ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1077.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: carbon neutral; FDI; environment effect; the sustainable development
Online: 18 September 2023 (05:26:02 CEST)
As the world's environmental problems continue to worsen, this is no longer an issue that can be solved by any one country or region alone. As an important member of the international community, China needs to contribute to the resolution of global environmental issues. In 2020, China proposed the goal of "carbon neutrality and carbon emissions" at the United Nations General Assembly, marking a new stage in global environmental protection. Our empirical analysis is based on provincial panel data from 2004 to 2017. To identify practical approaches to carbon emission reduction, we employ various models, such as the benchmark return, threshold effect, and intermediary effect, to provide a more comprehensive understanding of FDI's role in shaping carbon emissions. Empirical results show that: There is a significant correlation between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and carbon emissions, with factors such as technological advancements and pollution spillover playing relatively weaker indirect roles. Additionally, the utility of FDI in promoting regional development varies according to local characteristics. Thus, we propose emission reduction measures and industry restructuring strategies from both 'inbound' and 'outbound' perspectives to promote green and sustainable development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0307.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: breast cancer; metastasis; Notch; Jagged-1; Dll4
Online: 17 September 2018 (11:54:19 CEST)
Metastasis is a major cause factor for breast cancer (BC)-associated mortality. During the metastatic process, disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) detach from the primary sites, and enter the bloodstream and establish the secondary colonies. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence for the importance of Notch signaling in BC metastasis. Therefore, this review focuses on the mechanisms by which Notch contributes to the origin of BC DTCs, increases their motility, regulates their intravasation and extravasation, protects them from host surveillance, and finally facilitates colonization. Identification of the mechanisms underlying Notch-related BC metastasis will lead to the development of novel Notch-targeted therapeutic strategies to reduce metastasis and significantly improve outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Wave power generation; Oscillating float; Computational Fluid Dynamics; Array
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:55:14 CEST)
This research, which focuses on wave energy generating technology, suggests a brand-new oscillating float-type wave energy conversion system that is appropriate for the offshore wave environment. To accurately model the device, a three-dimensional viscous numerical pool is created based on STAR-CCM+. The array-type power generation device is numerically simulated using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, and the wave energy power generation device is arranged as double floats in the front and rear rows, representing triangular array type and rectangular array type, respectively. The triangular array type is a superior layout and can make greater use of marine resources, according to this paper's analysis of the hydrodynamic and power generation impacts of the three array types. The findings are meant to serve as a guide for engineering practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0323.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Potential active ingredients; Naomaitong; PK - PD correlation; Support vector machines
Online: 24 May 2018 (10:38:35 CEST)
NaoMaiTong (NMT: Radix et Rhi-zoma Rhei, Radix Ginseng, Radix Puerariae, and Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong as 9: 9: 6: 6) is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription for treating ischemia cerebral apoplexy. In this work, four cell injury models of ischemic stroke were establish, namely hypoxic injury, glutamate damage, injury of potassium chloride and hydrogen peroxide damage model. The protective effects of NMT and its single herbs-containing sera of different time points on PC12 cell damage were evaluated respectively, and the corresponding efficacy-time curves were drawn. Cell viability was measured by MTT (3-(4,5)-Dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide) assay. Furthermore, an statistical methods of support vector machine (SVM) were used to establish the correlation between concentration-time-efficacy for the first time. These results revealed that NMT-containing serum has obvious protective effect on the four injury models and can significantly improve cell viability. The PK-PD correlation between fifteen ingredients in the NMT compound with four model efficacy indexes indicated that rhein, puerarin, and 3'-methoxy puerarin might be the most important constituents controlling the pharmacological effects of NMT. The study suggested that these fifteen components are likely to be the material basis of NMT and recommended to increase the amounts of Pueraria in the NMT compound. That provided the scientific basis and demonstration for the research of efficacy material base of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0336.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: typhoon Durian; tropical cyclone; wind-pressure relationships; South China Sea; sensitivity analysis; WRF
Online: 26 April 2018 (08:59:09 CEST)
Typhoon Durian forming over the Western North Pacific Ocean and entering into the South China Sea (SCS), caused extreme and widespread damages in 2006. In this research, sensitivity analyses on different physical parameterization schemes of the Weather Research and Forecasting Atmospheric Model (WRF-ATM) have been utilized to study typhoon Durian. Model accuracy and performance testing were investigated with different initial conditions during the tropical cyclone simulation in the SCS. The initial and boundary conditions (IBCs) for all experiments were derived from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Re-Analysis Interim (ERAI), and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) with Final (FNL) analysis data compiled through the WRF-ATM model. The sensitivity analysis results indicated a major improvement for the cumulus scheme by using the Grell-Devenyi scheme along with the PBL scheme of Yonsei University, mixed-phase microphysics scheme of the WRF Single Moment 5-class and IBCs for ECMWF-ERAI of TC simulation under the context of Wind-Pressure Relationships. This predicted better track and intensity comparing with these of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. The results revealed that the TC track and intensity were well simulated by the WSM5-GD combination for the WRF-ATM model with an intensity error of 1.69 hPa for minimum surface level pressure, maximum wind speed of 1.83 knots and average track error of 25 km in 72 hours. The simulations showed that the potential track and intensity error decreased with the delayed IBCs, suggesting that the model simulation is more dependable when the coast is approached by the TC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1902.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: ulcerative colitis; immune infiltration; activated NK-associated genes; diagnostic signature; bulk RNA-seq; scRNA-seq
