ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0207.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Accelerated Curing; Curing Regime; CUSUM; Quality Control
Online: 14 July 2022 (09:14:00 CEST)
Quality monitoring (QM) with CUSUM system can result in potential economy in RMC through optimal control of target strength (by avoiding overdesign) on the one hand and through reduction of producers’ risk against rejection by the client on the other. To overcome the problems associated with the conventional 28-day compressive strength test, correlations are established between accelerated and the standard 28-day cube strength to predict the 28-day strength from the early age strength itself. This paper tried to demonstrate the lack of reliability of single correlation itself along the production time of RMC. The correlations vary with W/C as well as with type of cement. Hence it is demonstrated that correlation is concrete specific. Further, it is also demonstrated that correlation established with specimens having wide variation in the batching may result in poor correlation. Through CUSUM plots of mean and range for cube strength obtained by Monte-Carlo simulation demonstrate the utility of prediction through such correlation in QM and a methodology for monitoring the correlation itself.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0216.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Relativity of simultaneity; Accelerated observers; Gravitational redshift
Online: 24 March 2022 (07:26:43 CET)
In this paper, we examine the prediction of the theory of relativity for the desynchronization of accelerating clocks separated by a proper distance l. We adopt the approach of Larmor-Lorentz-Poincaré-Bell to relativity and derive clock desynchronization as a result of an acceleration procedure based on two basic assumptions. Such an approach exhausts the freedom of Einstein's approach that allows for different clock synchronizations. We show that contrary to expectations, as a result of acceleration, the rear clock actually shifted backwards with respect to the front clock according to an inertial observer. However, due to Einstein’s equivalence principle the accelerating observer feels a gravitational field and observes that the rear clock undergoes a gravitational redshift relative to the front clock. This gravitational time shift is larger than the time shift for the acceleration and the difference is exactly equal to the special relativistic time shift. Eventually, we arrive at the conclusion that Einstein’s equivalence principle and gravitational redshift is necessary to explain special relativistic clock desynchronization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0250.v9
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Accelerated Expansion; Fast orbital speed of outer stars; Duality; Antimatter.
Online: 29 April 2021 (09:10:40 CEST)
The recent Planck Legacy release confirmed the existence of an enhanced lensing amplitude in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra, which endorses the positive curvature of the early Universe with a confidence level exceeding 99%. In this study, the pre-existing curvature is incorporated to extend the field equations where the derived wave function of the Universe is utilized to model Universe evolution with reference to the scale factor of the early Universe and its radius of curvature upon the emission of the CMB. The wave function reveals both positive and negative solutions, implying that matter and antimatter of early Universe plasma evolve in opposite directions as distinct Universe sides. The wave function indicates that a nascent hyperbolic expansion is followed by a first phase of decelerating expansion away from early plasma during the first 10 Gyr, and then, a second phase of accelerating expansion in reverse directions, whereby both Universe sides free-fall towards each other under gravitational acceleration. Simulations of the predicted conformal curvature evolution demonstrate the fast orbital speed of outer stars owing to the external fields exerted on galaxies as they travel through conformally curved space-time. Finally, the wave function predicts an eventual time-reversal phase comprising rapid spatial contraction that culminates in a Big Crunch, signalling a cyclic Universe. These findings reveal that early plasma could have separated and evolved into distinct sides that collectively and geometrically influencing the Universe evolution, physically explanting the effects attributed to dark matter and energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0544.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: accelerated frames; galactic rotation curve; dark matter
Online: 31 August 2018 (10:00:39 CEST)
In this article the galactic rotation curve is analyzed as an effect of an accelerated reference frame. This phenomenon is the strongest evidence for the so called dark matter. We show that a non-inertial reference frame could explain the experimental data. We also show that general relativity is not enough to complete explain that which encouraged alternatives paths such as the MOND approach. Considering the effect of dark matter as a realization of accelerated reference frames is a simple but powerful hypothesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0230.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Einstein, elevator, lift, uniformly accelerated, worldline, circle, Michelson
Online: 19 April 2021 (22:29:31 CEST)
