REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0131.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: physical human-robot interaction; human factors; robot manipulators
Online: 2 June 2023 (04:58:29 CEST)
As the global population rapidly ages with longer life expectancy and declining birth rates, the need for healthcare services and caregivers for older adults is increasing. Current research envisions addressing this shortage by introducing domestic service robots to assist with daily activities. The successful integration of robots as domestic service providers in our lives requires them to possess efficient manipulation capabilities, provide effective physical assistance, and have adaptive control frameworks that enable them to develop social understanding during human-robot interaction. In this context, human factors, especially quantifiable ones, represent a necessary component. The objective of this paper is to conduct an unbiased review encompassing studies on human factors studied in research involving physical interactions and strong manipulation capabilities. We identified the prevalent human factors in physical human-robot interaction (pHRI), noted the factors typically addressed together and determined the frequently utilized assessment approaches. Additionally, we gathered and categorized proposed quantification approaches based on measurable data for each human factor. We also formed a map of common contexts and applications addressed in pHRI for a comprehensive understanding and easier navigation of the field. We found out that most of the studies in direct pHRI (when there is direct physical contact) focus on social behaviors with belief being the most commonly addressed human factor type. Task collaboration is moderately investigated, while physical assistance is rarely studied. In contrast, indirect pHRI (when the physical contact is mediated via a third item) studies often involve industrial settings, with physical ergonomics being the most frequently investigated human factor. More research is needed on human factors in direct and indirect physical assistance applications, including studies that combine physical social behaviors with physical assistance tasks. We also found that while the predominant approach in most studies involves the use of questionnaires as the main method of quantification, there is a recent trend that seeks to address quantification approaches based on measurable data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0099.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: humanoid robot; bipedal locomotion; optimal control; optimization
Online: 15 December 2017 (05:02:00 CET)
Bipedal locomotion remains one of the major open challenges of humanoid robotics. The common approaches are based on simple reduced model dynamics to generate walking trajectories, often neglecting the whole-body dynamics of the robots. As motions in nature are often considered as optimal with respect to certain criteria, in this work we present an optimal control based approach that allows us to generate optimized walking motions using a precise whole-body dynamic model of the robot, in contrast with the common approaches. The optimal control problem is formulated to minimize a set of desired objective functions with respect to physical constraints of the robot and contact constraints of the walking phases. We apply the method with combinations of different objective criteria to the model of a reduced version of the iCub humanoid robot of 15 internal DOF. The obtained trajectories are executed on the real robot and we carry out a discussion on the differences between the outcomes of this approach with the classic approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0241.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Long afterglow; tunneling model; F centers; PDT
Online: 26 February 2019 (12:45:04 CET)
Here, we have discovered a X-ray excited long afterglow phosphor β-NaYF4: Tb3+. After the irradiation of X-ray, the green emission can persist for more than 240 h. After 36 h, the afterglow intensity arrived at 0.69 mcd•m-2, which can clearly be observed by naked eyes. Even after 84 h, the afterglow emission brightness still reached 0.087 mcd•m-2. Also, combined with the results of thermoluminescence and photoluminescence, the super long afterglow emission of β-NaYF4: Tb3+ can be ascribed to the tunneling model associated with F centers. More importantly, the super long green afterglow emission of β-NaYF4: Tb3+ has been successfully used as in vivo light source to activate g-C3N4 for photodynamic therapy（PDT）and bacteria destruction. Furthermore, super long persistent luminescence of β-NaYF4: Tb3+ could be repeatedly charged by X-ray for many circulations, which indicates that the phosphors have high photo stability under repeated cycles of alternating X-ray irradiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0593.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice; integrated cultivation practices; microbial diversity; environmental factors
Online: 11 September 2023 (05:07:03 CEST)
Integrated cultivation strategies can significantly improve rice yield. However, it is unclear how integrated cultivation practices improve soil microbial diversity and its related mechanism in rice field. Therefore, four integrated cultivation practices i.e., no N application (N0), local farmers’ practice (FP), high-yield and high-efficiency practice (HYEY), and super-high-yield cultivation practice, impacts on soil properties and structure composition of microbial community were explored. Compared with N0, SHY treatment, significantly increased soil alkaline nitrogen and organic matter contents. HYHE and SHY treatments significantly altered soil fungal community and Alpha diversity. Based on Venn diagram analysis, the composition of bacterial communities under all treatments was similar, but with different compositions of fungal communities. Cluster analysis indicates that the Proteobacteria was the absolute dominant group of bacterial communities, and Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria were the dominant group. Different cultivation methods also led to changes in the main factors affecting soil bacteria and fungi composition. Available potassium and organic matter were the main environmental factors that affected bacteria, with the strong of available potassium on the soil. To sum up, SHY and HYEY were beneficial management options in terms of improved soil fertility Alpha diversity of the soil bacterial community respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0169.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: TCT; cytological abnormality; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; inflammation; progression
Online: 16 September 2019 (16:39:01 CEST)
Inflammation has been reported as a facilitator in cervical oncogenesis, but the correlation between inflammation and cytology abnormality including Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between them with ThinPrep cytological test (TCT) as a screening tool for cervical cancer and CIN, which can identify abnormal morphology of cervical mucosa epithelium and inflammation degrees. A retrospective analysis of clinical data from 48101 women undergoing TCT in the affiliated hospitals of Sun Yat-Sen University (SYSU) revealed that among the 8.87% (4102 cases) total positive rate of ASC, LSIL and HSIL, 67.7% (2777/4102) of TCT positive samples had inflammatory infection. The rate of severe inflammation was significantly higher in cytological abnormality group than the control group (15.1% vs. 2%, P=0.000). Our results showed that severe inflammation significantly increased incidence of cytological abnormality by 12.59 times and elevated the risk of HSIL by 756.47 times. In conclusion, severe inflammation increased the risk of cytological abnormality, and should be viewed as an important risk of HISL. These results of our study remind clinicians to be more watchful for women with severe cervical inflammation in TCT reports for earlier prevention of the HSIL.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Pueraria thomsonii Radix; type 2 diabetes mellitus; metabolomics; gut microbiota
Online: 6 March 2023 (04:55:17 CET)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) is an increasingly prevalent and serious health problem. Its onset is typically associated with metabolic disorders and disturbances in the gut microbiota. Previous studies have reported the anti-T2DM effects of Pueraria thomsonii Radix as a functional food. However, the mechanism of action is still unknown. In this study, the effects of Pueraria thomsonii Radix water extract(PTR) on db/db mice were evaluated by pharmacology, metabolomics, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed that PTR could improve the body weight of mice, reduce fasting blood glucose(FBG), urinary glucose(UGLU), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance(HOMA-IR), urinary albumin/creatinine ratio(UACR), and reduce pancreatic tissue damage. Metabolomics showed that the Model group produced 109 differential metabolites, of which 74 could be regulated by PTR. 16S rRNA sequencing was done in fecal samples and results showed that PTR could reduce the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio(F/B) associated with obesity and regulate 3 beneficial bacteria and 1 harmful bacteria. In conclusion, the results showed that PTR could ameliorate T2DM symptoms, metabolic disorder, and gut microbiota imbalance of db/db mice, and it was superior to metformin in some aspects. We suggested for the first time that γ-aminobutyric(GABA) may be involved in the regulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis(MGB) and thus affect the metabolic disorders associated with T2DM. This study will provide a scientific basis for the development of functional food with PTR.