Online: 29 August 2023 (09:01:01 CEST)
Natural killer cells are associated with the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC), but their precise contributions remain unclear. The present study sought to investigate the diagnostic value of activated NK-associated genes (ANAGs) in UC. Bulk RNA-seq and scRNA-seq datasets were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and Single Cell Portal (SCP) databases. In the bulk RNA-seq, 92 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened out by the “Batch correction” and “Robust rank aggregation” (RRA) methods. The immune infiltration landscape was estimated by single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) and CIBERSORT, which revealed a higher abundance of activated NK cells in noninflamed UC tissues. 54 DEGs correlated with activated NK cells were identified as ANAGs. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression were utilized to screen out 4 key ANAGs (SELP, TIMP1, MMP7, and ABCG2) and establish an activated NK-associated gene score (ANAG score). The ANAG score demonstrated excellent diagnostic value and was validated in three external datasets. The expression of the 4 key ANAGs was validated in UC patients and healthy controls (HC) samples. Through scRNA-seq data analysis, higher expression levels of SELP, TIMP1, MMP7, and ABCG2 were observed in post-capillary venules, inflammatory fibroblasts, enterocytes, and immature enterocytes. The cell scores based on the ANAGs showed enrichment in endothelial cells and fibroblasts. In conclusion, we established and validated an ANAG score with the ability to precisely diagnose UC. The 4 key ANAGs have the potential to serve as therapeutic targets in UC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2022.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: minimum vertex cover (MVC); local search; wireless sensor networks (WSNs); combinatorial optimization; large graphs
Online: 31 July 2023 (11:02:18 CEST)
The minimum vertex cover (MVC) problem is a canonical NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem, aiming to find a smallest set of vertices such that every edge has at least one endpoint in the set, which has extensive applications in cyber security, scheduling, and monitoring link failures in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Numerous local search algorithms have been proposed to obtain a “good” vertex cover. However, due to the NP-hard nature, it is challenging to efficiently solve the MVC problem, especially on large graphs. In this paper, we propose an efficient local search algorithm for MVC called TIVC, which is based on two main ideas: A 3-improvements (TI) framework with tiny perturbation, and an edge selection strategy. We conducted experiments on real-world large instances of a massive graph benchmark. Compared with two state-of-the-art MVC algorithms, TIVC shows superior performance in accuracy and possesses a remarkable ability to identify significantly smaller vertex covers on many graphs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0180.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: MEMS Mirror Arrays; Laser beam; Fraunhofer Diffraction; Optical Intensity
Online: 6 April 2021 (13:47:01 CEST)
Compared with liquid crystal clad waveguide, MEMS mirror has some merits, such as high-er-transmissivity, lager-angle of scanning, faster scanning speed and so on. Furthermore, MEMS mirror arrays perform more superior than MEMS mirror when they steer laser beam, which make MEMS arrays much more suitable to be used in devising compact Lidar. Before assembling a Lidar with MEMS arrays, the optical intensity and distributions of the laser diffracted by MEMS arrays should be analyzed, but few published papers about this issue are available so far, this paper will focus on this issue about MEMS arrays. Firstly, the complex amplitudes of laser which is diffracted by 1-D and 2-D arrays are presented, respectively. Then the optical intensity and distributions on the observation plane are presented. Finally, the simulation diagrams of these distributions are shown, and the correctness of the results is indirectly verified by Young’s dou-ble-slit experiment. The results gotten in this letter are essential to design a compacted Lidar based on MEMS arrays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1304.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Celtis sinensis; Alternaria alternata; Alternaria koreana; fungi; identification; fungicides
Online: 21 November 2023 (09:39:54 CET)
Celtis sinensis is an adaptable species that is widely grown in southern China. In June 2022, a leaf blotch disease of C. sinensis was observed in Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. Based on morphological characterization, three isolates were identified as Alternaria species. Phylogenetic analysis of combined ITS, GAPDH, TEF1-α, RPB2 and Alt a 1 sequences identified the three isolates we obtained as Alternaria alternata and Alternaria koreana. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled in the greenhouse, and the pathogenicity of A. alternata and A. koreana was determined by leaf inoculation tests on C. sinensis seedlings. The symptoms of indoor inoculation were consistent with those in the field. A. alternata and A. koreana can grow at 15-35 °C, with an optimal growth temperature of 25 °C. The results of fungicide sensitivity experiments indicated that A. alternata and A. koreana were the most sensitive to prochloraz, which may be a useful strategy for the future prevention and control management of A. alternata and A. koreana. This study provides the first step for further research on A. alternata and A. koreana as pathogens of C. sinensis and provides a theoretical basis for future control strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1365.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: algal-bacterial granular sludge; hexavalent chromium; extracellular polymeric substances; anti-oxidant enzymes; self-defensive responses
Online: 20 October 2023 (16:16:10 CEST)