We all have in mind Einstein's famous thought experiment in the elevator where we observe the free fall of a body and then the trajectory of a light ray. Simply here, in addition to the qualitative aspect, we carry out the exact calculation. We consider a uniformly accelerated reference frame in rectilinear translation and we show that the trajectories of the particles are ellipses centered on the horizon of the events. The frame of reference is non-inertial, the space-time is flat, the metric is non-Minkowskian and the computations are performed within the framework of special relativity. Some experimental consequences are discussed such as trajectory deviation, desynchronization of a falling clock and the Michelson interferometer. The differences, compared to the classical case, are important at large scale and close to the horizon, but they are small in the box where the interest is above all theoretical and pedagogical. The study helps the student to become familiar with the concepts of metric, coordinate velocity, horizon, and, to do the analogy with the black hole.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0242.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: accelerated weathering test; color change; poplar OSB; wettability
Online: 29 March 2018 (04:38:44 CEST)
Oriented strand board (OSB) panels are widely marketed for several applications, from building to packaging. The manufacturing of poplar OSB started recently in Northern Italy representing a relevant innovation in the sector since this product is usually made of coniferous wood. The thermal treatment is widely used for reducing the hygroscopicity of wood-based products, nonetheless it influences the mechanical behavior and degrades the main components of wood, which can affect their finishing. Therefore, it is important to know the properties of the treated surfaces. To this purpose, in this study a lot of OSB panels, made of poplar wood, 15 mm thick and with a density of 590 kg/m3, were thermally treated under vacuum conditions at 190 °C for 2 h and then subjected to accelerated weathering. The changes in color and in wettability due to treatment and accelerated weathering were studied. The thermal treatment determined a significant darkening of the color; the accelerated weathering darkened the untreated surfaces and, on the opposite, lightened the thermo-treated surfaces. The wettability decreased after thermal treatment and increased after weathering, more evidently in treated panels. Overall, this study improves the knowledge about the behavior of the surface of thermo-treated poplar OSB, which is relevant for the industrial coating of this product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0303.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: accelerated degradation tests; gold nanoparticles; life distribution; Wiener process
Online: 17 September 2021 (10:11:15 CEST)
Accelerated degradation tests (ADT) are widely used in the manufacturing industry to obtain information on the reliability of components and materials, through degrading the lifespan of the product by applying an acceleration factor which causes damage to the material. The main objective is to obtain fast information which is modeled to estimate the characteristics of the material life under normal conditions of use and to save time and expenses. The purpose of this work is to estimate the lifespan distribution of gold nanoparticles stabilized with lipoic acid (GNPs@LA) through accelerated degradation tests applying sodium chloride (NaCl) as an acceleration factor. For this, the synthesis of GNPs@LA was carried out, a constant stress ADT (CSADT) was applied, and the non-linear Wiener process was proposed with random effects, error measures and different covariability for the adjustment of the degradation signals. The information obtained with the test and analysis allows us to obtain the life distribution in GNPs@LA, the results make possible to determine the guaranteed time for a possible commercialization and successful application based on the stability of the material. In addition, for the evaluation and selection of the model, the Akaike and Bootstraping criteria were used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0811.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: magnetorheological; elastomer; magnetorheological elastomer; MRE; weather; accelerated; rubber; composite; rheological
Online: 31 December 2020 (13:28:19 CET)
Silicone RTV-based engineering rubber composite products have been widely used for several applications in various fields as a major component such as structure, automotive, and medical. In its application, the rubber composite product is placed in an open area that is directly exposed to sunlight and rain. It has a significant negative impact on changes in chemical and rheological properties, making the product life of rubber composite products shorter. Therefore, in this study, changes in the chemical and rheological properties of both isotropic and anisotropic magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) treated with accelerated weathering were studied compared to untreated specimens with specimens that had been treated. MRE specimens with 40% by weight CIP were prepared with no current excitation and another sample were made under 1.5 T of magnetic flux density. Each specimen was treated in an accelerated weathering machine Q-Sun Xe-1 Xenon Test Chamber with a UV light exposure cycle for 102 minutes and 18 minutes of UV light combined with water spray for 24 hours followed by a condensation cycle of 4 hours in a dark period. Material characterization was carried out using FTIR and Rheometer to determine the changes in chemical and rheological properties. The morphological analysis results showed that the surface was rough and more cavities occurred after being given weather treatment. Rheometer test results showed a decrease in storage modulus in each MRE specimen that had been treated compared to untreated MRE specimens. Meanwhile, FTIR testing showed a change in wave peak between untreated and treated MRE specimens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0317.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: consolidation; sandstone; alkoxide consolidants; diammonium hydrogen phosphate; accelerated weathering; durability
