ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0711.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: interference in quantum mechanics; identical particle; equal wavelength interference mechanism; exchange effect interference mechanism
Online: 11 October 2023 (09:37:39 CEST)
The phenomenon of interference is a characteristic of all waves. This paper reviews the interference of classical waves and of matter waves in quantum mechanics. In quantum mechanics, there are two interference mechanisms between identical particles. One is that the de Broglie wavelengths of two interference waves are the same, which is called the equal wavelength interference mechanism. The other is that the wavelengths of interference waves can also be different, in which case there should be an exchange term in additional to the direction term in the wave function. There is a fixed phase difference between the two terms, which causes interference. This is called exchange effect interference mechanism. We propose an experiment, which is simpler to what has been done, to show the exchange effect interference. There is a special case where two interference waves can satisfy both the two mechanisms. We propose an experiment to discriminate that in this case which mechanism plays a role on earth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0388.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Motion; Equation of motion; Irreversibility of motion; Time-inverse motion; Reverse motion; Two-particle collision; Detailed balance
Online: 9 October 2023 (10:54:31 CEST)
People have long had a problem: the equations of motion that reflect the laws of physics are invariance under time inversion, while there always are irreversible processes for gases compose of microscopic particles. This article solves this problem. The point is that we should distinguish between the concepts of the equation of motion and motion. We also need to distinguish between the concepts of time-inverse motion and reverse motion. The former is anticlockwise, which is a frictional motion, while the latter is clockwise. For the single-particle motions in classical mechanics and in quantum mechanics, we present mathematical expressions for time-inversion motion and reverse motion, respectively. We demonstrate that single-particle motion is irreversible. The definition of the reversibility of two-particle collisions is given. According to the definition, the two-particle collision as a microscopic motion processes is irreversible. Consequently, for a gas consisting of a large number of particles colliding with each other, its movement should be irreversible, unless the condition of detailed balance is met. We give a physical explanation for the detailed balance, which does not concern the meaning of microscopic reversibility. The detailed balance means that after a pair of reciprocal collisions occur, the distribution function of the particles remains unchanged. Therefore, microscopic two-particle collision events are irreversible, but the statistical average of a large number of collision events makes it possible for the macroscopic process of a gas to be reversible. Conclusively, we clarify the microscopic mechanism of the irreversible process of gases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1716.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: stable system; dark matter; dark energy; positive kinetic energy; negative kinetic energy; cosmic dark radiation background; gravity potential background
Online: 25 June 2023 (05:16:46 CEST)
The author’s opinion is that the negative energy solutions of the Dirac equation mean that a particle can be of negative kinetic energy (NKE) besides positive kinetic energy (PKE). We think that NKE particles are dark ones and NKE matter is dark matter. In our previous works, the dark matter theory of the NKE version and the dark energy theory that matched dark matter theory were put forth. In this work, we investigate the topics related to the metamorphosis of objects between PKE and NKE. We first evaluate the collosions between a PKE and a NKE particles. A scenario of accelerating PKE particles is raised. We put forth the cosmic dark radiation background and gravity potential background. In the universe, negative energy is predominating. In the observable universe, substances constitute stable PKE systems. The total energy of every such system is negative. We propose a mechanism that NKE substances combine into stable PKE systems. Macroscopically, NKE objects can constitute stable PKE astrophysical systems by means of gravity between them. Microscopically, NKE particles can combine into stable PKE systems by means of attractive interactions between them, say, Coulomb attraction. Currently, people think that there are four ingrediants in the universe: photons \Omega_R0, matter \Omega_M0, dark matter \Omega_DM, and dark energy \Omega_\lambda0. We analyze the order of the appearance of the four ingredients and conclude that qualitatively, their proportions should be \Omega_\lambda0 > \Omega_DM > \Omega_M0 > \Omega_R0.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0486.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: Dirac equation; Klein-Gordon equation; Schrödinger equation; negative kinetic energy; Decoupled Klein-Gordon equation; negative kinetic energy Schrödinger equation
Online: 25 August 2021 (10:50:21 CEST)
Up to now, Schrödinger equation, Klein-Gordon equation (KGE) and Dirac equation are believed the fundamental equations of quantum mechanics. Schrödinger equation has a defect that there is no NKE solutions. Dirac equation has positive kinetic energy (PKE) and negative kinetic energy (NKE) branches. Both branches should have low momentum, or nonrelativistic, approximations: one is Schrödinger equation and the other is NKE Schrödinger equation. KGE has two problems: it is an equation of second time derivative, and calculated density is not definitely positive. To overcome the problems, it should be revised as PKE and NKE decoupled KGEs. The fundamental equations of quantum mechanics after the modification have at least two merits. They are of unitary in that everyone contains the first time derivative and are symmetric with respect to PKE and NKE. This reflects the symmetry of the PKE and NKE matters, as well as matter and dark matter, of our universe. The problems of one-dimensional step potentials are resolved by means of the modified fundamental equations for a nonrelativistic particle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0522.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: carbon reduction; production automation; labor cost; manufacturing transformation; manufacturing intelligence