Algal-bacterial granular sludge, a new biological technology, has been widely recognized due to its highly effective pollutant treatment and energy efficiency. This study investigated the effects of environmental concentrations of Cr(VI) (0.5-2.5 mg/L) on the performance of algal-bacterial gran-ular sludge and self-defensive responses after 90 days of cultivation. The results showed that Cr(VI) affected chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia-N and phosphate removal with different trends being apparent. A linear decline in COD removal was observed, whereas an initial de-creasing and then increasing ammonia-N and phosphate removal took place. Algal-bacterial granular sludge effectively removed Cr(VI) from wastewater through biological adsorption and reduction, showing the potential to treat Cr(VI)-contaminated wastewater. Cr(VI) affected the community abundance of the algal-bacterial granular sludge, in which Chlorophyceae and cya-nobacteria were vulnerable under Cr(VI)-induced stress. To reduce the toxicity of Cr(VI), over-produced EPS-PN and antioxidant enzymes (MDA, SOD and CAT) acted as self-defensive responses to resist oxidative damage. This study showed that algal-bacterial granular sludge can remove 00.5 mg/L of Cr(VI) without performance loss. It is hoped that this study can provide useful information for improved engineering feasibility of algal-bacterial granular sludge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0134.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: multi-sensor fusion; satellite; radar; precipitation
Online: 27 September 2017 (04:09:22 CEST)
This paper presents a new and enhanced fusion module for the Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) that would objectively blend real-time satellite quantitative precipitation estimates (SQPE) with radar and gauge estimates. This module consists of a preprocessor that mitigates systematic bias in SQPE, and a two-way blending routine that statistically fuses adjusted SQPE with radar estimates. The preprocessor not only corrects systematic bias in SQPE, but also improves the spatial distribution of precipitation based on SQPE and makes it closely resemble that of radar-based observations. It uses a more sophisticated radar-satellite merging technique to blend preprocessed datasets, and provides a better overall QPE product. The performance of the new satellite-radar-gauge blending module is assessed using independent rain gauge data over a 5-year period between 2003-2007, and the assessment evaluates the accuracy of newly developed satellite-radar-gauge (SRG) blended products versus that of radar-gauge products (which represents MPE algorithm currently used in the NWS operations) over two regions: I) inside radar effective coverage and II) immediately outside radar coverage. The outcomes of the evaluation indicate a) ingest of SQPE over areas within effective radar coverage improve the quality of QPE by mitigating the errors in radar estimates in region I; and b) blending of radar, gauge, and satellite estimates over region II leads to reduction of errors relative to bias-corrected SQPE. In addition, the new module alleviates the discontinuities along the boundaries of radar effective coverage otherwise seen when SQPE is used directly to fill the areas outside of effective radar coverage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1588.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: bicuspid aortic valve; computed tomography; aortic regurgitation; aortic stenosis; aortopathy
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:47:53 CEST)
(1) Background: To identify the association between the presence or absence of raphe and aortic valve dysfunction as well as the presence of aortopathy in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV); (2) Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 312 participants (mean [SD] age, 52.7 [14.3] years; 227 men [72.8%]) with BAV. The BAVs were divided into those with presence (raphe+) or absence (raphe-) of raphe. Valvular function was classified as normal, aortic regurgitation (AR), or aortic stenosis (AS) using TTE. The pattern of BAV aortopathy was determined by the presence of dilatation at the sinus of Valsalva and the middle ascending aorta using CCT.; (3) Results: BAVs with raphe+ had a higher prevalence of AR (148 [79.5%] vs. 48 [37.8%], P < .001) but a lower prevalence of AS (90 [48.6%] vs. 99 [78.0%], P < .001) compared with those with raphe-. The types of BAV aortopathy were significantly different (P = 0.021) according to those with BAV-raphe+ and BAV-raphe-.; (4) Conclusions: The presence of a raphe was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of AR but a lower prevalence of AS and combined dilatation of the aortic root and middle ascending aorta. The presence of raphe was an independent determinant of AR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1060.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: X-band dual-polarization phased array radar; Precipitation attenuation; Precipitation types; Raindrop size distributions
Online: 27 April 2023 (08:14:57 CEST)
X-band dual-polarization phased array radar (XPAR-D) possesses high temporal-spatial resolutions and plays a significant role in detecting meso- and micro-scale convective systems. However, the precipitation attenuation it endures necessitates an effective correction method. This study selected radar data from XPAR-D at the peak of Maofeng Mountain in Guangzhou during May 16-17, 2020 from three precipitation stages after quality control. Attenuation coefficients are calculated for different precipitation types through scattering simulations of raindrop size distribution (RSD) data. Drawing upon this, an attenuation correction algorithm (MZH-KDP method) is proposed for radar reflectivity factor (ZH) according to different raindrop types, and is compared to the ZH-KDP method currently in use. The results indicate that the attenuation amount of XPAR-D echoes depends on the attenuation path and echo intensity. When the attenuation path is shorter and the echo intensity is weaker, the amount of attenuation and correction is smaller. Difficulties arise when there are noticeable deviations in such a situation, which are challenging to solve via attenuation correction methods. Longer attenuation paths and stronger echoes highlight the advantages of the MZH-KDP method, while the ZH-KDP method tends to overcorrect the bias. The MZH-KDP method outperforms the ZH-KDP method for different precipitation types. The superior correction capability of the MZH-KDP method provides a significant advantage in improving the performance of XPAR-D for the detection of extreme weather.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0131.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Adversarial examples; Remote sensing images; Universal adversarial patch; Object detection; Joint optimization; Scale factor.
