REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0461.v2
Online: 29 May 2020 (12:27:24 CEST)
The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus obstructed the Chinese economy and has expanded to the rest of the world at a rapid pace affecting at least 215 countries, areas and territories. The advancement of the disease and its economic repercussions is profoundly ambiguous, making it challenging for policymakers to formulate suitable microeconomic and macroeconomic policy responses. The scenarios in this paper illustrate how an outbreak could significantly affect the global economy in the short run. It has been estimated that each additional month of crisis would cost from about 2.5-3% of the global GDP and that the GDP growth would take a blow, reaching about 3-6%, depending on the country. Scenarios also suggest that GDP can drop by more than 10% and even exceed 15% in some countries. Via addressing the economic consequence of COVID-19 in different industries and countries, the paper presents assessments of the likely global economic costs of COVID-19 and the GDP growth of different countries. Economies will be negatively affected because of the high number of jobs at risk. Countries highly dependent on foreign trade are more negatively affected. Given that disease and its economic influence are highly unpredictable in numerous aspects, the global economy at the moment is the most critically threatened in history.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0372.v1
Online: 21 April 2020 (04:44:40 CEST)
The recent pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread so rapidly and severely affected the people of almost every country in the world. The highly contagious nature of this virus makes it difficult to take control of the present pandemic situation. With no specific treatment available, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents a threat to people of all ages including the elderly people and people with other medical complications as a vulnerable group to this disease. Better understanding of viral pathogenesis, appropriate preventive measures, early diagnosis and supportive treatments of the infected patients are now the general solutions to fight against this viral transmission. But, as an emerging disease, most about it remains still poorly understood. This article holds an overview on the origin and structure, pathogenesis, diagnosis and possible therapeutic options for the causative agent, SARS-CoV-2 and disease, COVID-19. However, few therapeutic options, laboratory experiments and other strategies proposed here need to be further clinically tested.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0321.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Cancer cachexia, muscle atrophy, tissue regeneration, 3D bioprinting
Online: 14 July 2021 (11:20:17 CEST)
Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome that is identified by ongoing muscle atrophy, along with functional impairment, anorexia, weakness, fatigue, anemia, reduced tolerance to antitumor treatments. Thus, reducing the patients’ quality of life. Cachexia alone causes about 22-25% of cancer deaths. This review covers the symptoms, mediators, available treatment, and prospects of 3D bioprinting for cancer cachexia. Studies about cachexia have shown several factors that drive this disease – protein breakdown, inflammatory cytokines activation, and mitochondrial alteration. Even with proper nutrition, physical exercises, anti-inflammatory agents, chemotherapy, and grafting attempts, standard treatment has been unsuccessful for cachexia. But the use of 3D bioprinting shows much promise compared to conventional methods by attempting to fabricate 3D constructs mimicking the native muscle tissues. In this review, some 3D bioprinting techniques with their advantages and drawbacks, along with their achievements and challenges in in-vivo applications have been discussed. Constructs with neural integration or muscle-tendon units aim to repair muscle atrophy. But it is still difficult to properly bio-print these complex muscles. Although progress can be made by developing new bio-inks or 3D printers to fabricate high-resolution constructs. Using secondary data, this review study shows prospects of why 3D bioprinting can be a good alternate approach to fight cachexia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0620.v1
Online: 29 October 2020 (14:50:51 CET)
Bioprinting is a relatively new yet evolving technique predominantly used in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. 3D bioprinting techniques combine the advantages of creating Extracellular Matrix (ECM) like environments for cells and computer-aided tailoring of predetermined tissue shapes and structures. The essential application of bioprinting is for the regeneration or restoration of damaged and injured tissues by producing implantable tissues and organs. The capability of bioprinting is yet to be fully scrutinized in sectors like the patient-specific spatial distribution of cells, bio-robotics, etc. In this review, currently developed experimental systems and strategies for the bioprinting of different types of tissues as well as for drug delivery and cancer research are explored for potential applications. This review also digs into the most recent opportunities and future possibilities for the efficient implementation of bioprinting to restructure medical and technological practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0631.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; In silico; Immunoinformatics; Vaccine designing
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:01:26 CEST)
As the number of infections and deaths caused by the recent COVID-19 pandemic is increasing dramatically day-by-day, scientists are rushing towards developing possible counter-measures to fight the deadly virus, SARS-CoV-2. Although many efforts have already been put forward for designing and developing potential vaccines, however, most of them are proved to possess negative consequences. Therefore, in this study, the methods of immunoinformatics were exploited to design novel epitope-based subunit vaccine against the SARS-CoV-2, targeting four essential proteins of the virus i.e., spike glycoprotein, nucleocapsid phosphoprotein, membrane glycoprotein, and envelope protein. The highly antigenic, non-allergenic, non-toxic, non-human homolog and 100% conserved (across other isolates from different regions of the world) epitopes were used for constructing the vaccine. In total, fourteen CTL epitopes and eighteen HTL epitopes were used to construct the vaccine. Thereafter, several in silico validations i.e., the molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation (including the RMSF and RMSD studies), and immune simulation studies were also performed which predicted that the designed vaccine should be quite safe, effective, and stable within the biological environment. Finally, in silico cloning and codon adaptation studies were also conducted to design an effective mass production strategy of the vaccine. However, more in vivo and in vitro studies are required on the predicted vaccine to finally validate its safety and efficacy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0435.v1
Online: 27 May 2020 (04:23:44 CEST)
This paper is purposed to delineate the current situation around Bangladesh as well as impacts of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) around the country and how the people over here are encountering this threatening pandemic. COVID-19 is an international epidemic that has got rapid wide-spread throughout different countries of the world to date. After its first outbreak in China different continents started to make sense and get aware against COVID-19 though, due to its special strategy of transmission several countries have been quite deteriorated preventing it. All the countries are moving at their best forward to find out any solution so that whole world could get rid of this horrifying situation as soon as possible. The authors here have reported an overview of how the outbreak of COVID-19 had put its commence in Bangladesh and to date how people over here have been tracing the way to tackle this havoc. Also, the changes that have brought around due to the crisis have offered us some fertile lessons that are enunciated here by the authors. To conclude, special considerations are anticipated to be highlighted pertaining COVID-19 outbreak in Bangladesh.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0246.v2
Subject: Keywords: Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF); Aedes Aegypti; epidemic; pathogenesis; identification; vaccine
Online: 14 May 2020 (08:36:39 CEST)
Purpose: This review features a generalized overview of dengue outbreaks, dengue pathogenesis, symptoms, immune response, diagnosis methods and preventive measures which facilitates the better understanding of the global expansion and concerns relating to the disease. Recent Findings: A recent study showed that natural killer cells of the infected person become activated soon after the infection which may help in treatment and vaccine development. A research team has also produced synthetically engineered mosquitoes that can prevent the transmission and dissemination of the dengue virus by the activation of an antibody. Furthermore, a mutation in the protein envelope of the dengue virus leads to variation in shapes, developing resistance towards the vaccine. Summary: The increasing number of reported cases indicated the worldwide distribution of the mosquito vectors, which was further facilitated by the growth in the shipping and commerce industries. The immune system, through activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses, facilitates the recruitment of an array of leukocytes which help neutralize the virus. However, the 4 different viral serotypes increases the risk of a life-threatening secondary infection due to the varying serotypes. Apart from the laboratory standard PRNT method, several other dengue detection methods such as ELISA, RT-LAMP and several optical, microfluidic and electrochemical methods have been developed. Since Dengvaxia® (CYD-TDV) has its own set of drawbacks and limitations, several companies have been investing for the production of more potential vaccines that are currently in trial.