarker panel, from these only three microRNAs are significantly associated with the main risk factors of AIS, (miR-107: hypertension, 95% CI 9.74-53.24 p<0.0001, type 2 Diabetes mellitus, 95% CI 2.18-19.26); p=0.0008; miR-16 hypertension, 95% CI 1.26-3.56 p=0.0046, smoking, 95% CI 1.07-3.54 p=0.0277; and miR-15a hypertension, 95% CI 1.26-3.56 p=0.0046; smoking, 95% CI 1.07-3.54 p=0.0277). However, the meta-analysis reveals that data is highly heterogeneous and biased; and only microRNAs isolated from plasma samples and further processed in microarrays are the most reliable to distinguish AIS patients.Conclusions: Together our results show that although there are some miRNAs that seem to be associated with AIS, we are still far to develop a miRNA-based biomarker for AIS diagnosis and it is necessary to harmonize the protocols, results and include more populations for further studies otherwise we will remain throwing punches in the dark.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0601.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: MLL-SEPT6; TRAF3; FGFR3; Acute Myelogenous Leukemia; Child.
Online: 24 March 2021 (16:20:43 CET)
The MLL gene is a site of frequent rearrangement in acute leukemia with multiple fusion partners, but MLL-SEPT6 rearrangement is rare in clinical leukemia practice, and only 13 cases have been reported. We describe the case of an acute myelogenous leukemia child with MLL-SEPT6 rearrangement whose age of onset and accompanying gene mutations differs from previous reports. Considering the poor prognosis of leukemia children with MLL-SEPT6 rearrangement and the unsatisfactory results of existing treatments, the study of this case may provide new theories for diagnosis and treatment of MLL-SEPT6-associated childhood acute leukemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: physical activity; Alzheimer’s disease; 5xFAD; acute, wheel running
Online: 12 February 2021 (15:03:25 CET)
Physical activity is considered a promising preventive intervention to reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the positive effect of exercise therapy has not been proven conclusively yet, likely due to confounding factors such as varying activity regimens and life or disease stages. To examine the impact of different routines of physical exercise in the early disease stages, we subjected young 5xFAD and wild-type mice to 1-day (acute) and 30-day (chronic) voluntary wheel running and compared them with age-matched sedentary controls. We observed a significant increase in brain lactate levels in acutely trained 5xFAD mice relative to all other experimental groups. Subsequent brain RNA-seq analysis did not reveal major differences in transcriptomic regulation between training durations in 5xFAD mice. In contrast, acute training yielded substantial gene expression changes in wild-type animals relative to their chronically trained and sedentary counterparts. The comparison of 5xFAD and wild-type mice showed the highest transcriptional differences in the chronic and sedentary groups, whereas acute training was associated with much fewer differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, our results suggest that different training durations did not affect the global transcriptome of 3-month-old 5xFAD mice, whereas acute running seemed to induce a similar transcriptional stress state in wild-type animals as already known for 5xFAD mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0449.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: retrospective cohort; predictors; recovery; severe acute malnutrition; Jimma
Online: 27 May 2020 (08:59:02 CEST)
Background: Treatment at stabilization center is an important intervention to avert the huge burden of mortality for children with complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Recent reviews indicated a wide range in recovery rate (34-88%) due to several context-specific factors. This study aimed to estimate time to recovery and to determine predictors of time to recovery among children aged 6-59 month with severe acute malnutrition. Method: Retrospective cohort study was used among 375 children aged 6-59 months admitted in Jimma university medical center, from September 2015 to September 2017. Kaplan Meir estimate and survival curve was used to compare the time to recovery using log-rank test among different characteristics. Cox Proportional Hazard Model was used to identify significant predictors of time to recovery. Results: Median time of recovery for cohort of SAM children’s was 19 days (95%CI: 17.95-20.05). Independent predictors of time to recovery were: Play stimulation, vaccination status, Tuberculosis, malaria, use of amoxicillin, deworming and shock. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the average length of stay on treatment and median time for recovery are within the sphere standard. Psychosocial stimulation, appropriate provision of routine medication and management of medical co-morbidity are needed to promote fast recovery.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: novel coronavirus infection; renal transplant; acute kidney injury
Online: 12 March 2020 (03:02:03 CET)
Novel coronavirus infection is a recent infective agent that causes severe potentially fatal pneumonia. The clinical presentation includes asymptomatic infection, severe pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure. Data pertaining to the clinical presentation of solid organ transplant recipients are scarce. Two cases of novel coronavirus infection in two recipients of renal transplant with variable clinical presentations and outcomes are reported. The first patient presented with progressive respiratory symptoms, acute renal failure, and passed away, whereas the second one, although presented with respiratory tract symptoms and hypoxemia remained stable and exhibited an excellent clinical recovery despite recent reception of thymoglobulin induction. This paper reports rare cases of novel coronavirus infection in renal transplant recipients. For an enhanced insight of the novel coronavirus infection and acute kidney injury on the clinical presentation, severity, and outcome in solid organ transplant recipients, further investigations are required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: mini nutritional assessment; acute myocardial infarction; mortality; elderly
Online: 13 November 2018 (10:56:25 CET)
Background: Malnutrition is a frequent condition in the elderly and is associated with prolonged hospitalization and increased mortality. However, the impact of malnutrition among elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction has not been clarified yet. Methods and Results: We have enrolled 174 patients aged 65 years and over, admitted with the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who underwent to the evaluation of nutritional status by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and of mortality risk by Grace score 2.0. All-cause mortality was the outcome considered for this study. Over a mean follow-up of 24.5 ± 18.2 months, 43 deaths have been registered (24.3%). Non-survivors were more likely to be older, with worse GFR, lower SBP, lower albumin and MNA score, higher prevalence of Killip classification III-IV grade, and higher Troponin I levels. Multivariate Cox proportional analysis revealed that Grace score and MNA showed a significant and independent impact on mortality, (HR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.34–2.32 and HR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.42–0.73, respectively). Moreover, the clinical decision curve revealed a higher clinical net benefit when the MNA was included compared to the partial models without MNA. Conclusions: Nutritional status is an independent predictor of long-term mortality among elderly patients with AMI. MNA score in elderly patients with AMI may help prognostic stratification and identification of patients with/at risk of malnutrition in order to apply interventions to improve nutritional status and maybe survival in this population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0590.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: acute appendicitis; complicated appendicitis; laparoscopic appendectomy; intraabdominal abscess
Online: 29 September 2018 (10:51:00 CEST)
Background: To investigate the preoperative clinical and radiological factors that predict the development of a postoperative intraabdominal abscess (IAA) in patients with acute appendicitis who were treated by laparoscopic appendectomy (LA). Methods: Two hundred sixteen patients with pathologically proven acute appendicitis underwent LA between January 2013 and March 2018 in our department. Of these, 147 patients were diagnosed with complicated appendicitis (CA) (CA group), while the other 69 patients were diagnosed with simple appendicitis (SA) (SA group). We compared the perioperative clinical and radiographic factors between the two groups and investigated the predictive factors of postoperative IAA. Results: Sixteen patients developed postoperative IAA in the CA group, while no patients did in the SA group. The univariate analysis revealed that time from onset to surgery more than 3 days (p = 0.011), the preoperative CT finding of periappendiceal fluid (p = 0.003), abscess (p < 0.001), and free air (p <0.001), operation time more than 120 minutes (p = 0.023) and placement of a drainage tube (p <0.001) were significantly associated with the development of IAA. Multivariate analysis revealed that the preoperative CT finding of free air was independently associated with the development of IAA (p = 0.007, odds ratio = 5.427). Conclusions: IAA was developed predominantly in the patients with CA. Preoperative CT findings of free air was found to be an independent predictor for the development of IAA. Surgeons should be meticulous in managing the postoperative course of patients with this finding.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0435.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Acute Myeloid Leukemia; FLT3; Tyrosine kinase inhibitors; resistance
Online: 21 September 2018 (10:28:34 CEST)
Identification of recurrent driver mutations in genes encoding tyrosine kinases has resulted in the development of molecularly targeted strategies designed to improve the outcomes for patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3, is the most commonly mutated gene in AML, with internal tandem duplications within the juxtamembrane domain (FLT3-ITD) or missense mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain (FLT3-TKD), present in 30%-35% of AML patients at diagnosis. An established driver mutation and marker of poor prognosis, the FLT3 tyrosine kinase has emerged as an attractive therapeutic target, and thus has encouraged the development of FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, the therapeutic benefit of FLT3 inhibition, particularly as monotherapy, frequently results in the development of treatment resistance and disease relapse. Commonly, FLT3 inhibitor resistance is induced by the emergence of secondary lesions in the FLT3 gene, particularly in the second tyrosine kinase domain at residue Asp835 (D835) to form a ‘dual mutation’ (ITD-D835). Individual FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD mutations influence independent signaling cascades however, currently little is known which divergent signaling pathways are controlled by each of these FLT3 specific mutations, particularly in the context of patients harboring dual ITD-D835 mutations. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the known discrete and cooperative signaling pathways regulated by each of the FLT3 specific mutations, as well as the therapeutic approaches that hold the most promise for development of more durable and personalized therapeutic approaches targeting mutant FLT3, to improve the treatment of AML.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: dual anti platelet therapy; acute coronary syndrome; stents
Online: 12 February 2018 (05:13:18 CET)
Percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) with stenting for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome(ACS) is the contemporary standard of care. Such treatment is followed by Dual anti-platelet therapy(DAPT) comprising of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor. The efficacy of this therapy has been well established but the optimal duration of DAPT remains elusive, and has thus far attracted a prodigious deal of scientific attention. Decision regarding DAPT duration can be challenging clinically in the modern era with the evolution of newer stents, more potent antiplatelet agents and novel anticoagulant drugs in addition to an older patient population with multiple comorbidities. Major societal guidelines have emphasized comprehensive assessment of ischemic and bleeding risk, in turn recommending individualization of DAPT duration, thus encouraging "shared decision making". The following review is aimed at critically evaluating the available evidence to help make these crucial clinical decisions regarding duration of DAPT and triple therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: acute pharyngitis; rational use of drugs; incidence; prevalence
Online: 30 December 2016 (07:37:07 CET)
According to Indonesia’s result of Basic Health Research of 2013, prevalence of acute respiratory infection in 2007 and 2013 were not different (25.5% and 25.0%, respectively). Identifying the cause of acute pharyngitis is a key point in determining the optimal treatment. The main purpose is to evaluate the rational use of drugs and its irrational impact as well as the correlation of the drug use with the incidence and prevalence of acute pharyngitis. This study was a descriptive and observational study, carried out retrospectively and concurrently at two community health centers located in Bandung and Cimahi, Indonesia. There were 80.01% over prescription of antibiotics, with a total of 8.98% is non-treatment option, and 62.43% irrational used of corticosteroids. The incidence and prevalence of acute pharyngitis at one health center in Bandung were 2.45% and 2.31%, respectively, with irrationality rate of 83.82%. Those recorded at one health center in Cimahi were 2.11% of incidence and 2.00% of prevalence with irrational rate of 91.29%. It can be concluded that there were still irrational use of medicines in the treatment of acute pharyngitis in community health center. The higher incidence and prevalence might indicate the declining health services quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0658.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: acute pancreatitis; coumarins; warfarin; inflammation; coagulation; pancreatic blood flow.