Online: 11 October 2022 (02:34:23 CEST)
Although deep learning has received extensive attention and achieved excellent performances in various of scenarios, it suffers from adversarial examples to some extent. Especially, physical attack poses more threats than digital attack. However, existing researches pay less attention to physical attack of object detection in remote sensing images (RSIs). In this work, we systematically analyze the universal adversarial patch attack for multi-scale objects in the remote sensing field. There are two challenges for adversarial attack in RSIs. On one hand, the number of objects in remote sensing images is more than that of natural images. Therefore, it is difficult for adversarial patch to show adversarial effect on all objects when attacking a detector of RSIs. On the other hand, the wide range of height of photography platform causes that the size of objects diverse a lot, which brings challenges for generating universal adversarial perturbation for multi-scale objects. To this end, we propose an adversarial attack method on object detection for remote sensing data. One of the key ideas of the proposed method is the novel optimization of adversarial patch. We aim to attack as many objects as possible by formulating a joint optimization problem. Besides, we raise a scale factor to generate a universal adversarial patch that adapts to multi-scale objects, which ensures the adversarial patch is valid for multi-scale objects in the real world. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of our method against state-of-the-art methods on YOLO-v3 and YOLO-v5. In addition, we also validate the effectiveness of our method in real-world applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0364.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Rab 7; hypoxic; HMEC-1; MMP-2 activity; RECK
Online: 15 March 2021 (10:33:05 CET)
The purpose of our study was to discuss Rab 7 effects in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: Using WT and Rab 7-/- mice as target animal, and HK-2 and HMEC-1 cell co-cultured to make cell model. Measuring kidney tissues were evaluated by Sirius red staining, immunohistochemistry staining to CD 34 protein, Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and gelatin zymography to MMP-2 activities. The cell proliferation were measured by CCK-8 and Ki67 protein expression. Measuring cell invasion and total length were evaluated by transwell and in vitro angiogenesis assay. MMP-2 activities were evaluated by gelatin zymography in cell groups. The relative proteins expression were evaluated by Western blot in kidney tissues and cell groups. Results: Hypoxia promoted the expression of Rab7 in HMEC-1, and the activity of MMP-2 related with regulatory molecules such as reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK), negative correlation with membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP or MMP-14) on the membrane of TECs. In addition, the up-regulation of the expression of Rab7 inhibited the activity of MMP-2 and proliferation and cyclization of endothelial cells, and the inhibitor of MMP-2 partially blocked the effects of Rab7 on angiogenesis. Furthermore, the similar data were also obtained in the fibrosis kidney tissues of mice. Conclusion: Rab 7 might be an important role in hypoxic TECs regulated angiogenesis, Rab 7 knockdown could improve hypoxic TECs regulated angiogenesis, the relative mechanisms might be correlation with RECK pathway and MMP-2 activities in vivo and vitro study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1671.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: fermentation; sour bamboo shoots; volatile compounds; core microbiota
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:43:09 CEST)
Fermented bamboo shoots are a distinctive ingredient in Southern cuisine. In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology (HTS) were employed to investigate the relationship among physicochemical properties, characteristic volatile compounds, and core microbial communities. The results show that the chewiness, fracturability, hardness, and pH decreased, while total acidity increased during 60d-fermentation. The contents of reducing sugar and nitrite reached the peak on the 14th day of fermentation and then decreased. A total of 80 volatile compounds were detected during sour bamboo shoot fermentation, with 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol having the highest concentration. Among them, 12 volatile compounds (VIP ≥ 1) were identified as characteristic aroma substances of sour bamboo shoots. The dominant bacterial phyla in sour bamboo shoots were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, while Bacillus and Acinetobacter were the dominant genus. Correlation analysis showed that Firmicutes positive correlation with 3,6-Nonadien-1-ol, (E,Z)-, Oxalic acid, isobutyl hexyl ester ,(-)-O-Acetylmalic anhydride, TA Bacillus was negative correlation with Silanediol, dimethyl-, and Oxime-, methoxy-phenyl-. This study provides a theoretical basis for screening flavor-enhancing microorganisms as fermentation agents in sour bamboo shoots, which can contribute to the improvement of their quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0415.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Hydrologic model; ungauged catchments; coastal zones; water balance; parameter transferability
Online: 27 October 2022 (02:08:34 CEST)
