ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1774.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: golf; pro-player; full swing; biomechanics
Online: 26 September 2023 (10:24:38 CEST)
Background: Pro-golfers are increasingly trained scientifically, but swing technique characteristics have not yet been conclusively determined for golf performance. We investigated the relationship between the player's thorax, pelvis and club based on a wireless biofeedback system. We also determined whether thoracic and pelvic changes during different swing phases have different effects on ball striking. Methods: Eight male professionals performed 10 successful full-swing shots using a 5-iron and applied the K-vest wireless biofeedback system for analysis. Results: Peak angular velocities between the pelvis, torso, and clubs were all significantly different (p<0.05) in the men's professional players. All players deviated more from the PGA players range metrics during the preparation stance. Excessive lateral pelvic bending angle, over-rotation, and hyperextension of the trunk were prevalent at the top of the backswing. Conclusions: Most players have an irrational sequence of pelvic, trunk and club rotation times, which is not conducive to improving club head speed and distance. Excessive pelvic rotation in the closed direction at the apex of the backswing is not conducive to maximizing the X-factor. At the moment of striking the ball, maintain a moderate forward trunk lean and full trunk rotation to avoid sports injuries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0198.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: series connected battery string; layered bidirectional equalizer; power inductor; dynamic adjustment of equalization path
Online: 27 March 2017 (10:41:03 CEST)
To eliminate the influence of the inconsistency on the cycle life and the available capacity of the battery pack, and improve the balancing speed, a novel inductor-based layered bidirectional equalizer (IBLBE) is proposed. The equalizer is composed of the bottom balancing circuits and the upper balancing circuits, and the two layer circuits both consist of a plurality of balancing sub-circuits, which allow the dynamic adjustment of equalization path and equalization threshold. The battery string is modularized by layered balancing circuits to realize fast active equalization, especially for long battery strings. By controlling the bottom balancing circuits, the individual cells can be balanced in each module. At the same time, the equalization between battery modules can be realized by controlling the upper balancing circuits. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed equalizer can achieve fast active equalization for a long battery string, and has the characteristics of multi balancing path, large balancing current and high accuracy. The advantages of the proposed equalizer are further verified by a comparison with existing active equalizer.