REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0228.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Immunogenic cell death; DAMPs; cell death resistance; immunotherapy; combination therapy
Online: 13 March 2020 (10:04:56 CET)
Cell death resistance is a key feature of tumor cells. One of the main anti-cancer therapies is increasing the susceptibility of cells to death. Cancer cells have developed a capability of tumor immune escape. Hence, restoring the immunogenicity of cancer cells can be suggested as an effective approach against cancer. Accumulating evidence proposes that several anticancer agents provoke the release of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are determinants of immunogenicity and stimulate immunogenic cell death (ICD). It has been suggested that ICD inducers are two different types according to their various activities. Here, we review the well-characterized DAMPs and focus on the different types of ICD inducers and recent combination therapies that can augment the immunogenicity of cancer cells.
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; coronavirus; signaling pathway; molecular alteration
Online: 21 September 2020 (04:17:24 CEST)
Emerging viruses description have grown at an unprecedented rate since the beginning of the 21st century. The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its related illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported as the third highly pathogenic coronavirus introducing itself into human population in the current era after the SARS-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV). Molecular and cellular studies considering the pathogenesis of this novel coronavirus are still in the early stages of research, however, regarding the similarity of SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses, it could be hypothesized that the NF-κB, Cytokine regulation, ERK, and TNF-α signaling pathways are the more likely causes of inflammation upon onset of COVID-19. There are several drugs prescribed and used to alleviate the activity of these inflammatory cellular signaling pathways which might be beneficial for developing novel therapeutic modalities against COVID-19. In this review, we briefly summarized the alteration of cellular signaling pathways affected by coronavirus infection, particularly SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV and tabulated the current therapeutic agents approved for previous human diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer; CD133; siRNA; Oxaliplatin; combination therapy
Online: 19 July 2020 (21:01:21 CEST)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered as one of the leading types of cancer in the world. CD133, as a cancer stem cell marker, has a pivotal role in the development of drug resistance, migration, and stemness properties of CRC cells. This study designed to check the combined effect of CD133siRNA and Oxaliplatin on proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and stemness properties of CRC cells in HT-29 cell line.MTT assay was performed to define the combined effect of CD133siRNA and Oxaliplatin on the viability of HT-29 cells. In order to figure out the effect of this combination therapy on CD133 expression at the gene and protein level, qRT-PCR and western blot were exploited, respectively. The ability of cell migration was tested by wound healing assay as well. Also, colony formation and sphere formation were conducted to assess the stemness properties in the combination group. Flow cytometry was conducted to investigate the apoptosis, cell cycle, and surface expression of CD133 in different groups. Finally, the expression of migration-, and stemness-associated genes were measured by qRT-PCR. We indicated that silencing of CD133 reduces the migration and stemness properties of colorectal cancerous cells. This suppression makes HT-29 cells more sensitive to Oxaliplatin and reduces the effective dose of this chemical drug. Therefore, the suppression of CD133 in combination with Oxaliplatin treatment might be a promising therapeutic approach in the treatment of colorectal cancer.