Study Region -This study is conducted for a cluster of watersheds within the Matagorda Basin along the south Texas coast in the United States. Study Focus - Retrospective streamflow simulations of two hydrologic models of contrasting formulations and complexity, namely the TxRR, a simple analog model, and the National Water Model (NWM), a land surface-hydrologic model that explicitly accounts for surface energy balance in calculating water budget, and whose output. The comparison was motivated by a) the need for improving the modeling of runoff dynamics for watersheds along central Texas coast through the introduction of NWM to inform freshwater inflow monitoring and flood planning, and b) the need to better understand the potential ability of the NWM to address shortcomings of TxRR related to the latter’s mechanistic deficiencies in a region known for hydroclimatic extremes. The study focuses on the temporal scale and climate dependence in the relative performance of the two models, the behaviors of models during extreme floods and droughts, and the relative efficacy of parameter transfer schemes. It further seeks to relate the performance differentials to model physics and calibration approaches. New Hydrologic Insights – NWM, with sophisticated representations of energe closure, is advantageous to TxRR in capturing low-frequency (interannual) variations in streamflow modulated by the surface energy balance, as evidenced by the superior correlation of its streamflow simulations at the interannual range. Yet, its overall performance trails behind TxRR at daily scale, and it tends to underpredict runoff volumes during two major floods. These features underscore the tendency of the model to suppress soil moisture at the onset of these events. On the other hand, TxRR outperforms in reproducing the volumes for the flooding events, but it overpredicts runoff during the extreme drought episode of 2011, likely an outcome of inadequate representation of the impacts of root zone soil moisture in regulating runoff. TxRR’s parameteralization scheme proves more effective for adaptation across watersheds due to the presence of steep gradation in soil properties .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0180.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: sheep oocytes; antral follicle; single-cell transcriptomics; molecular signatures; signaling pathways
Online: 2 November 2023 (14:40:47 CET)
The development of the ovarian antral follicle is a complex, highly regulated process. Oocytes orchestrate and coordinate the development of mammalian ovarian follicles, and the rate of follicular development is governed by a developmental program intrinsic to the oocyte. Characterizing oocyte signatures during this dynamic process is critical for understanding oocyte maturation and follicular development. Although the transcriptional signature of sheep oocytes matured in vitro and preovulatory oocytes have been previously described, the transcriptional changes of oocytes in antral follicles have not. Here, we used single-cell transcriptomics (SmartSeq2) to characterize sheep oocytes from small, medium, and large antral follicles. We characterized the transcriptomic landscape of sheep oocytes during antral follicle development, identifying unique features in the transcriptional atlas, stage-specific molecular signatures, oocyte-secreted factors, and transcription factor networks. Notably, we identified specific gene and signaling pathways in each antral follicle stage that may reflect oocyte quality and in vitro maturation competency. Additionally, we discovered key biological processes that drive the transition from small to large antral follicles, revealing hub genes involved in follicle recruitment and selection. Thus, our work provides a comprehensive characterization of the single-oocyte transcriptome, filling a gap in the mapping of the molecular landscape of sheep oogenesis. We also provide key insights into the transcriptional regulation of the critical stages of antral follicular development, which is essential for understanding how the oocyte orchestrates follicular development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0294.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Empoasca onukii Matsuda; EonuIR25a; plant volatiles; RNA interference; olfactory system
Online: 5 May 2023 (04:13:36 CEST)
Olfaction plays a crucial role in many important behavioral activities of insects, such as finding sexual partners, locating hosts, and selecting oviposition sites. Ionotropic receptors (IRs) play a central role in detecting chemosensory information from the environment and guiding insect behaviors and are potential target genes for pest control. Empoasca onukii Matsuda is a major pest of the tea plant Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Ktze, and seriously influences tea yields and quality. In this study, the ionotropic receptor gene EnouIR25a in E. onukii was cloned, and the expression pattern of EnouIR25a was detected in various tissues. Behavioral responses of E. onukii to volatile compounds emitted by tea plants were determined by the olfactometer bioassay and field trials. To further explore the function of EnouIR25a in olfactory recognition of compounds, RNAi (RNA interference) of EnouIR25a was carried out by ingestion of in vitro synthesized dsRNAs. The CDS length of EnouIR25a was 1266 bp and it encoded a 48.87 kD protein. EnouIR25a was enriched in the antennae of E. onukii. E. onukii were more significantly attracted by 1-phenylethanol at concentration of 100 µl/ml. Feeding with dsRNA-IR25a significantly downregulated the expression level of EonuIR25a, after 3 h of treatment, which disturbed the behavioral responses of E. onukii to 1-phenylethanol at concentration of 100µl/ml. The response rate of E. onukii to 1-phenylethanol was significantly decreased after dsRNA-IR25a treatment for 12 h. In summary, the ionotropic receptor gene EnouIR25a was highly expressed in the antennae of E. onukii and was involved in olfactory recognition of the tea plant volatile 1-phenylethanol. The present study may help us to use the ionotropic receptor gene as a target for the behavioral manipulation of E. onukii in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1259.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: rice false smut; quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification (q-LAMP); detection; ustiloxins biosynthetic gene
Online: 30 April 2023 (04:40:34 CEST)
