ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0250.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: characteristic curve; optimal power flow; distribution grids; voltage stability; reactive power flexibility
Online: 4 May 2023 (09:57:16 CEST)
The local reactive power control in distribution grids with a high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) is essential in future power system operation. Appropriate control characteristic curves for DERs support stable and efficient distribution grid operation. However, the current practice is to configure local controllers collectively with constant characteristic curves that may not be efficient for volatile grid conditions or the desired targets of grid operators. To address this issue, this paper proposes a time series optimization-based method to calculate control parameters, which enables each DER to be independently controlled by an exclusive characteristic curve for optimizing its reactive power provision. To realize time series optimizations, the open-source tools pandapower and PowerModels are interconnected functionally. Based on the optimization results, Q(V)- and Q(P)-characteristic curves can be individually calculated using the linear decision tree regression to support voltage stability and provide reactive power flexibility and potentially reduce grid losses and component loadings. In this paper, the newly calculated characteristic curves are applied in two representative case studies, and the results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the reference ones suggested by grid codes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0163.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: black carbon aerosol; aerosol layer; vertical distribution; numerical simulation; WRF-Chem
Online: 13 February 2020 (10:13:31 CET)
Studies on the detection of layers with elevated black carbon aerosol (BC) concentrations and the formation conditions of these layers help understand the vertical distribution of BC concentrations, which will provide a basis for the assessment of climate effects and early BC pollution warnings. By using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) numerical model, we performed a numerical simulation analysis on the authenticity of strong elevated BC concentration layers that were detected by an aircraft in the mixing layer over Harbin, China, which is a high-emission area, on a clear sunny afternoon in the early heating period of 2016. We then discuss possible problems and solutions when non-vertical paths are used to detect the vertical distribution of BC concentrations. Finally, we discuss the favorable conditions for the formation of elevated BC concentration layers by weak vertical flow. The results show that the horizontal variability of BC concentration in the mixing layer in the observation area in Harbin was sufficiently large during the measurement. This produced a false elevated layer, as detected by the aircraft during one round of spiral flight in the mixing layer. The root mean square of the horizontal distribution of BC concentration did not change with height in the mixing layer during the daytime, but it decreased with the thickness of the mixing layer and was higher in the mixing layer than in the free atmosphere. Therefore, the thinner the mixing layer, in which the vertical distribution of the BC concentration is detected in an inclined path, the stronger interference of the horizontal variability on the detected results. When a spiral flight detection path is used, the aircraft should fly at least two rounds in the mixing layer. In the daytime, due to strong turbulence in the mixing layer, weak vertical uplift is not favorable for the occurrence of elevated BC concentration layers in the mixing layer. In the nighttime, if weak vertical uplift is well matched with the BC concentration or its vertical gradient, elevated BC concentration layers can be formed in the atmosphere. Compared with upper layers far from the ground, nighttime elevated layers are easier to form in lower layers near the ground because high BC concentrations or large vertical gradients are more likely to occur in the lower layers. Both cases facilitate the occurrence of large vertical upward transport rates of BC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0318.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: blast loading; concrete medium; rate sensitivity; improved HJC concrete model; material point method
Online: 5 July 2023 (12:37:18 CEST)
The nature of the fracture and fragmentation process of concrete medium under blast loading is the transformation process of the medium from continuum to discontinuity, coupled with the significant rate correlation of concrete medium, its mechanical behavior presents a high degree of complexity. Problems such as grid distortion and even negative volume are often encountered in the finite element method and others when solving this problem, while the material point method can effectively avoid these problems. In addition, the widely used HJC concrete constitutive model does not take into account the segmented characteristics of the calculation function for dynamic increasing factor. Therefore, in this paper, firstly, the calculation function for dynamic increasing factor in the HJC concrete model is modified by SHPB experiment, and the improved HJC concrete model is proposed; secondly, the material point method simulation program is developed, and the improved HJC concrete model is embedded into the simulation program; finally, the simulation program is verified by numerical examples, and the results show that the developed simulation program can better simulate the fracture and fragmentation process of concrete medium under blast loading, especially the pulverization characteristics of the medium in the near zone of the load.