Online: 28 September 2019 (15:12:05 CEST)
To achieve efficient and durable consolidation of weathered sandstone, the selection of a suitable consolidant is essential. To reasonably assess the suitability of different formulations, it is fundamental to compare their performance as a consolidant within a substrate, which reliably models the properties of deteriorated material. As a test substrate, the sandstone from quarries in Mšené in central Bohemia was selected, for its developed porosity and relatively low mechanical strength. To obtain relevant comparison of their application potential, both commercial (Remmers KSE OH and Surfapore) and self-developed consolidants were included. To test the long-term stability of each consolidant, the stone was subjected to accelerated weathering. The characterization of texture properties was based on the physical sorption of nitrogen and krypton, mercury intrusion porosimetry and water uptake. While the mechanical properties in microscale were determined by nanoindentation, the mechanical strength in macroscale before and after consolidation was measured by drilling resistance. Both commercial exhibited good mechanical performance with reasonable durability. The performance of our developed samples was comparable or, in some cases, superior. Very interesting were the consolidants containing TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, the former exhibiting comparable degree of consolidation and durability as commercial ones, with additional photocatalytic function, the latter unusually high increase in the mechanical strength, even after the weathering test. The diammonium hydrogen phosphate based consolidant showed exceptional durability in the weathering test, which makes it a promising product not only for carbonate but also sandstone materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0184.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: FRW model; accelerated expansion; Vacuum Energy parameter; stochastic cosmology; Langevin equation
Online: 6 April 2021 (18:25:00 CEST)
The Vacuum Energy Parameter (VEP) of standard cosmology denotes the fraction of the critical density attributed to the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Astrophysical evidence sets the numerical range of VEP at 0.692 +, - 0.012, yet the root cause of these values is currently unknown. Drawing from the stochastic interpretation of early-Universe cosmology, we develop here a derivation of the VEP based on classical diffusion theory and the Langevin equation. Predictions are shown to be in reasonable agreement with observations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0288.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: COVID-19; Accelerated Failure Time; Proportional Hazard Model; Bayesian; Auto-Regression
Online: 17 May 2020 (08:50:22 CEST)
The constant news about the corona virus is scary. It is not possible to separate treatment for Cancer due to COVID-19. An effective treatment comparison strategy is needed. We need to have a handy tool to understand cancer progression in this unprecedented scenario. Linking different events of cancer progression is the need of the hour. It is a methodological challenge. We provide the solutions to overcome the issue with interval between two consecutive events in motivating head and neck cancer (HNC) data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0132.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: integrated forward/reverse logistics network; accelerated benders’ decomposition; two-stage stochastic programming
Online: 20 October 2017 (03:07:28 CEST)
In this paper, a two-stage stochastic programming modelling is proposed to design a multi-period, multistage, and single-commodity integrated forward/reverse logistics network design problem under uncertainty. The problem involves both strategic and tactical decision levels. The first stage deals with strategic decisions, which are the number, capacity, and location of forward and reverse facilities. At the second stage tactical decisions such as base stock level as an inventory policy is determined. The generic introduced model consists of suppliers, manufactures, and distribution centers in forward logistic and collection centers, remanufactures, redistribution, and disposal centers in reverse logistic. The strength of proposed model is its applicability to various industries. The problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model and is solved by using Benders’ Decomposition (BD) approach. In order to accelerate the Benders’ decomposition, a number of valid inequalities are added to the master problem. The proposed accelerated BD is evaluated through small-, medium-, and large-sized test problems. Numerical results reveal that proposed solution algorithm increases convergence of lower bound and upper bound of BD and is able to reach an acceptable optimality gap in a convenient CPU time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0097.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Neural networks; quasi-Newton; symmetric rank-1; Nesterov’s accelerated gradient; limited memory; trust-region