Rice false smut caused by Ustilaginoidea virens is one of the most devastating diseases on rice worldwide, which results in serious reduction of rice quality and yield. As an airborne fungal disease, early diagnosis of rice false smut, monitoring the epidemics and distribution of its pathogens, is particularly important to management the infection. In this study, a quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification (q-LAMP) method for the U. virens detection and quantifying was developed. This method has higher sensitivity and efficiency compared to quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) method. The species-specific primer sets UV-2 used was design based on the unique sequence of U. virens ustiloxins biosynthetic gene (NCBI accession number: BR001221.1). The q-LAMP assay was able to detect a concentration of 6.4 spores/mL at an optimal reaction temperature of 63.4℃ within 60 min. Moreover, the q-LAMP assay can even achieve accurate quantitative detection when there were only 9 spores on the tape. A linearized equation for the standard curve, y =-0.2866x + 13.829 (x is the amplification time, the spore number = 100.65y), was established for detection and quantifying of U. virens. In field detection applications, this q-LAMP method is more accurate and faster than traditional observation method. Collectively, this study has established a powerful and simple monitoring tool for U. virens, which provide valuable technical supports for forecast and management of rice false smut, and theoretical basis for precise fungicide application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC earth electrode; electro-thermal coupling; abnormal resistance region (ARR); shell theory, finite element method
Online: 5 April 2017 (15:04:47 CEST)
During HVDC earth return operation systems, a high magnitude current will be injected into soil through earth electrode, the potential on the surface would change widely and produce unfavorable effects on the AC systems around. This paper presents an effective finite element method (FEM) coupling electric field with thermal field to evaluate the electrical field induced by the injected DC current. Firstly, owe to the characteristic of FEM, this method can consider arbitrary soil and earth electrode structure. Secondly, by setting the electrical and thermal parameters of soil as a function of temperature at the same time, the dynamic coupling process of electric field and thermal field is simulated accurately. Thirdly, to deal with the singular point in FEM subdivision and the huge computation in traditional three-dimensional FEM, the FEM coupling 2-D earth electrode with 3-D soil based on "shell" theory is introduced. Finally, based on the suggested method, the effect of abnormal resistance region (ARR) near DC earth electrode on electric field distribution is analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0076.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Chiral drugs; Chirality-induced spin selectivity (CISS); Chiral enzymes; L-DOPA; AADC enzyme
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:40:30 CEST)
The theory of electron spin has been proposed for a century, but the study of quantum effects in biological molecules is still in its infancy. Chirality-induced spin selectivity (CISS) is a very modern theory that can explain many biochemical phenomena. In this paper, we propose a new theoretical model based on CISS theory and quantum chemistry theory, which can well explain the theoretical explanation of the chiral selectivity of chiral proteins. Moreover, this theory can predict the spin state of corresponding chiral molecules. Taking L-DOPA and AADC enzyme as examples, this theoretical model solves the theoretical explanation of AADC enzyme's chiral catalysis selectivity problem and successfully predicts the spin state of L-DOPA and D-DOPA's valence electrons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0339.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Acanthopanax senticosus; Deep eutectic solvents; Isofraxidin; Extraction
Online: 20 February 2023 (09:59:19 CET)
Acanthopanax senticosus(rupr. rt. Maxim.; AS) is a medicinal plant used in the clinical treatment of cerebrovascular diseases and central nervous system disorders, significantly improving blood lipid levels and endothelial cell function in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Isofraxidin, one of the active ingredients of AS, is the core of the medical effects, and its extraction and purification depend on organic solvents. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) is a new green solvent, synthesized by intermolecular hydrogen bonding between hydrogen bond donors (HBD) and hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA), which has non-toxic, high separation and purification efficiency, and environmentally friendly compared with traditional organic solvents. In this paper, DES was used for the extraction of isofraxidin from AS. The primary findings demonstrate that the DESs had a viscosity higher than that of ethanol, and even adding a tiny amount of water (about 10%) would trigger solvent redistribution, leading to a considerable reduction in solvent viscosity. In comparison to ethanol, the extraction rate of isofraxidin by DESs was 2-3 times higher. Thus, this work developed a new technique for using green extraction of isofraxidin that has some practical implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1702.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: large-scale floating shock platform (LFSP); shock environments; underwater explosion; marine diesel engines; shock spectra
Online: 26 October 2023 (11:40:15 CEST)
To conduct a precise impact assessment of marine diesel engines, a 200t floating impact platform was utilized to simulate realistic testing conditions. The testing generated the acceleration time curve and the impact response spectrum for the diesel engine. According to the applicable standards, the spectral velocity was chosen as the evaluation index, and an evaluation of the longitudinal, transverse, and vertical impact environment of the diesel engine was conducted. The shock factor interpolation method was corrected using the confidence interval based on normal distribution, and the interpolated confidence interval of the shock factor was determined. The findings reveal that: The 200t-class floating shock platform is capable of providing a reliable shock environment for diesel engine tests. The shock wave serves as the primary external force during the experiment, and the impact of bubble pulsation can be disregarded when assessing using the floating shock platform. To more accurately describe the experimental shock intensity when presented with dispersed data, the confidence interval can be utilized, and the resulting prediction formula provides a higher level of impact safety. The obtained conclusions can serve as a reference for predicting the shock environment of large shipboard equipment using the shock platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0741.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: shell model, nucleon pair, broken symmetry