Online: 21 April 2023 (02:38:22 CEST)
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is the most common gastrointestinal disease leading to hospitalizations. The development of AP leads to damage of the pancreatic microcirculation with a cascade of subsequent events resulting, among others, in coagulopathy. Previous research showed that anticoagulants can be an important therapeutic agent. Heparin and acenocoumarol can alleviate the course of AP, as well as accelerate healing and post-inflammatory regeneration of the pancreas. The aim of this study was to check whether warfarin, a drug with more stable effects than acenocoumarol, affects the healing and regeneration of the pancreas in the cerulein-induced AP. AP was evoked in Wistar male rats by intraperitoneal administration of cerulein. The first dose of warfarin (45, 90 or 180 µg/kg/dose) was administered 24 hours after the first dose of cerulein and the doses of warfarin were repeated once a day in subsequent 10 days. The severity of acute pancreatitis was assessed immediately after the last dose of cerulein, as well as 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 days after AP induction. Treatment with warfarin dose-dependently increased interna-tional normalized ratio (INR) and attenuated the severity of pancreatitis in histological ex-amination and accelerated pancreatic recovery. Those effects were accompanied with a faster reduction in the pancreatitis-evoked increase in serum activity of amylase and lipase, serum concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β, and plasma level of D-Dimer. In addition, treatment with warfarin decreased pancreatic weight and improved pancreatic blood flow in rats with AP. The therapeutic effect was particularly pronounced after the administration of warfarin at a dose of 90 µg/kg/dose. Conclusion: Administration of warfarin accelerates re-generation of the pancreas and recovery in the course of cerulein-induced mild-edematous acute pancreatitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0537.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: L-asparaginase; chimeric; in silico; immunogenicity; acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Online: 30 January 2023 (03:21:51 CET)
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer among children worldwide, characterized by an overproduction of undifferentiated lymphoblasts in the bone marrow. The treatment of choice for this disease is the enzyme L-asparaginase (ASNase) from bacterial sources. ASNase hydrolyzes circulating L-asparagine in plasma, leading to starvation of leukemic cells. The ASNase formulations of E. coli and E. chrysanthemi present notorious adverse effects, especially the immunogenicity they generate, which undermines both their effectiveness as drugs and patient safety. In this study, we developed a humanized chimeric enzyme from E. coli L-asparaginase, which would reduce the immunological problems associated with current L-asparaginase therapy. For these, the immunogenic epitopes of E. coli L-asparaginase (PDB: 3ECA) were determined and replaced with those of the less immunogenic Homo sapiens asparaginase (PDB:4O0H). The structures were modeled using the Pymol software and the chimeric enzyme was modeled using the SWISS MODEL service. A humanized chimeric enzyme with four subunits similar to the template structure was obtained, and the presence of asparaginase enzymatic activity was predicted by protein-ligand docking.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: acute pulmonary embolism; dilemmas; therapeutic treatment; recommendations; clinical application
Online: 2 August 2022 (03:12:56 CEST)
Pulmonary thromboembolism is a very common cardiovascular disease, with a still high mortality rate. Despite the clear guidelines, this disease still represents a great challenge both in diagnosis and treatment. Heterogeneous clinical picture, often without pathognomonic signs and symptoms, represents a huge differential diagnostic problem even for experienced doctors. The decision on the therapeutic regimen also represents a major dilemma in the group of patients who are hemodynamically stable at initial presentation and have signs of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction proven by echocardiography and positive biomarker values (pulmonary embolism of intermediate-high risk). Studies have shown conflicting results about the benefit of using fibrinolytic therapy in this group of patients until hemodynamic decompensation, due to the risk of major bleeding. The latest recommendations give preference to new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKA), except for certain categories of patients (patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, mechanical valves, pregnancy). When using oral anticoagulant therapy, special attention should be paid to drug-drug interactions, which can lead to many complications, even to the death of the patient. Special population groups such as pregnant women, obese patients, patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and cancer represent a great therapeutic challenge in the application of anticoagulant therapy. In these patients, not only the effectiveness of the drugs must be taken into account, but great attention must be paid to their safety and possible side effects, which is why a multidisciplinary approach is emphasized in order to provide the best therapeutic option.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0304.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: PCNSL; high-dose methotrexate; acute uric acid nephropathy; rasburicase
Online: 20 July 2022 (11:52:03 CEST)
Background: Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) are sensitive to chemotherapy. Standard treatment is high-dose methotrexate (MTX)-based chemotherapy. There are no reports of successful treatment of acute uric acid nephropathy with rasburicase after MTX administration in PCNSL. Case presentation: A 54-year-old man with a history of gout presented with character change and memory loss. MRI showed a large, enhancing mass spanning the bilateral frontal lobes and right temporal lobe. After endoscopic biopsy, MTX, procarbazine and vincristine (MPV) regimen was initiated for treatment of PCNSL. After initiation of chemotherapy, the patient suffered from a gout attack and blood examination revealed acute renal failure (ARF) and hyperuricemia. The considered causes of ARF included MTX toxicity and acute urid acid nephropathy. Since a good response to chemotherapy was observed, the latter was assumed. After improvement of renal function, MTX was resumed, initiating rasburicase for control of hyperuricemia. A complete response was obtained after induction chemotherapy. Hyperuricemia was controlled with rasburicase and renal function was preserved. Conclusions: Acute uric acid nephropathy should be considered when ARF occurs after initiation of MTX in PCNSL. For newly diagnosed PCNSL patients with large tumors or hyperuricemia, upfront usage of rasburicase should be considered to prevent it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0115.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: intracranial compliance; intracranial pressure; intracranial hypertension; acute brain injury
Online: 7 October 2021 (10:54:26 CEST)
We validated a new noninvasive tool (B4C) to assess intracranial pressure waveform (ICPW) morphology in a set of neurocritical patients, correlating the data with ICPW obtained from invasive catheter monitoring. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing invasive intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring were consecutively evaluated using the B4C sensor. Ultrasound-guided manual internal jugular vein (IJV) compression was performed to elevate ICP from the baseline. ICP values, amplitudes, and time intervals (P2/P1 ratio and time-to-peak [TTP]) between the ICP and B4C waveform peaks were analyzed. Results: Among 41 patients, the main causes for ICP monitoring included traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke. Bland-Altman’s plot indicated agreement between the ICPW parameters obtained using both techniques. The strongest Pearson’s correlation for P2/P1 and TTP was observed among patients with no cranial damage (r = 0.72 and 0.85, respectively) in detriment of those who have undergone craniotomies or craniectomies. P2/P1 values of 1 were equivalent between the two techniques (area under the receiver operator curve [AUROC], 0.9) whereas B4C cut-off 1.2 was predictive of intracranial hypertension (AUROC 0.9, p < 000.1 for ICP > 20 mmHg). Conclusion: B4C provided biometric amplitude ratios correlated with ICPW variation morphology and is useful for noninvasive critical care monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: aphasia; acute ischemic stroke; length of stay; mRS; NIHSS
Online: 2 September 2021 (14:39:03 CEST)
We aimed to reveal the disease burden of aphasia after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) at the national level and investigate the impact of aphasia on tertiary care resources and patient outcomes. The local database from the Cluj-Napoca Emergency County Hospital (CNECH), the second largest stroke center in Romania was used to export demographics, baseline clinical and laboratory data, inpatient length of stay (LOS), NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score data for all AIS patients admitted during March 2019. Of 92 patients included in the study, 30 (32.6 %) had aphasia on admission. In a marginally significant unadjusted hierarchical multiple regression model, individuals with aphasia had a LOS of 1.86 days longer than stroke survivors without aphasia. In an adjusted version of the model, the NIHSS score at baseline was a significant predictor for LOS. In addition, the presence of aphasia was associated with a 1.49 increase in the mean mRS score. Aphasia was a marginally significant predictor for increased LOS. Presence of aphasia was more likely to produce a poor functional outcome. Considering an estimated impact of approximately EUR 3 million on direct medical expenditure annually, future policymaking efforts should improve prevention of stroke and improved access to post-stroke aphasia care in Romania.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0642.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; RAS; acute kidney injury; immune response
Online: 29 July 2021 (10:20:36 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To contain the virus, numerous preventive measures have been taken including isolation of patients, careful infection control, social distancing, and taking vaccine. So far, new confirmed and death cases are still increasing. SARS-CoV-2 invades cells by using the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 is an essential enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which converts angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin (1-7). ACE2 is expressed in different organs, including lung, heart, and kidney. A high number of COVID-19 patients developed kidney injury has been reported. Renal impairment and acute injury are associated with mortality of COVID-19, which is 14-16 times higher than other general patients. Acute Kidney Injury has been occured in 2.9 up to 43% of intensive care unit patients. The increasing evidence show that the components of RAS can activate the complement cascade, and cytokines production. Kidney injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 is related mainly to systemic and local inflammation. Moreover, the uncontrolled immune responses mediated by SARS-CoV-2 including hypercytokinaemia, secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, antibody dependent enhancement, complement system, and phagocytic cells activation can contribute in the virus pathogenesis leading to associated renal dysfunction. However, the role and crosstalk between of RAS components and immune response in mediating kidney injury remain undefined. In this review, we focus on the recent studies to provide the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 interacting with RAS and immune responses to mediate kidney injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0716.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: intracranial compliance; intracranial pressure; decompressive craniectomy; acute brain damage
Online: 29 June 2021 (23:58:09 CEST)