Online: 8 December 2021 (17:51:54 CET)
Gradient based methods are popularly used in training neural networks and can be broadly categorized into first and second order methods. Second order methods have shown to have better convergence compared to first order methods, especially in solving highly nonlinear problems. The BFGS quasi-Newton method is the most commonly studied second order method for neural network training. Recent methods have shown to speed up the convergence of the BFGS method using the Nesterov’s acclerated gradient and momentum terms. The SR1 quasi-Newton method though less commonly used in training neural networks, are known to have interesting properties and provide good Hessian approximations when used with a trust-region approach. Thus, this paper aims to investigate accelerating the Symmetric Rank-1 (SR1) quasi-Newton method with the Nesterov’s gradient for training neural networks and briefly discuss its convergence. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a function approximation and image classification problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0249.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: rolled flat products; accelerated cooling; temperature; mathematical model; oxide scale; Ther-mo-Mechanical Controlled Process
Online: 17 June 2022 (05:14:37 CEST)
To verify the authors’ mathematical model for water jet cooling of steel sheet, the previously performed experimental studies of temperature of the test plate in the roller quenching machine (RQM) were used. The calculated data of steel temperature evolution along the RQM length were compared with the readings of thermocouples inserted in the center of the test plate and at its surfaces. The core of the model is the dependence of the temperatures of film, transition and nucleate boiling regimes on the thickness of the oxide scale layer on the cooled surface. It was found that the model correctly takes into account the oxide scale on the sheet surface, flow rates and combinations of the RQM banks used, water temperature and other factors. For all experiments the calculated metal temperature corresponds well to the measured one. In the experiments with interrupted cooling, the calculated temperature plots repeat the characteristic changes in the experimental curves. The main uncertainty in the modeling of cooling in a wide temperature range can be contributed by the random nature of changes in the oxide scale thickness during water cooling. In this regard, the estimated thickness of the oxide scale layer should be considered as the main parameter for adapting the sheet temperature control process. The obtained data confirm the possibility of effective application of the model in the ACS of industrial TMCP (Thermo-Mechanical Controlled Process) systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Chaga (Inonotus obliquus); Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE); myconutrients; Swiss water process (SWP); Green extraction; pH; Temperature
Online: 8 July 2021 (10:02:51 CEST)
Mushrooms have long rich history in folk medicine, traditional and functional foods due to high content of dietary myco-nutrients. Currently, there is increased interest in finding appropriate food-grade green ex-traction systems capable of extracting these bioactive compounds from dietary mushrooms for applica-tions in various food, pharmacological or nutraceutical formulations. Herein, we evaluated a modified Swiss water process (SWP) method using alkaline and acidic pH at low and high temperature under pressurized conditions as a suitable green food grade solvent to obtained extracts enriched with my-co-nutrients (dietary phenolics, total antioxidants (TAA), vitamins, and minerals) from Chaga. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRAMS-MS/MS) was used to assess the phenolic compounds and vitamin levels in the extracts, while inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the mineral con-tents. Over twenty phenolic compounds were quantitatively evaluated in the extracts and the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was observed at pH11.5 at 100°C. The most abundant phenolic compounds present in Chaga extracts included phenolic acids such as protocatechuic acid 4-glucoside (0.7-1.08µg/mL), syringic acid (0.62-1.18µg/mL), and myricetin (0.68-1.3µg/mL). Vitamins are being reported for the first time in Chaga. pH 2.5 at 100°C treatment shows superior effects in extracting the B vitamins whereas pH 2.5 at 60 and 100°C treatments were outstanding for extraction of total fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin E content was the highest for the fat-soluble vitamins in the Chaga extract under acidic pH (2.5) and high temp. (100°C) and ranges between 50 to 175 µg/100g Chaga. Antioxidant minerals ranged from 85.94 µg/g (pH7 at 100°C) to 113.86 µg/g DW (pH2.5 at 100°C). High temperature 100°C and a pH of 2.5 or 9.5. The treatment of pH11.5 at 100°C was the most useful for recovering phenolics and antioxidants from Chaga including several phenolic compounds reported for the first time in Chaga. SWP is being proposed herein for the first time as a novel, green food-grade solvent system for the extraction of myco-nutrients from Chaga and have potential applications as a suitable approach to extract nutrients from other matrices. Chaga extracts enriched with bioactive myconutrients and antioxidants may be suitable for further use or applications in the food and nutraceutical industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0722.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: cosmology; Bianchi Type I; particle creation; open thermodynamic system; constant deceleration parameter; accelerated expansion; late time acceleration