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:14:37 CEST)
The nucleon-pair shell model (NPSM) with broken symmetry basis is studied. The results demonstrate the validity of NPSM with symmetry broken basis, which leads to a significant reduction in the dimensionality of the multi-pair configuration space. We have observed that the axial-deformed basis provides a satisfactory description of the low-lying spectrum, even without the need for the projection procedure. In the case of the triaxial-deformed basis, we have investigated the variation after angular momentum projection, indicating the potential for NPSM to find exact solutions in the half-closed system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0620.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Super-hydrophobic; Polyethylene glycol (PEG); Hydroxyl; Stable; lauryl methacrylate (LMA)
Online: 24 November 2020 (14:43:02 CET)
In order to obtain stable super-hydrophobicity, suitable hydrophobic treatment agent should be selected according to different materials. In this paper, cotton and poly (-ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric was respectively coated by dodecyl methacrylate (LMA) via argon combined capacitively coupled plasma (CCP), and the surface hydrophobicity and durability of treated cotton and polyester fabrics were also discussed. An interesting phenomenon was happened that LMA coated cotton fabric (Cotton-g-LMA) had better water repellency and mechanical durability than LMA coated PET fabric (PET-g-LMA), and LMA coated hydroxyl grafted PET fabrics (PET fabrics were successively coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and LMA, PET-g-PEG&LMA) had similar performance to those of cotton fabrics. The water contact angle (WCA) of Cotton-g-LMA, PET-g-LMA and PET-g-PEG&LMA was 156 °, 153 ° and 155 °, respectively, and after 45 washing cycles or 1000 rubbing cycles, the corresponding WCA was decreased to 145 °, 88 °, 134 °and 146 °, 127 °, 143 °, respectively. Also, thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polyamides-6 (PA6) fabrics were all exhibited the same properties to PET fabric. Therefore, the grafting of hydroxyl can improve the hydrophobic effect of LMA coating and the binding property between LMA and fabrics effectively without changing the wearing comfort..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0164.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: speed planning; convex optimisation; autonomous driving; friction circle; driving safety; dynamic obstacle avoidance; ride comfort; mobility
Online: 16 May 2018 (11:08:49 CEST)
In this paper, we present a complete, flexible and safe convex-optimization-based method to solve speed planning problems over a fixed path for autonomous driving in both static and dynamic environments. Our contributions are five fold. First, we summarize the most common constraints raised in various autonomous driving scenarios as the requirements for speed planner developments and metrics to measure the capacity of existing speed planners roughly for autonomous driving. Second, we introduce a more general, flexible and complete speed planning mathematical model including all the summarized constraints compared to the state-of-the-art speed planners, which addresses limitations of existing methods and is able to provide smooth, safety-guaranteed, dynamic-feasible, and time-efficient speed profiles. Third, we emphasize comfort while guaranteeing fundamental motion safety without sacrificing the mobility of cars by treating the comfort box constraint as a semi-hard constraint in optimization via slack variables and penalty functions, which distinguishes our method from existing ones. Fourth, we demonstrate that our problem preserves convexity with the added constraints, thus global optimality of solutions is guaranteed. Fifth, we showcase how our formulation can be used in various autonomous driving scenarios by providing several challenging case studies in both static and dynamic environments. A range of numerical experiments and challenging realistic speed planning case studies have depicted that the proposed method outperforms existing speed planners for autonomous driving in terms of constraint type covered, optimality, safety, mobility and flexibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0478.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Japanese encephalitis virus; drug repurposing; systems biology; antiviral agents
Online: 20 November 2018 (04:54:48 CET)
Japanese encephalitis is a zoonotic disease caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). It is mainly epidemic in Asia with an estimated 69,000 cases occurring per year. However, no approved agents are available for the treatment of JEV infection, and existing vaccines cannot resist various types of JEV strains. Drug repurposing is a new concept for finding new indication of existing drugs, and recently, it has been used to discover new antiviral agents. Identifying host proteins involved in the progress of JEV infection and using these proteins as targets are the center of drug repurposing for JEV infection. In this study, based on the gene expression data of JEV infection and the phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) data, we identified 286 genes participating in the progress of JEV infection using the systems biology methods. The enrichment analysis of these genes suggested that the genes identified by our methods were predominantly related to viral infection pathways and immune response-related pathways. We found that bortezomib which can target these genes may have potential effect on the treatment of JEV infection. Subsequently, we evaluated the antiviral activity of bortezomib using the JEV-infected mice model. The results showed that bortezomib can lower JEV-induced lethality in mice, alleviate suffering in JEV-infected mice and reduce the damage in brains caused by JEV infection. This work provides a new method for the development of antiviral agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0006.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Forest hydrology; Canopy filtering; trace metal; throughfall; gap edge canopy; closed canopy.
