ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0175.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: surround suppression; extra-classical receptive field; optic tectum; size tuning
Online: 10 December 2021 (14:29:15 CET)
Surround modulation is a phenomenon whereby costimulation of the extra-classical receptive field and classical receptive field would modulate the visual responses induced individually by classical receptive field. However, there lacks systematic study about surround modulation properties existing in avian optic tectum. In this study, neuronal activities are recorded from pigeon optic tectum, and the responses to moving and flashed squares and bars of different sizes are compared. The statistical results showed that most tectal neurons presented surround suppression as stimuli size grew larger both in moving and flashed paradigms, and the suppression degree induced by larger flashed square was comparable with that by moving one when it crossed near the cell’s RF center, which corresponds to fully surrounding condition. The suppression degree grew weaker when the stimuli move across the RF border, which corresponds to partially surrounding condition. Meanwhile, the fully surround suppression induced by flashed square was also more intense than partially surrounded by flashed bars. The results provide new insight for understanding the spatial arrangement of lateral inhibitions from feedback or feedforward streams, which would help to make clear the generation mechanism of surround modulation found in avian optic tectum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0030.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Bayesian updating; expert opinion; spatial classification; transition probability
Online: 14 July 2016 (11:54:21 CEST)
Categorical variables are common in spatial data analysis. Traditional analytical methods for deriving probabilities of class occurrence, such as kriging-family algorithms, have been hindered by the discrete characteristics of categorical fields. This study introduces the theoretical backgrounds of linear Bayesian updating (LBU) approach for spatial classification through expert system. Transition probabilities are interpreted as expert opinions for updating the prior marginal probabilities of categorical response variables. The main objective of this paper is to present the solid theoretical foundations of LBU and provide a categorical random field prediction method which yields relatively higher classification accuracy compared with conventional Markov chain random field (MCRF) approach. A real-world case study has also been carried out to demonstrate the superiority of our method. Since the LBU idea is originated from aggregating expert opinions and not restricted to conditional independent assumption (CIA), it may prove to be reasonably adequate for analyzing complex geospatial data sets, like remote sensing images or area-class maps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0112.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; sodium selenite; soluble protein; chlorophyll a; chlorophyll fluorescence
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:19:45 CEST)
Arthrospira platensis is a class of microalgae with high economic value. Its high adaptability, high photosynthetic efficiency, and fast growth rate make it one of the few microalgae that can be cultivated on a large scale. Therefore, using the selenium enrichment property of Arthrospira platensis to cultivate selenium-enriched Arthrospira platensis will not only enhance the physiological efficacy of Arthrospira platensis but also increase its economic value significantly. In this study, we investigated the effects of sodium selenite on the growth and photosynthetic performance of Arthrospira platensis selenium by setting different amounts and methods of sodium selenite addition, and we explored the optimal culture conditions. The results showed that the experimental group treated with sodium selenite at 120 mg/L had the fastest growth, and the contents of soluble protein, phycocyanin, and Chlorophyll a increased by approximately 67.9%, 1.44 times, and 38.8%, respectively, compared to the control group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity increased by 1.88-fold and 65%, respectively, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were reduced by 62% compared to the control group. The results of the OJIP assay showed that the J and I points were significantly higher at the batch addition and treatment concentration of 120 mg/L, with the rate of QA being reduced and the proportion of the slowly reduced PQ pool being increased. The values of the maximum light energy conversion efficiency (Fv/Fm) per unit of reaction center were higher in both sodium selenite treatment groups than in the control group, indicating that the light energy conversion efficiency of Arthrospira was promoted under all concentration treatment conditions. The batch addition of sodium selenite at concentrations less than 120 mg/L resulted in significantly higher ABS/RC values than the control, and they were far superior to the one-time addition method. The reason for this may have been that the batch addition of sodium selenite at low concentrations increased the light absorption capacity of the unit reaction center of the Arthrospira PSII, resulting in a rise in captured light energy, a rise in the energy captured by the reaction center for electron transfer (ETo/RC), a decrease in the energy dissipated in the absorption of light energy by the reaction center (DIo/RC), and an increase in the photosynthetic performance index (PI abs).