Online: 30 October 2018 (09:36:05 CET)
A study of Bianchi Type I cosmological model is undertaken in the framework of creation of particles. To accommodate the creation of new particles, the universe is regarded as an Open thermodynamical system. The energy conservation equation is modified with the incorporation of a creation pressure in the energy momentum tensor. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained (i) for a particular choice of the particle creation function and (ii) by considering the deceleration parameter to be constant. In the first model the behavior of the solution at late times is investigated. The physical aspects of the model have also been discussed. In the case of the second model we have restricted our analysis to the power law behaviour for the average scale factor. This leads to a particular form for the particle creation function. The behavior of the solution is investigated and the physical aspects of the model have also been discussed for the matter dominated era.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0242.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: undamped oscillation; SRT; k-factor; Differential-equation of second order; Einstein-Lorentz; Amplitude-analogy; damped oscillation; developed SRT of fourth order,accelerated framed
Online: 1 June 2021 (09:43:38 CEST)
Shown is the derivation of Lorentz-Einstein k-factor in SRT as an amplitude-term of oscillation-differential equations of second order.This case is shown for classical Lorentz-factor as solution of an equation for undamped oscillation as well as the developed theorem as a second solution for advanced SRT of fourth order with an equation for damped oscillation-states.This advanced term allows a calculation for any velocities by real rest mass.Also accelerated coordinate -frames are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0077.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: special relativity; efficient coding hypothesis; temporal order judgement; circular vection; vestibulo-ocular reflex; time perception; Lorentz transformation; accelerated reference frame; equivalence principle; optimization of perception
Online: 6 February 2020 (03:08:56 CET)
An event occurring within a stationary environment, in the direction toward which an observer self-rotates, is perceived to precede a simultaneous event, in the direction away from which she moves. When self-rotation results from angular acceleration in the dark, perception of space is also distorted, such that the subjective straight-ahead shifts in the opposite direction to motion and temporal event promotion. A reference frameshift theory, based on the special theory of relativity, is proposed to explain these findings. Here, a hyperbolic tangent transformation of objective angular velocity constrains subjective self-rotation velocity within finite bounds, consistent with it being a limited perceptual resource. Identifying this subjective variable with vestibular nystagmus slow-phase angular velocity, the asymptotic perceived self-rotation velocity is estimated at ~200 °⁄s. When included in the Lorentz transformations of the new formalism, this value predicts experimental simultaneity distortion. Hypothetically, the hyperbolic tangent objective-to-subjective transfer function would maximize the differential entropy of the percept, and thereby also the stimulus/percept mutual information, if angular velocities of body rotation encountered in naturalistic environmental interaction have a logistic probability density distribution of scale 100 °⁄s, a proposed experimental test of the scheme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0323.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Intrusion Detection System (IDS); HNADAM-SDG(Hybrid Nestrov-Accelerated Adaptive Moment Estimation –Stochastic Gradient Descent); Network-based Intrusion Detection System (NIDS); Host-based Intrusion Detection System (HIDS); Signature-based Intrusion Detection System (SIDS); Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection System (AIDS); Algorithms; Machine Learning.
Online: 21 December 2021 (11:45:39 CET)
A single Information security is of pivotal concern for consistently streaming information over the widespread internetwork. The bottleneck flow of incoming and outgoing data traffic introduces the issue of malicious activities taken place by intruders, hackers and attackers in the form of authenticity desecration, gridlocking data traffic, vandalizing data and crashing the established network. The issue of emerging suspicious activities is managed by the domain of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). The IDS consistently monitors the network for identifica-tion of suspicious activities and generates alarm and indication in presence of malicious threats and worms. The performance of IDS is improved by using different signature based machine learning algorithms. In this paper, the performance of IDS model is determined using hybridization of nestrov-accelerated adaptive moment estimation –stochastic gradient descent (HNADAM-SDG) algorithm. The performance of the algorithm is compared with other classi-fication algorithms as logistic regression, ridge classifier and ensemble algorithm by adapting feature selection and optimization techniques