Background: Morphological alterations in intracranial pressure pulse waveform (ICPPW) secondary to intracranial hypertension (ICP >20 mmHg) and reduction in intracranial compliance (ICC) are well known indicators of neurological severity. To date, no studies have documented the ICPPW modifications after intracranial hypertension resolution with decompressive craniectomy (DC). The present study aimed to assess the morphological alterations in ICPPW among neurocritical care patients with and without DC, by comparing the variations of ICPPW features according to elevations in mean ICP values. Methods: Patients requiring ICP monitoring because of severe traumatic or spontaneous conditions were included. Mean ICP values were compared with ICPPW features (P2/P1 ratio, TTP and pulse amplitude). Elevation in ICP was produced by means of ultrasound-guided manual internal jugular veins compression. Results were distributed for three groups: intact skull (exclusive burr hole for ICP monitoring), craniotomy/large fractures (group 2) or DC (group 3). Results: 57 patients were analyzed. 21 (36%) presented no skull defects, whereas 15 (26%) had DC. ICP was not significantly different between groups: ±13.59 for intact and ±17.66 mmHg for DC, with ICP induced elevation also similar between groups (p= 0.56). Significant elevation was observed for P2/P1 ratio for groups 1 and 2, whereas reduction was observed in group 3 (elevation of ±0.09 for groups 1 and 2, whereas reduction of 0.03 for group 3, p=0.01). Conclusion: In the present study, intracranial pressure pulse waveform analysis indicated that intracranial compliance was significantly more impaired among decompressive craniectomy patients, although ICPPW indicated DC to be protective for further influences of ICP elevations over the brain. Analysis of ICPPW seems to be an alternative to real time ICC assessment.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0337.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndrome, inflammation, case report
Online: 13 April 2021 (13:14:55 CEST)
Background: Although persistent systemic inflammation is considered to be predictive for future cardiovascular events, it remains unclear whether or not C-reactive protein (CrP) plays an active role in coronary-plaque instability. Here, we report a case of a patient with failed and super-infected renal allograft as a source for systemic inflammation presenting with repeat acute coronary syndromes. Case presentation: A 52-years-old male type-2 diabetic with a failed kidney transplant who was hospitalized for acute urinary-tract infection. In the presence of other, classic cardiovascular risk factors, peak values of CrP coincided with episodes of unstable angina treated by percutaneous coronary interventions. Besides pyelonephritis, the histological examination of the kidney transplant revealed signs of chronic rejection and the presence of a renal cell carcinoma in situ. Once the renal allograft has been removed, systemic inflammation was attenuated, the patient was not re-hospitalized for acute-coronary syndrome within the next 12 months. Conclusion: In this case, systemic inflammation was paralleled by instability of coronary plaques as documented by repeat percutaneous coronary interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0350.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: hyperglycemia; inflammation; infarct size; MINOCA; obstructive acute myocardial infarction
Online: 16 October 2020 (12:35:44 CEST)
Hyperglycemia has been associated with increased inflammatory indexes and larger infarct sizes in patients with obstructive acute myocardial infarction (obs-AMI). In contrast, no studies have explored these correlations in non-obstructive acute myocardial infarction (MINOCA). We investigated the relationship between hyperglycemia, inflammation and infarct size in a cohort of AMI patients that included MINOCA. Patients with AMI undergoing coronary angiography between 2016 and 2020 were enrolled. The following inflammatory markers were evaluated: C-reactive protein, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil-to-platelet ratio (NPR). Myocardial infarct size was measured by peak high sensitivity troponin I (Hs-TnI) levels, left-ventricular-end-diastolic-volume (LVEDV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The final study population consisted of 2450 patients with obs-AMI and 239 with MINOCA. Hyperglycemia was more prevalent among obs-AMI cases. In all hyperglycemic patients - obs-AMI and MINOCA - NLR, NPR, and LPR were markedly altered. Hyperglycemic obs-AMI subjects exhibited a higher Hs-TnI, a larger LVEDV and a lower LVEF compared to normoglycemic ones. Conversely, MINOCA patients showed similar myocardial damage, irrespective of glycemia. Our data confirm the association of hyperglycemic obs-AMI with elevated inflammatory markers and larger infarct sizes. MINOCA patients exhibited modest myocardial damage, regardless of admission glucose levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: acute kidney injury; HPB surgery; perioperative care; critical care
Online: 18 May 2020 (17:29:02 CEST)
Aim: Aim of our study was to evaluate incidence and causative factors for acute kidney injury in hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) surgeries. Material and Methods: All the HPB surgeries performed between April 2018 to March 2020, in our institution have been analysed for acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury defined according to acute kidney injury network classification. Categorical variables were evaluated by chi square test and fisher t test wherever approptiate and continuous variables by Mann Whitney U test. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23. P< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: We performed 195 HPB surgeries between April 2018 to March 2020, Which included 114 biliary surgeries, 57 liver surgeries and 23 pancreas surgeries. 10 patients developed Acute Kidney Injuries. (AKI) On Univariate analysis AKI was associated with open surgeries, intra operative hypotension and liver surgeries, higher ASA grade, increase operative time, more blood products used, higher CDC grade of surgery and more hospital stay before diagnosis of AKI. However on multivariate analysis only higher ASA score independently predicted Acute Kidney Injury. (p=0.003, odds ratio 15.659, 95% confidence interval 2.54-93.36). AKI was also significantly associated with mortality. (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Pre operative higher ASA grade independently predicted post operative acute kidney injury. Post operative AKI is significantly associated with mortality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0291.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: respiratory acidosis; CO2 narcosis; acute respiratory distress syndrome; hyperoxia
Online: 17 April 2020 (01:59:51 CEST)
Since 1991, there has been an alarming increase in the number of unexplained physiological events (UPEs) reported and experienced by pilots of jet fighters across different fleets. The UPEs have resulted in grounding some airframes, loss of aircraft, and even loss of life. There is no single agreed-upon root cause of UPEs that has been identified, and therefore there is no reliable corrective action. This author analyzed the literature related to other industries where artificial hyperoxic gas mixes are employed and where similar adverse reports have been reported. I hypothesize that UPEs are caused by high-dose oxygen delivery in excess of officially approved oxygen schedules while airflow rates are often inadequate, at a time when the positive pressure breathing feature of their oxygen regulator is not used. In a setting where pulmonary vital capacity is adversely affected by G-maneuvers and oxygen- and G-induced atelectasis, tidal volume is reduced by flight gear, and effective gas exchange is not supported by adequate ventilation, these factors combine to produce respiratory acidosis, followed by acute respiratory distress syndrome, CO2 narcosis, and coma. Reports from field data related to incidents in F-18S/H, showing that emergency oxygen did not correct the hypoxia-like symptoms including long-lasting periods of incapacitation and prolonged headaches, lend support to our hypothesis.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; patients with organ dysfunction; gemtuzumab ozogamicin
Online: 2 October 2019 (06:19:36 CEST)
Objectives: To demonstrate the efficacy of Gemtuzumab ozogamicin in refractory AML patients with organ dysfunctions and poor performance status. Three refractory AML patients with are described. One of them was pretreated by intensive chemotherapy, two other patients progressed during Azacitidine treatment. WHO performance status III . Two patients had respiratory failure grade 2, the other one suffered from acute kidney insufficiency. Two patients were highly febrile with elevated CRP level. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin administration was performed in three patients followed by further switch to Gemtuzumab ozogamicin + Azacitidine or “7+3” treatment. Results: Gemtuzumab ozogamicin administration resulted in abrupt fever cessation in two febrile patients simultaneously with CRP level decrease and fast gradual resolution of respiratory failure. Recovery of kidney function was noticed in patient with renal insufficiency. WHO performance status have elevated in all three patients. No adverse effects grade II-III were noticed. Further treatment made two patients eligible for intensive chemotherapy, one patient was transplanted, patient with kidney failure obtained complete remission. Conclusions: Gemtuzumab ozogamicin therapy appeared to be safe and highly efficacious in relapsed/refractory AML patients with organ dysfunctions and poor performance status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0055.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: emergency department; pediatric acute appendicitis; perforatio; fetuin-A level
Online: 5 August 2019 (08:00:41 CEST)
Background: Acute appendicitis (AA) is the most common cause of emergency surgery. Perforation is more common than adults. Early diagnosis and new markers are needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of plasma Fetuin-A (FA) levels in patients with the acute abdomen (AB). Material and Method: This prospective study included 107 patients younger than 16 years of age who were admitted to the emergency department for abdominal pain between January 2018 and December 2018. The patients who presented to abdominal pain were divided into two groups as AA and other causes (OC) of AB. T Patients with acute appendicitis; intraperitoneal, retrocolic / retrocecal and appendicitis were divided into three groups. Also, the AA group was divided into two groups as perforated appendicitis and non-perforated appendicitis. Serum FA levels of the patients were evaluated in the emergency department. Results: In the AA group, C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) levels were higher, and FA levels were significantly lower than in the AB group. Intraperitoneal localization was 95.2% and perforation was frequent. When significant values in the univariate regression analysis for acute abdomen and perforation were compared in the multivariate regression analysis, CRP, WBC, and FA levels were found to be prognostic. Also, decreased FA levels were associated with AA while too much decreased FA levels were associated with the risk of perforation. Conclusion: While trying to diagnose AA in children, the FA level, CRP and WBC may be predictive values to identify risk factors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0208.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: rhabdomyolysis; pigment nephropathy; haem; NLRP3 inflammasome; acute kidney injury
Online: 18 April 2019 (08:11:08 CEST)
Pigment nephropathy is an acute decline in renal function following the deposition of endogenous haem-containing proteins in the kidneys. Haem pigments such as myoglobin and haemoglobin are filtered by glomeruli and absorbed by the proximal tubules. They cause renal vasoconstriction, tubular obstruction, increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Haem is associated with inflammation in sterile and infectious conditions, contributing to the pathogenesis of many disorders such as rhabdomyolysis and haemolytic diseases. In fact, haem appears to be a signaling molecule that is able to activate the inflammasome pathway. Recent studies highlight a pathogenic function for haem in triggering inflammatory responses through the activation of the nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Among the inflammasome multiprotein complexes, the NLRP3 inflammasome has been the most widely characterized as a trigger of inflammatory caspases and the maturation of interleukin-18 and -1β. In the present review, we discuss the latest evidence on the importance of inflammasome-mediated inflammation in pigment nephropathy. Finally, we highlight the potential role of inflammasome inhibitors in the prophylaxis and treatment of pigment nephropathy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Acute pancreatitis; Etiology; Biliary pancreatitis; Systematic review; Meta-analysis