Online: 1 March 2019 (11:29:55 CET)
Trace metals can enter some natural regions with low human disturbance from atmospheric circulation, but little information is available regarding how the canopy can retained trace metals. Therefore, a representative sub-alpine spruce plantation was selected to investigate the net throughfall fluxes of eight trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Al, Pb, Cd and Cr) of closed canopy and gap-edge canopy from August 2015 to July 2016. Over a one-year observational period, the annual fluxes of Al, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Cr and Pb were 7.29 kg·ha-1, 2.30 kg·ha-1, 7.02 kg·ha-1, 0.16 kg·ha-1, 0.19 kg·ha-1, 0.06 kg·ha-1, 0.56 kg·ha-1 and 0.24 kg·ha-1, respectively, in the deposited precipitation. The annual net throughfall fluxes of these trace metals were 1.73 kg·ha-1, 0.9 kg·ha-1, 1.68kg·ha-1, -0.032 kg·ha-1, 0.04 kg·ha-1, 0.018 kg·ha-1, 0.093 kg·ha-1 and 0.087kg·ha-1, respectively, in the gap-edge canopy and -1.6 kg·ha-1, 1.13 kg·ha-1, 1.65 kg·ha-1, -0.10 kg·ha-1, 0.05 kg·ha-1, 0.03 kg·ha-1, 0.26 kg·ha-1 and 0.15 kg·ha-1, respectively, in the closed canopy. The closed canopy displayed a greater filter effect on the trace metals from precipitation than did the gap-edge canopy in the sub-alpine forest. In the rainy season, the net filtering ratio of trace metals ranged from -66%-89% in the closed canopy and from -52% to 25% in the gap-edge canopy. However, the net filtering ratio of all trace metals was greater than 50% in the closed canopy in the snowy season. Therefore, the results suggested that the most trace metals moving through the forest canopy are taken up rather than by rainfall leaching; moreover, the closed canopy can efficiently take up trace metals in the snowy season.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0302.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Mitochondria; Eclipsed protein targeting; Yeast model system; TDH1; TDH2; Dual protein tar-geting
Online: 5 May 2023 (04:57:13 CEST)
Dual localization or dual targeting refers to the phenomenon by which identical, or almost identical, proteins are localized to two (or more) separate compartments of the cell. From previous work in the field, we had estimated that a third of the mitochondrial proteome is dual targeted to extra-mitochondrial locations and suggested that this abundant dual targeting presents an evolutionary advantage. Here we set out to study how many additional proteins whose main activity is outside mitochondria are also localized, albeit at low levels, to mitochondria (eclipsed). To do this we employed two complementary approaches utilizing the α-complementation assay in yeast to uncover the extent of such eclipsed distribution: one systematic and unbiased and the other based on Mitochondrial Targeting Signal (MTS) predictions. Using these approaches, we suggest 280 new eclipsed distributed protein candidates. Interestingly, these proteins are enriched for distinctive properties compared to their exclusively mitochondrial-targeted counterparts. We focus on one unexpected eclipsed protein-family of the Triose-phosphate DeHydrogenases (TDH), and prove that indeed their eclipsed distribution in mitochondria is important for mitochondrial activity. Our work provides a paradigm of deliberate eclipsed mitochondrial localization, targeting and function, and should expand our understanding of mitochondrial function in health and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1195.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels; the ventral hippocampal CA1; nociceptive hypersensitivity; hippocampal neuronal excitability
Online: 18 July 2023 (10:11:02 CEST)
Chronic pain is a significant health problem worldwide. Recent evidence has suggested that dysfunctional states of the ventral hippocampus, including decreased neuronal excitability and connectivity with other brain regions, parallel pain chronicity and persistent nociceptive hypersensitivity in humans and rodents, respectively. But the molecular mechanisms underlying hippocampal modulation of pain remain poorly elucidated. In this study, we used ex vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recording, immunofluorescence staining and behavioral tests to examine whether hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels 2 (HCN2) in the ventral hippocampal CA1 (vCA1) were involved in regulating nociceptive perception and CFA-induced inflammatory pain in mice. Reduced sag potential and firing rate of action potentials were observed in vCA1 pyramidal neurons from CFA-injected mice. Moreover, the expression of HCN2, but not HCN1, in vCA1 decreased in mice injected with CFA. HCN2 knockdown in vCA1 pyramidal neurons induced thermal hypersensitivity, whereas over-expression of HCN2 alleviated thermal hyperalgesia induced by intraplantar injection of CFA in mice. Our findings suggests that HCN2 in the vCA1 plays an active role in pain modulation and could be a promising target for the treatment of chronic pain.