Online: 25 February 2019 (08:58:59 CET)
Introduction: Cholelithiasis and consumption of alcohol are the most frequent causes of acute pancreatitis (AP), accounting for about 30 to 40% of the cases, respectively. The frequency of acute biliary pancreatitis is high in a certain population in Brazil. Objective: To estimate the global frequencies of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP), acute alcoholic pancreatitis (AAP) and the cases considered as acute idiopathic pancreatitis (AIP) in studies published from October 2006 to December 31, 2018. Methods: A systematic review of observational studies was performed from October 2006 to December 31, 2018. A meta-analysis by the random effects model was used to calculate the frequencies of global ABP, AIP and AAP and subgroups. Results: Forty-six studies representing 2,341,007 AP cases were included in 36 countries. The overall estimate for acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) was 41.6% (95% CI 39.2-44.1), followed by acute alcoholic pancreatitis (AAP) with 20.5% (95% CI) 16.6- 24.6) and acute idiopathic pancreatitis (AIP) in 18.3% (95% CI 15.1-27.7). Conclusion: ABP is the most prevalent etiology of AP, being two times more frequent than second-placed pancreatitis. Latin America has a frequency for ABP much higher than the rest of the world. The importance of the etiologic diagnosis is the treatment of the cause for prevention of recurrence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0426.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Ginsenoside Rh2; Lipopolysaccharide; Acute lung injury; MEK; Nrf-2;
Online: 23 July 2018 (13:05:06 CEST)
The anti-inflammatory effect of ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) is one of the most important ginsenosides. The purpose of this study is to identify the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of GRh2 after LPS challenge lung injury animal model. GRh2 reduced LPS-induced NO, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 productions in lung tissues. GRh2 treatment decreased the histological alterations in the lung tissues and BALF protein content and total cells number also diminished in LPS-induced lung injury mice. Moreover, GRh2 blocked iNOS, COX-2, the phosphorylation of IκB-α, ERK, JNK, p38, Raf-1 and MEK protein expression which is corresponded to the growth of HO-1, Nrf-2, catalase, SOD and GPx expressions in LPS-induce lung injury. An experimental study has suggested that GRh2 has provided with anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, and its potential therapeutic efficacy in major anterior segment lung diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: acute lung injury; fasudil, Rho kinase; endothelial function; inflammation
Online: 31 March 2017 (08:30:54 CEST)
Fasudil, a potent Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, can ameliorate LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice, but the mechanism remains obscure. In this study, a mice model of ALI was established by intra-tracheal instillation of LPS. Histological changes, cytokine levels, lung permeability, and endothelial apoptosis were determined to evaluate the effects of fasudil on lung injury. The cellular and molecular biological mechanisms were explored by culturing human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMECs). The results showed that fasudil reduced LPS-induced lung inflammation, pulmonary hyperpermeability, and endothelial apoptosis in mice. In cultured human PMECs, fasudil inhibited LPS-induced caspse-3 cleavage and cell apoptosis. It also decreased LPS-induced hyperpermeability of human PMECs monolayer by reversing the down-regulation of intercellular junctions. Moreover, fasudil inhibited LPS-induced overexpression of chemokines and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in human PMECs, which in turn suppressed neutrophil chemotaxis and neutrophil-endothelial adhesion. Further molecular researches showed fasudil inhibited LPS-induced activation of ROCK, NF-κB, and p38 in human PMECs. Our findings demonstrated that fasudil alleviated LPS-induced ALI by protecting endothelial function via inhibiting endothelial apoptosis, maintaining endothelial barrier integrity, and reducing endothelial inflammation. These effects of fasudil could be attributed to the inhibition of ROCK and its downstream NF-κB and p38 signaling pathways.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0168.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: hydroxyethyl starch; acute kidney injury; hemodynamic monitoring; sepsis; cardiac; postoperative
Online: 2 June 2023 (09:28:13 CEST)
Purpose: To reassess the results of former meta-analyses focusing on the relationship between novel HES preparations (130/0.4 and 130/0.42) and acute kidney injury. Previous meta-analyses are based on studies referring to partially or fully unpublished data or data from abstracts only. Methods: The studies included in the former meta-analyses were scrutinized by the authors independently. We completed a critical analysis of the literature, including the strengths, weaknesses and modifiers of the studies when assessing products, formulations and outcomes. Results: Both the published large studies and meta-analyses show significant bias in the context of the deleterious effect of 6% 130/0.4-0.42 HES. Without (1) detailed hemodynamic data, (2) the exclusion of other nephrotoxic events and (3) a properly performed evaluation of the dose-effect relationship; the AKI-inducing property of 6% HES 130/0.4 or 0.42 could not be accounted as evidence. The administration of HES is safe and effective if the recommended dose is respected. Conclusion: Our review suggests that there is questionable evidence for the deteriorating renal effect of these products. Further well-designed, randomized and controlled trials are needed. Further conclusions formulated for resource-rich environments should not be extended to more resource-scarce environments without proper qualifiers provided.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2169.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Cardiac Metastasis; Cardio-oncology; Cardiac Disease; Acute myocardial infarction; Cardiology
Online: 31 May 2023 (04:04:21 CEST)
Abstract Background: Most cardiac metastases emerge from primary lung, breast, and hematologic malignancies. The clinical manifestations of cardiac metastasis vary depending on tumor location and size. Cardiac metastasis from cervical squamous cell carcinoma is extremely rare and is mostly found on autopsy. We report a case of cervical cancer metastasis to the interventricular septum. Case Summary. This report discusses the case of a 48-year-old woman with interventricular septal metastases, originating from squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. The woman came to our hospital after experiencing a fainting spell. Her hospital stay was notable for a brief syncopal event during a 30-second asystole episode, which ended spontaneously. Upon awakening, she reported severe chest pain. In response, she was quickly taken to the catheterization laboratory. There, a coronary angiography revealed an 80% blockage in her left anterior descending artery. Two years prior, our patient was diagnosed with invasive squamous cell cervical carcinoma with PET/CT showing no evidence of metastatic disease. A repeat PET/CT scan was done following cardiac catheterization and was significant for a mass along the interventricular septum of the heart. Discussion. Cardiac metastasis from primary cervical squamous cell carcinomas is scarcely reported in medical literature. Among these rare cases, the majority involved the right ventricle, with only three involving the left ventricle. There are no documented instances of metastasis to the interventricular septum. To our knowledge, this would be the first such case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0805.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: acute rejection, immunosuppression, infection, kidney transplantation; monitoring, Torque Teno virus
Online: 23 April 2023 (14:07:09 CEST)
Measuring the non-pathogenic Torque Teno Virus (TTV) load allows assessing the net immunosuppressive state after kidney transplantation (KTx). Currently, it is not known how exposure to maintenance immunosuppression affects TTV load. We hypothesized that TTV load is associated with the exposure to mycophenolic acid (MPA) and tacrolimus. We performed a prospective study including 54 consecutive KTx. Blood TTV load was measured by an in-house PCR at months 1 and 3. Together with doses and trough blood levels of tacrolimus and MPA, we calculate the coefficient of variability (CV), time in therapeutic range (TTR) and concentration/dose ratio (C/D) of tacrolimus, and the MPA-area under the curve (AUC-MPA) at the third month. TTV load at the first and third month discriminated those patients at risk of developing opportunistic infections between months 1 and 3 (AUC-ROC 0.723, 95%CI 0.559-0.905, p = 0.023) and between months 3 to 6 (AUC-ROC 0.778, 95%CI 0.599-0.957, p = 0.028), respectively, but not those at risk of acute rejection. TTV load did not relate to mean tacrolimus blood level, CV, TTR, C/D and AUC-MPA. To conclude, although TTV is a useful marker of net immunosuppressive status after KTx, it is not related to exposure to maintenance immunosuppression.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0037.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: acute hepatic porphyria; cholangiocarcinoma; delta aminolevulinic acid; porphobilinogen; hydroxymethylbilane synthase
Online: 4 April 2023 (04:53:33 CEST)
Porphyrias are human metabolic diseases characterized by different modes of inheritance and clinical manifestations and caused by deficiency of enzymes of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The forms of porphyria are characterized by elevated levels of δ-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen. Acute hepatic porphyrias are a subgroup of porphyrias characterized by the appearance of neurovisceral attacks with or without cutaneous signs. Acute hepatic porphyrias include four diseases: acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria, and hereditary δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency. These enzymatic deficiencies cause a harmful accumulation of porphyrins in the liver and bone marrow that trigger a wide range of signs and symptoms. Patients suffering from different forms of acute hepatic porphyria present a high risk of liver cancer, precisely hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, determined by the activity of the disease even though an exact mechanism of carcinogenesis has not been recognized yet. Here, we present the clinical case of a 72 year old woman who, approximately 29 years after the diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria, presented with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma starting from the biliary-pancreatic ducts, which was diagnosed during the clinical and anatomopathological evaluation of a pathological fracture of the femur.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: acute lymphoblastic leukemia; Philadelphia chromosome; relapse; allogeneic stem cell transplantation
Online: 16 March 2023 (11:33:44 CET)
Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) represents a continuous challenge for the clinician. Despite recent advances in treatment, the risk of relapse remains significant. The clinical, biological, cytogenetic, and molecular characteristics may be different at the time of relapse. Current comprehensive genome sequencing studies suggest that most relapsed patients, especially those with late relapses, acquire new genetic abnormalities, usually within a minor clone that emerges after ALL diagnosis. We report the case of a 23-year-old young woman diagnosed with Philadelphia chromosome negative B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The patient underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) after complete remission. Although having favorable prognostic factors at diagnosis, the disease relapsed early after allo-HSCT. The cytogenetic and molecular exam at relapse was positive for the Philadelphia chromosome, respectively for the bcr-abl transcript. What exactly led to the relapse of this disease in a more aggressive cytogenetic and molecular form, although there were no predictive elements in the diagnosis of this relapse?
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: acute kidney disease; chronic kidney disease; gene therapy; cell therapy
Online: 25 January 2023 (04:29:25 CET)
The rising global incidence of acute and chronic kidney diseases has increased the demand for renal replacement therapy. This issue, compounded with the limited availability of viable kidneys for transplantation, has propelled the search for alternative strategies to address the growing health and economic burdens associated with these conditions. In the search for such alternatives, significant efforts have been devised to augment the current and primarily supportive management of renal injury with novel regenerative strategies. For example, gene- and cell-based approaches that utilize recombinant peptides/proteins, gene, cell, organoid, and RNAi technologies have shown promising outcomes primarily in experimental models. Supporting research has also been conducted to improve our understanding of the critical aspects that facilitate the development of efficient gene- and cell-based techniques that the complex structure of the kidney has traditionally limited. This manuscript is intended to communicate efforts that have driven the development of such therapies by identifying the vectors and delivery routes needed to drive exogenous transgene incorporation that may support the treatment of acute and chronic kidney diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0370.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Acute non hepA–E hepatitis; clinical manifestations; epidemiological characteristics; prevention
Online: 27 May 2022 (08:41:42 CEST)
The emergence of acute, severe non hepA–E hepatitis of unknown etiology (ASHUE) has attracted global concern owing to the very young age of the patients and its unknown etiology. Although this condition has been linked to several possible causes, including viral infection, drugs, and/or toxin exposure, the exact cause remains unknown; this makes treatment recommendations very difficult. In this review, we summarize recent updates on the clinical manifestations, complemented with laboratory results, case numbers with the global distribution and other epidemiological characteristics, and the possible etiologies. We also provide the proposed actions that could be undertaken to control and prevent further spread of this hepatitis. Since many etiological and pathological aspects of the acute non hepA–E hepatitis remain unclear, further research is needed to minimize the severe impact of this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0094.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: nutrition; pediatrics; geographic information systems; acute respiratory infections; diarrhea; growth
Online: 6 October 2021 (09:00:12 CEST)
Infectious disease is the leading cause of mortality in children under five. This study has investigated environmental factors related to the morbidity of acute respiratory infections (ARIs), diarrhea, and growth using geographical information systems (GIS) technology. Anthropometric, address and disease prevalence data were collected through the SEEM study in Matiari, Pakistan. Publicly available map data was used to compile coordinates of healthcare facilities. A Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to calculate the correlation between distance from healthcare facilities and participant growth and morbidity. Other continuous variables influencing these outcomes were analyzed using a random forest regression model. In this study of 416 children, we found participants living closer to secondary hospitals had lower prevalence of ARI (r=0.154, p<0.010) and diarrhea (r=0.228, p<0.001) as well as participants living closer to Maternal Health Centers (MHCs): ARI (r=0.185, p<0.002) and diarrhea (r=0.223, p<0.001) compared to those living near primary facilities. Our random forest model showed distance to have high variable importance in the context of disease prevalence. Our results indicated that participants closer to more basic healthcare facilities reported a higher prevalence of both diarrhea and ARI than those near more urban facilities, highlighting potential public policy gaps in ameliorating rural health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Acute Cystitis Symptom Score; cystitis; patient-reported outcome; questionnaire; women
Online: 6 September 2021 (17:02:05 CEST)
The Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS) is a patient self-reporting questionnaire for the clinical diagnosis and patient-reported outcome (PRO) in women with acute uncomplicated cystitis (AC). The aim of the current study (part II) was the clinical validation of the Greek ACSS questionnaire. After linguistic validation according to internationally accepted guidelines and cognitive assessment (part I), the clinical validation was performed after ethical approval by using the Greek ACSS study version in 92 evaluable female participants including 53 patients with symptoms suspicious of AC and 39 controls. The clinical outcome using the ACSS questionnaire at different time points after the start of treatment was demonstrated as well. The age (mean±SD) of the 53 patients (44.7±17.0) and 39 controls (49.3±15.9) and their additional conditions at baseline visits, such as menstruation, premenstrual syndrome, pregnancy, menopause, diabetes mellitus, were comparable. There was, however, a significant difference (p<0.001) between patients and controls at baseline visit regarding sum score of the ACSS domains, such as typical symptoms and quality of life. The clinical outcome of up to 7 days showed a fast reduction of the symptom scores and improvement of quality of life. The optimal thresholds for the patient-reported outcome of successful therapy could be established. The linguistically and clinically validated Greek ACSS questionnaire can now be used for clinical or epidemiological studies and also for patient’s self-diagnosis of AC and as a PRO measure tool.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: p53; nucleophosmin; mutation; acute myeloid leukemia; FLIM-FRET; Selinexor; photoconversion
Online: 28 May 2021 (13:35:48 CEST)
NPM interaction with tumor suppressor p53 is a part of a complex interaction network and considerably affects cellular stress response. An impact of characteristic AML-associated NPM mutations on interaction with p53 has not been investigated yet, although consequences of NPMmut-induced p53 export to the cytoplasm are important for understanding of leukemogenic potential of these mutations. We investigated p53-NPM interaction in live HEK-293T cells by FLIM-FRET and in cell lysates by immunoprecipitation. Results were confirmed in leukemia cell lines. eGFP lifetime-photoconversion was used to follow redistribution dynamics of NPMmut and p53 in Selinexor-treated cells. We confirmed the p53-NPMwt interaction in intact cells and newly documented that this interaction is not compromised by the NPM mutation causing displacement of p53 to the cytoplasm. Importantly, the interaction was not abolished for non-oligomerizing NPM variants with truncated oligomerization domain, suggesting that oligomerization is not essential for interaction of NPM forms with p53. Inhibition of the nuclear exporter XPO1 by Selinexor caused expected nuclear relocalization of both NPMmut and p53. However, significantly different return rates of these proteins indicate nontrivial mechanism of p53 and NPMmut cellular trafficking. We suggest that the altered p53 regulation in cells expressing NPMmut offers a new target for AML therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0564.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Dendritic cell; Rapamycin; Mitochondria; Acute kidney injury; Ischemic Reperfusion Injury
Online: 21 April 2021 (09:13:27 CEST)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are unique immune cells that can link innate and adaptive immune responses and Immunometabolism greatly impacts their phenotype. Rapamycin is a macrolide compound that has immunosuppressant functions and is used to prevent graft loss in kidney transplantation. The current study evaluated the therapeutic potential of ex-vivo Rapamycin treated DCs to protect kidneys in a mouse model of acute kidney injury (AKI). For the Rapamycin single (S) treatment (Rapa-S-DC), Veh-DCs were treated with Rapamycin (10 ng/ml) for 1 hour before LPS. In contrast, Rapamycin multiple (M) treatment (Rapa-M-DC) were exposed to 3 treatments over 7 days. Only multiple ex-vivo Rapamycin treatments of DCs induced a persistent reprogramming of mitochondrial metabolism. These DCs had 18-fold more mitochondria, had almost 4-fold higher oxygen consumption rates, and produced more ATP compared to Veh-DCs (Veh treated control DCs). Pathway analysis showed IL10 signaling as a major contributing pathway to the altered immunophenotype after Rapamycin treatment compared to vehicle with significantly lower cytokines Tnfa, Il1b, and Il6, while regulators of mitochondrial content Pgc1a, Tfam, and Ho1 remained elevated. Critically, adoptive transfer of Rapamycin treated DCs to WT recipients 24 hrs before bilateral kidney ischemia significantly protected the kidneys from injury with a significant 3-fold improvement in kidney function. Last, the infusion of DCs containing higher mitochondria numbers (treated ex-vivo with healthy isolated mitochondria (10 µg/ml) one day before) also partially protected the kidneys from IRI. These studies demonstrate that pre-emptive infusion of ex-vivo reprogrammed DCs that have higher mitochondria content has therapeutic capacity to induce an anti-inflammatory regulatory phenotype to protect kidneys from injury.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: environmental risk assessment; polycyclic musk compounds; acute toxicity; growth inhibition; larvae development
Online: 11 February 2021 (13:23:39 CET)
The current research investigated the environmental risk of the polycyclic musk compounds, Galaxolide® (HHCB) and Tonalide® (AHTN), in the marine environments. These substances are lipophilic, bioaccumulated and potentially biomagnified in aquatic organisms. To understand the toxicity of HHCB and AHTN, we performed acute toxicity tests by exposing marine microalgae (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Tretraselmis chuii and Isochrysis galbana), crustaceans (Artemia franciscana), echinoderms (Paracentrotus lividus), bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis), fish (Sparus aurata) and a candidate freshwater microalga (Raphidocelis subcapitata) to environmentally relevant concentrations (0.005 - 5 µg/L) following standardized protocols. The effects of both substances on microalgae growth were incipient and only I. galbana was sensitive to HHCB and AHTN, with IC10 values of 5.22 µg/L and 0.328 µg/L, respectively. Significant (p < 0.01) concentration dependent responses were measured in P. lividus and M. galloprovincialis larvae developments as well as S. aurata mortality tested with HHCB. The effect of HHCB on P. lividus larvae development was the most sensitive endpoint recorded, producing an EC50 value of 4.07 µg/L. Our results show that HHCB represents a high risk to P. lividus larvae development for early life stages in marine environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Acute Toxicity, Oropharyngeal Cancer; Proton Beam Therapy; Radiation Therapy; Survival
Online: 1 February 2021 (08:57:08 CET)
Purpose: To report the early clinical outcomes of combining intensity‐modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and intensity‐modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in comparison with IMRT alone in treating the oropharynx cancer (OPC) patients. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 148 OPC patients were retrospectively reviewed, who underwent definitive radiotherapy (RT) with concurrent systemic therapy, from January 2016 till December 2019 at Samsung Medical Center. During the 5.5 weeks’ RT course, the initial 16 (or 18) fractions were delivered by IMRT in all patients, and the subsequent 12 (or 10) fractions were either by IMRT in 81 patients (IMRT only) or by IMPT in 67 (IMRT/IMPT combination), respectively, based on comparison of adaptive re-plan profiles and availability of equipment. Propensity‐score matching (PSM) was done on 76 patients (38 from each group) for comparative analyses. Results: With the median follow‐up of 24.7 months, there was no significant difference in overall survival and progression free survival between groups, both before and after PSM. Before PSM, IMRT/IMPT combination group experienced grade ≥3 acute toxicities less frequently: mucositis in 37.0% and 13.4% (p<0.001); and analgesic quantification algorithm (AQA) in 37.0% and 19.4% (p=0.019), respectively. The same trends were observed after PSM: mucositis in 39.5% and 15.8% (p=0.021); and AQA in 47.4% and 21.1% (p=0.016), respectively. In multivariate logistic regression, grade ≥3 mucositis was significantly less frequent in IMRT/IMPT combination group, both before and after PSM (p=0.027 and 0.024, respectively). AQA score ≥3 was also less frequent in IMRT/IMPT combination group, both before and after PSM (p=0.085 and 0.018, respectively). Conclusions: In treating the OPC patients, with comparable early oncologic outcomes, more favorable acute toxicity profiles were achieved following IMRT/IMPT combination than IMRT alone.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0745.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Migraine; acute care; emergency department; analgesic; triptan; opioid and NSAID
Online: 30 December 2020 (07:55:04 CET)
Migraine is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide [1,2]and patients with acute migraine frequently present to emergency departments (ED). The current literature suggests that ED treatment of migraine headache varies across institutions [4-7]. Considering this, we conducted a scoping review to summarize trends in medication prescribing patterns for acute migraine treatment in the ED setting. Trends were evaluated for factors influencing treatment choices, with particular attention placed on opioids and migraine specific therapy. This scoping review was based on the Arksey and O'Malley methodological frameworkand included studies published between 1 January 2000 until 31 May 2020. 14 publications met the inclusion criteria. The most common classes of medication prescribed were often anti-emetics or Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), but rates varied between studies. There was a concerning trend towards an underutilization of triptans and overutilization of opiates. The use of specific clinical goals of treatment (e.g. two-hour pain free freedom response) was also not evident. Additionally, 88% (n=8) of the 9 studies commenting on adherence to hospital or evidence-based guidelines stated that practices were non-adherent. Overall, the reviewed literature reveals treatment practices for acute migraine in the ED are heterogeneous and deviate from established international recommendations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: laproscopic cholecystectomy; acute cholecystitis; gall stone; sepsis; surgical site infection
Online: 20 May 2020 (04:16:36 CEST)
Aim: Aim of our study to evaluate various factors responsible for surgical site infection after gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgeries. Material and Methods: Patient who underwent gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgery in our department were evaluated retrospectively. Various factors associated with surgical site infection were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Surgical site infection was defined as any culture positive discharge from the wound within 30 days of surgery.Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23. Results: We evaluated total 331 patients operated between April 2018 to March 2020. 14 patients were lost to follow up after discharge and before completing post operative day 30. 18 patients expired before 30 days without developing SSI and were excluded from the study as per exclusion criteria. 299 patient included in the study. Total 20 patients developed surgical site infection. It showed SSI rate in our study population was 6.68%. On univariate analysis prolonged hospital stay, more blood product used, higher cdc grade of surgery, higher ASA grade, more operative time, open surgeries,colorectal and HPB surgeries were associated with surgical site infections. On multivariate analysis only prolonged hospital stay independently predicted Surgical Site Infectins. (p=0.014,0dds ratio 1.223, 95% confidence interal 1.042-1.435). Conclusion: Prolonged hospital stay independently predicts surgical site infections after gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0191.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: nephrectomy; acute kidney injury; chronic kidney disease; sevoflurane; desflurane; propofol
Online: 19 August 2019 (03:47:48 CEST)
The association between the choice of general anesthetic agents and the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) and long-term renal function after nephrectomy has not yet been evaluated. We reviewed 1087 cases of partial or radical nephrectomy. The incidence of postoperative AKI, new-onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3a and CKD upstaging were compared between different general anesthetic agent groups: propofol, sevoflurane, and desflurane. Four different propensity score analyses were performed to minimize confounding for each pair of comparison (propofol vs sevoflurane; propofol vs desflurane; sevoflurane vs desflurane; propofol vs volatile agents). Study outcomes were compared before and after matching. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis was performed to compare renal survival determined by the development of CKD stage 3a between groups up to 36 months after nephrectomy before and after matching. Propofol was associated with a lower incidence of AKI, CKD upstaging and a higher three-year renal survival after nephrectomy compared to sevoflurane or desflurane group after matching (AKI: propofol 23.2% vs. sevoflurane 39.5%, P=0.004, vs. desflurane 34.3%, P=0.031; CKD upstaging: propofol 27.2% vs. sevoflurane 58.4%, P<0.001, vs. desflurane 48.6%, P=0.017; Log-rank test propofol vs. sevoflurane P<0.001, vs. desflurane P=0.015). Propofol was also associated with a lower incidence of new-onset CKD after nephrectomy compared to sevoflurane after matching (P<0.001). However, there were no significant differences between sevoflurane and desflurane. In conclusion, propofol, compared to volatile agents, may be the reasonable choice of general anesthetic agent for nephrectomy to attenuate postoperative renal dysfunction. Randomized prospective trials are warranted to test this hypothesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: acute physical stress; sports performance; heart rate variability; physical exhaustion
Online: 5 November 2018 (10:35:01 CET)
Athletes are exposed to high-intensity loads to promote athletic performance, however without appropriate evaluation for its effects. This study investigates the effects of four types of exhaustion exercises on Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and Poincaré features as markers of central fatigue; Creatine Kinase (CK) and blood lactate concentrations ([LA-]b) as biomarkers of peripheral fatigue. To achieve this purpose, ten healthy volunteers were exposed to exhaustive exercise using isotonic-, isometric-, aerobic-, and anaerobic-fatigue protocols. HRV Poincaré features, standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability (SD1) and standard deviation of continuous long-term R-R interval variability (SD2) variables were collected. Central fatigue was tested through the sympathetic stress index (SS) and the sympathetic and parasympathetic index (SS/SD1). Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of the exercises to determine CK and [LA-]b. The SD1 decreased in each exercise protocol, while the SS and SS/SD1 increased. [LA-]b and CK increased at the end of each protocol and correlated with SD1 and SS/SD1. HRV, CK, and [LA-]b are acute markers to detect, both central and peripheral fatigue; sensitive to the type, duration, and intensity of exercise, being HRV a novel noninvasive marker, simple and useful for sports coaches and athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Geriatric Evaluation and Management, Acute Care for Elders, Geriatric Rehabilitation
Online: 14 July 2018 (23:52:54 CEST)
Comprehensive geriatric assessment, defined as an interdisciplinary assessment and development of an overall plan of treatment and follow-up, has become a fundamental part of clinical geriatric care. Since the 1970s, the Veterans Administration has encouraged the development of geriatric evaluation and management programs. Evolution of geriatric evaluation and management has occurred over time and many VA medical centers have transferred inpatient geriatric evaluation programs to long-term care Community Living Centers (CLC) and outpatient settings. Availability of resources and trained personnel across the continuum of care as well as administrative facilitation of collaboration between care components are critical to the efficient utilization of geriatric services. Facilities may need to prioritize their resources and utilize the most effective and relevant elements of geriatric evaluation and management according to patient population needs, available space, resources, and institutional priorities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Covid-19; Long Covid-19; Long Haulers Covid; Post Covid-19 Syndrome; Post-Acute Covid-19; Corona Virus; SARS-Cov-2; Novel Corona Virus 2019; Post-Acute SARS-CoV-2; PASC, Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19; Late Sequelae COVID-19
Online: 18 March 2021 (17:16:52 CET)
Introduction: Despite more than one year passed since the first cases of SARS-CoV-2 were reported, there is still no consensus on the definition and clinical management of post-acute-COVID-19. The condition has heterogeneously been named as Chronic COVID syndrome, Post COVID-19 Syndrome, post-acute sequela of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), and the more familiar long COVID. Method: In order to capture all relevant published studies, we undertook a multi-step search with no language restriction. The following four-step search strategy was utilized: First, a preliminary (limited) search was conducted on January 20, 2021, in Google Scholar and PubMed to identify the appropriate keywords. Then, on January 30, 2021, we adopted a search strategy of electronic databases from Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of sciences, using those keywords. Then, after duplicate removal, we screened all titles, abstracts, and full texts. This resulted in 66 eligible studies. Subsequently, after a forward and backward search of their references and citations an additional 54 publications were found, resulting in a total of 120 publications that formed the basis of the present analysis. The titles, abstracts, and full-texts of non-English articles were translated using Google Translate for further evaluation. We conducted our scoping review based on the PRISMA-ScR Checklist.Results: We found only one randomized clinical trial in our search. Of the 67 original studies, 22 were cohort and 28 were cross-sectional studies totaling 74.6% of the original studies. Of the total of 120 publications, 59 (49.1%) focused on signs and symptoms, 28 (23.3%) were focused on management, and 13 (10.8%) focused on pathophysiology. Ten (9%) publications focused on imaging studies. Ninety-one percent of the original investigations came from high and upper-middle-income countries, highlighting the scarcity of reports originating from low-income and lower-middle-income countries.Conclusion: The predominant symptoms among those with the so-called “Long COVID” were: fatigue, breathlessness, arthralgia, sleep difficulties, and chest pain. Recent reports also point to the risk of long-term sequela with cutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, mental health, neurologic, and renal involvement in those who survive the acute phase of the illness. The ambiguity and controversies in its definition have impaired proper recognition and management of those requiring additional support following the resolution of the acute phase of this infection. This has resulted in long-standing distress for the patients and their families. Our findings highlight the need for a multidisciplinary approach, support, and rehabilitation for these patients in terms of long-term mental and physical health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1951.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: neutrophil; exhaustive exercise; inflammation; cytokines; reactive oxygen species; acute kidney injury
Online: 29 May 2023 (03:07:44 CEST)
Prolonged exercise induces acute renal injury; however, the precise mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effects of neutrophil depletion in male C57BL/6J mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: sedentary with control antibody, sedentary with antineutrophil antibody, exhaustive exercise with control antibody, and exhaustive exercise with antineutrophil antibody. Antineutrophil (1A8) or control antibody was administered intraperitoneally to the mice prior to their running on a treadmill. Renal histology was assessed 24 h after exhaustive exercise, and the concentration of kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity and hydrogen peroxide concentration in the kidneys were measured. The pathologic changes were manifested as congested and swollen glomeruli, tubular dilatation, and nuclear infiltration after exhaustive exercise. These changes were suppressed by the administration of the 1A8 antibodies. KIM-1 concentration increased after exhaustive exercise but were reduced by the 1A8 antibodies. Treatment with the 1A8 antibody also decreased exhaustive exercise-induced inflammation and reactive oxygen species levels in the kidney. These results suggest that neutrophils contribute to exercise-induced acute renal injury by regulating inflammation and reactive oxygen species levels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1236.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: FLT3 mutations; resistant/relapsed acute myeloid leukemia; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; gilteritinib
Online: 29 April 2023 (10:55:21 CEST)
The traditionally dismal outcome of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients carrying the FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutations has been mitigated by the recent introduction into the clinics of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as midostaurin and gilteritinib. The present work summarizes the clinical data that led to the use of gilteritinib in clinical practice. Gilteritinib is a 2nd generation TKI with deeper single-agent activity than 1st generation drugs against both FLT3-ITD and TKD mutations, in human studies. Moreover, the phase I/II dose-escalation, dose-expansion Chrysalis trial showed an acceptable safety profile of gilteritinib (diarrhea, elevated aspartate aminotransferase, febrile neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, sepsis, and pneumonia) and a 49% overall response rate (ORR) in 191 FLT3-mutated relapsed/refractory (R/R) AML patients. In 2019, the pivotal ADMIRAL trial showed that the median overall survival was significantly longer in patients treated with gilteritinib than among those receiving chemotherapy (9.3 vs 5.6 months, respectively) and the ORR to gilteritinib was 67.6%, outperforming the 25.8% for chemotherapy arm and leading to the license for its clinical use by the US Food and Drug Administration. Since then, several real-world experiences confirmed the positive results in the R/R AML setting. Finally, gilterinib based combinations currently under investigation with several compounds (venetoclax, azacitidine, conventional chemotherapy, etc.) and some practical tips (maintenance after allogeneic transplantation, interaction with antifungal drugs, extramedullary disease, and onset of resistance) will be analyzed in detail in the review.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1050.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Multidetector CT; blunt trauma; penetrating trauma; acute surgical emergencies; imaging; utility
Online: 27 April 2023 (05:50:23 CEST)
Abstract: Background: Trauma is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young patients, acute surgical conditions cause morbidity and mortality in patients of all ages. Computed tomography scan (CT) assist greatly in the investigation and management of these patients with blunt and penetrating trauma, facilitating early diagnosis and expedites early appropriate treatment of these patients. Acute non-traumatic surgical conditions also mimic non-surgical pathologies and differentiating the two is important because management is different and any delay in surgical intervention results in high morbidity and some may even result in mortality. Method: Literature review of the role of multidetector CT scan (MDCT) in managing acute surgical emergencies and trauma-diagnosis in the trauma patient and patients presenting with acute surgical emergencies. The focus is on the role of the MDCT in the management of these patients. Results highlight that the use of MDCT expedites management of these patients, allowing early surgical intervention and preventing unnecessary surgical interventions where the intervention is not indicated, based on the MDCT results. Conclusion: This paper emphasizes the important role that is played by the MDCT in the management of the above patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0946.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: acute appendicitis; bacterial culture; children; appendiceal lumen; peritoneal cavity; complicated appendicitis
Online: 26 April 2023 (03:41:39 CEST)
Background: Primary infection has been questioned as the pathogenetic cause of acute appendicitis. We attempted to identify the bacteria involved, and to investigate if their species, types, or combinations affected the severity of acute appendicitis in children. Methods: Samples from both the appendiceal lumen and the peritoneal cavity of 72 children who underwent appendectomy were collected to perform bacterial culture analysis. The outcomes were studied to see if and how they were associated with the severity of the disease. Regression analysis was performed to identify any risk factors associated with complicated appendicitis. Results: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus species were the most common pathogens found in the study population. The same microorganisms, either combined or separate, were the most common in the appendiceal lumen and the peritoneal cavity of patients with complicated appendicitis. Gram-negative bacteria, polymicrobial cultures in the peritoneal fluid and in the appendiceal lumen, were associated with complicated appendicitis. Polymicrobial cultures in the peritoneal cavity presented four times higher risk of complicated appendicitis. Conclusion: Polymicrobial presentation and gram-negative bacteria are associated with complicated appendicitis. Antibiotic regimens should target the combinations of the most frequently identified pathogens, speculating the value of early antipseudomonal intervention.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0672.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Cardiorenal syndromes; Acute kidney injury; Biomarkers; Chronic kidney disease; Heart failure
Online: 21 April 2023 (05:26:37 CEST)
Biomarkers have become an important tool in the diagnosis and management of cardio renal syndromes (CRS), a complex condition characterized by dysfunction in both the cardiovascular and renal systems. These biomarkers can help identify the presence and severity of CRS, predict its progression and outcomes, and facilitate personalized treatment options. Several biomarkers, including natriuretic peptides, troponins, and inflammatory markers, have been extensively studied in CRS and have shown promising results in improving diagnosis and prognosis. In addition, emerging biomarkers such as kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin offer potential for early detection and intervention of CRS. However, the use of biomarkers in CRS is still in its infancy, and further research is needed to establish their utility in routine clinical practice. This review highlights the role of biomarkers in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of CRS and discusses their potential as valuable clinical tools for personalized medicine in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0411.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Acute subdural hematomas; traumatic brain injury; computed tomography perfusion; cerebral hemodynamics
Online: 23 February 2023 (15:34:27 CET)
Introduction: CT perfusion (CTP) is an alternative tool to assess cerebral hemodynamics in brain trauma. As traumatic acute subdural hematomas (ASH) are severe lesions commonly associated with poor outcome, we aimed to evaluate the brain hemodynamics in this population. Methods: Five patients admitted at the emergency department sustaining traumatic acute subdural hematoma were evaluated. Preoperative CTP was performed immediately after nonenhanced head CT scan. Postoperative CTP was performed in four patients. The outcome was assessed 6 months after surgery using the extended Glasgow Outcome Scale. Results: 4 male and 1 female were evaluated. Mean age was 46y (SD: 8.1). Mean preoperative midline brain shift was 10.1 mm (SD: 1.8). The main mechanism of trauma was falling (four patients). There was a general improvement in cerebral blood flow (CBF) after surgery from 23.9 (SD: 6.1) to 30.7 ml/100g/min, (SD: 5.1) and in mean transit time (MTT) from 7.3 (SD: 1.3) to 5.8s (SD:1.0), although it is not statistically significant (p=0.06 and p=0.06, respectively). There was still a reduction in the cerebral blood volume (CBV) media when compared to the value after surgery, from 2.63 (SD: 1.10) to 2.34 ml/100g (SD: 0.67), which is not statistically significant (p=0.31). Spearman correlation test of postoperative and preoperative CBF ratio with outcome was 0.94 (p=0.054). Only one patient died (three days after surgery). This patient was victim of car crash and had the highest preoperative MTT (9.97 seconds) and CBV (4.51 ml/100 g). Conclusion: Post-operative improvement of hemodynamic CTP parameters may be correlated with outcomes after ASH. Further studies with larger samples are required to confirm this hypothesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0509.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: isatin; indolin-2-one; acute myeloid leukemia; apoptosis; ERK1/2; MAPK
Online: 28 November 2022 (09:59:20 CET)
Searching for bioactive compounds within the huge chemical space is like trying to find a needle in a haystack. Isatin is a unique natural compound which is endowed with different biopertinent activities specially in cancer therapy. Herein, we envisaged that adopting a hybrid strategy of isatin and α,β-unsaturated ketone would afford new chemical entities with strong chemotherapeutic potential. Of interest, compounds 5b and 5g demonstrated significant antiproliferative activities against different cancer genotypes according to NCI assay. Concomitantly, their IC50 against HL-60 cells were 0.38 ± 0.08 and 0.57 ± 0.05, respectively, demonstrating remarkable apoptosis and mod-erate cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Intriguingly, an impressive safety profile for 5b was reflected by a 37.2 times selectivity against HL-60 over PBMC from a healthy donor. This provoked us to further explore their mechanism of action by in vitro and in silico tools. Conclusively, 5b and 5g stand out as strong chemotherapeutic agents that hold a clinical promise against acute myeloid leukemia.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0063.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: melanoma; drug discovery; spliceosomal inhibition; acute toxicity; blood chemistry; organ histopathology
Online: 3 November 2022 (01:43:05 CET)
Despite the recent advances in melanoma therapy, the need for new targets and novel approaches to therapy is urgent. We previously reported melanoma actives that work via binding and downregulating spliceosomal proteins hnRNPH1 and H2 (Palrasu et al., 2019). Given lack of knowledge about side effects of using spliceosomal binders in humans, an acute toxicity study was conducted to evaluate these compounds in mice. Male and female mice were treated with compounds 2155-14 and 2155-18 at 50mg/kg/day via subcutaneous injections and the clinical signs of distress were monitored for 21 days and compared with control mice. Additionally, effect of the leads on blood chemistry, blood cell counts, and organs was evaluated. No significant changes were observed in the mice body weight, blood cell count, blood chemistry, or organs following the compound treatment. The results show that our compounds 2155-14 and 2155-18 are not toxic for the study period of three weeks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0491.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Real-world evidence; treatment patterns; chemotherapy-ineligible; outcomes
Online: 29 August 2022 (12:27:14 CEST)
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological malignancy that predominantly affects the elderly. Prognosis declines with age. For those who cannot tolerate intensive chemotherapy, historically established treatment options have been hypomethylating agents (HMAs), low dose cytarabine (LDAC), and best supportive care (BSC). As the standard of care evolves for those unfit for intensive chemotherapy, there is a need to understand established treatment pathways, clinical outcomes and healthcare resource utilization in Canada. The CURRENT study was a retrospective chart review of AML patients not eligible for intensive chemotherapy who initiated first-line treatment between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2018. Data were collected from 170 Canadian patients treated at six hematology centers, of whom 118 received systemic therapy and 52 received BSC as first-line treatment. Median overall survival was 8.58 months and varied from 2.96 months for BSC to 13.31 months for HMAs. Over 80% of patients had at least one outpatient visit, and 67% of patients receiving systemic therapy and 71% of those receiving BSC had at least one admission to hospital, during their first line of therapy. A total of 96 (81.4%) patients receiving first line systemic therapy and 39 (75.0%) of those receiving first line BSC had at least one red blood cell or platelet transfusion. These findings highlight the unmet need for novel therapies for patients ineligible for intensive chemotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; depression; anxiety; post-acute COVID-19 syndrome; post-COVID
Online: 12 August 2022 (04:56:33 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to examine the course of Depression and anxiety in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history compared with those without a psychiatric history. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey for COVID-19 survivors was conducted from July to September 2021. 6016 COVID-19 survivors, the accuracy of whose responses was determined to be assured, were included in analyses. Exposures included psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection, and the main outcomes and measures included severity of depression and anxiety, as assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), respectively. Results: Mean severity of PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were significantly higher in participants with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history. Two-way analysis of covariance for PHQ-9 showed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and a significant interaction effect of psychiatric history × time since infection. Two-way analysis of covariance for the GAD-7 score revealed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection and the interaction effect of these factors. Conclusions: The course of depression and anxiety was more severe in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; Acute myocardial infarction; Congestive heart failure; Cardiovascular hospitalizations
Online: 10 February 2022 (02:47:49 CET)
Background A decline in cardiovascular hospitalizations was observed during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. We examine the continued effect of the pandemic on cardiovascular hospitalizations and the associated mortality rates during the first year of the pandemic in Israel. Methods We conduct a retrospective cohort study using the data of Clalit Health Services, the largest healthcare organization in Israel. We divide the Corona year into six periods (three lockdowns and three post-lockdowns) and compare the incidence rates of cardiovascular hospitalizations and their 30-day mortality during each period to the previous three years. Results The number of non-STEMI hospitalizations during the first year of the pandemic was 13.7% lower than the average of the previous three years (95% CI 11%-17%); STEMI hospitalizations were 15.7% lower (95% CI 13%-19%); and CHF hospitalizations were 23.9% lower (95%, CI 21%-27%). No significant differences in 30-day mortality rates were observed for AMI patients during most of the periods, whereas the annual 30-day all-cause mortality rate of CHF was 23% higher. Conclusions Hospitalizations for AMI and CHF were significantly lower during the first year of the pandemic relative to 2017–9. Mortality rates were higher in the case of CHF patients but not in the case of AMI patients, possibly due a change in the clinical acuity of patients arriving at the hospitals. We conclude that targeted public health messaging should be implemented, together with proactive monitoring in order to identify residual disability in patients that may have received non-optimal treatment during the pandemic.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: urinary tract infection; cystitis; D-mannose; antibiotics; acute cystitis symptom score
Online: 8 February 2022 (13:25:24 CET)
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are very frequent in women and can be caused by a range of pathogens. High recurrence rates and increasing antibiotic resistance of uropathogens make UTIs a severe public health problem. d-mannose is a monosaccharide that can inhibit bacterial adhesion to the urothelium after oral intake. Several clinical studies have shown the efficacy of d-mannose in the prevention of recurrent UTI; these also provided limited evidence for the efficacy of d-mannose in acute therapy. A recent prospective, non-interventional study in female patients with acute cystitis reported good success rates for treatment with d-mannose. Here we present data from a post-hoc analysis of this study to compare the cure rate of d-mannose monotherapy with that of antibiotics. The results show that d-mannose is a promising alternative to antibiotics in the treatment of acute uncomplicated UTIs in women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0323.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: CAR T; Bone Marrow; Mathematical Model; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B cell
Online: 14 May 2021 (11:26:20 CEST)
Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has demonstrated high rates of response in recurrent B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in children and young adults. Despite this success, a fraction of patients experience relapse after treatment. Relapse is often preceded by recovery of healthy B cells, which suggests loss or dysfunction of CAR T cells in bone marrow. This site is harder to access, and thus is not monitored as frequently as peripheral blood. Understanding the interplay between B cells, leukemic cells and CAR T cells in bone marrow is paramount in ascertaining the causes of lack of response. In this paper, we put forward a mathematical model representing the interaction between constantly renewing B cells, CAR T cells and leukemic cells in the bone marrow. Our model accounts for the maturation dynamics of B cells and incorporates effector and memory CAR T cells. The model provides a plausible description of the dynamics of the various cellular compartments in bone marrow after CAR T infusion. After exploration of the parameter space, we found that the dynamics of CAR T product and disease were independent of the dose injected, initial B-cell load and tumor burden. We also show theoretically the importance of CAR T product attributes in determining therapy outcome, and have studied a variety of possible response scenarios, including second dosage schemes. We conclude by setting out ideas for the refinement of the model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0534.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: creatinine; vancomycin; amikacin; renal impairment; acute kidney injury; adverse drug reaction
Online: 21 December 2020 (15:42:59 CET)
Background: Disentangling adverse drug reactions from confounders remains a major challenge to assess causality and severity in neonates. Vancomycin and amikacin are perceived as nephrotoxic and often prescribed in neonates. We selected these compounds to assess their impact on creatinine dynamics as sensitive tool to detect a renal impairment signal. Methods: A recently developed dynamical model that characterized serum creatinine concentrations of 217 ELBW neonates (4036 serum creatinine observations) was enhanced with data on individual administration of vancomycin and/or amikacin to identify a potential effect of antibiotic exposure by nonlinear mixed-effects modelling analysis. Results: Of our ELBW patients, 77% were exposed to either vancomycin or amikacin. Antibiotic exposure resulted in transient lower overall creatinine clearance and a modest increase in serum creatinine. Dependency on gestational age was observed in the difference in serum creatinine when exposed to antibiotics during the third week after birth (difference in creatinine for a neonate at 24 weeks gestation decreased with 56% for a 32-week-old neonate). Conclusions: A previously described model on creatinine dynamics was used to explore and quantify the impact amikacin or vancomycin exposure on creatinine dynamics. Such tools can be used to explore minor changes, or compare minor differences between treatment modalities.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus
Online: 5 July 2020 (10:16:43 CEST)
Background: The information on the difference in clinical characteristics between severe and non-severe cases is limited in some countries including Iran. The objective of this case series is to compare the clinical characteristics, radiologic features, and laboratory findings between COVID-19 severe cases who received the intensive care unit (ICU) care with non-severe cases who did not receive ICU care. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, 186 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 diagnosed from 1 March 2020 to 30 March 2020 were investigated. Results: This study population included 186 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19. The median age was 47 years, and 88 (47.31%) were female. Of these patients, 48 were admitted and transferred to ICU. Of 186 patients, 44.62% had medical comorbidities including hypertension and diabetes. The most common clinical manifestation were shortness of breath 86.56%, myalgia 74.19%, and headache. Higher neutrophil counts, CRP, and LDH as well as the lower levels of lymphocytes were the most important laboratory finding among COVID-19 patients. As of April 15, 2020, 33 were still hospitalized. A total of 116 patients (62.70 %) had been discharged, and 36 patients (19.94 %) had died. Of the 48 patients admitted to the ICU, 33.33% have died. Conclusion: In the present study, shortness of breath was the most common clinical symptom, and the mortality rate in patients admitted to the ICU was about 33%, indicating that about one-third of patients with severe illness who admitted to the ICU section died.