Online: 29 November 2022 (02:33:50 CET)
As China put forward its “carbon emissions peak and carbon neutrality” goals, how to achieve carbon reduction had become a key for China’s goal. The manufacturing industry is an important source of carbon dioxide emissions. For a manufacturing country like China, adjustments in various aspects of the industry would have a huge impact on carbon emissions. As an important reform of contemporary production mode, the process of production automation in China will inevitably affect China's carbon emissions. Therefore, the analysis of the impact of production automation on carbon dioxide emissions was an important basis for judging the future carbon reduction in China. Refer to the traditional study of carbon Kuznets curve, this paper analyzed the impact of average wage on production automation and the role of production automation in the carbon Kuznets curve(CKC). This paper proposed that production automation plays a mediating role in the process of carbon emissions, and gives a verification model of the mediating role. By analyzing the relationship between average wage and production automation process, the U-shaped curve relationship between them was verified. By examining the relationship between carbon dioxide emission data and production automation industry in China, we verified that production automation plays a partial mediating role in the change of carbon Kuznets curve. Combined with the analysis of the two parts, this paper believed that with the continuous development of China's intelligent manufacturing industry, China's carbon reduction prospects were more optimistic, and there was a good industrial foundation to achieve the “carbon peaking and carbon neutrality” goals. Finally, this paper proposes policy suggestions as increase research investment in production automation, help promote the application of production automation, encourage the research and application development of low-carbon technology, especially encourage modular design, so as to give full play to the role of production automation in the process of carbon neutrality in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0041.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Fractional calculus; Generalized Oldroyd-B fluid; separation of variables method; Unidirectional flow; Caputo fractional derivative
Online: 3 June 2022 (09:58:29 CEST)
For solving the fractional differential equations in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), it’s complicated and difficult by the Laplace and Fourier transforms. Based on the Caputo fractional derivative, the analytical solutions for unsteady unidirectional flows of a generalized Oldroyd-B fluid are deduced by the separation of variables method. Results show that the analytical solutions are given easily, and have good university. For some specific parameter values, the well-known analytical solutions for the generalized second grade fluid, the generalized Upper-Convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid as well as the ordinary Oldroyd-B fluid can be obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1114.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Phosphorylation; dephosphorylation; CaV3.2 T-type calcium channel; calcineurin; CaMKII
Online: 20 October 2023 (12:24:08 CEST)
The Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel is implicated in various pathological conditions, including cardiac hypertrophy, epilepsy, autism, and chronic pain. Phosphorylation of Cav3.2 by multiple kinases plays a pivotal role in regulating its calcium channel function. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase, calcineurin, interacts physically with Cav3.2 and modulates its activity. However, it remains unclear whether calcineurin dephosphorylates Cav3.2, the specific spatial regions on Cav3.2 involved, and the extent of the quantitative impact. In this study, we elucidated the serine/threonine residues on Cav3.2 targeted by calcineurin using quantitative mass spectrometry. We identified six serine residues in the N-terminus, II-III loop, and C-terminus of Cav3.2 that were dephosphorylated by calcineurin. Notably, a higher level of dephosphorylation was observed in the Cav3.2 C-terminus, where calcineurin binds to this channel. Additionally, a previously known CaMKII-phosphorylated site, S1198, was found to be dephosphorylated by calcineurin. Furthermore, we also discovered that a novel CaMKII-phosphorylated site, S2137, underwent dephosphorylation by calcineurin. In CAD cells, a mouse central nervous system cell line, membrane depolarization led to an increase in the phosphorylation of endogenous Cav3.2 at S2137. Mutation of S2137 affected the calcium channel function of Cav3.2. Our findings advance the understanding of Cav3.2 regulation not only through kinase phosphorylation but also via calcineurin phosphatase dephosphorylation.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0297.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: Tunable deflection; epsilon-near-zero; metamaterial.
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:07:51 CEST)
Epsilon-near-zero nanoantennas can be used to tune the far-field radiation pattern due to their exceptionally large intensity-dependent refractive index. Here, we propose hybrid optical antenna based on indium tin oxide (ITO) to optically tune the deflection of radiation. In particular, a hybrid structure antenna of ITO and dielectric material, which makes the deflection angle changes 17 ∘ as incident intensities increases. Finally, the array of ITO or hybrid nanodisks can enhance the unidirectionality to be needle-like, with the angular beam width α< 8∘ of main lobe. The deflection angle of radiation pattern response with needle-like lobe pave the way for further studies and applications in beam steering and optical modulation where dynamic control of the nanoantennas is highly desirable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0163.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Inertial navigation system; Initial alignment; Backtracking Scheme; Polar region
Online: 10 April 2023 (10:00:18 CEST)
In the polar region, the gravity vector and Earth's rotation vector tend to be in the same direction, leading to slower convergence speed and longer alignment time of the moving base alignment. When the alignment time is short, the alignment cannot converge, resulting in low azimuth accuracy. To address this issue, we propose a polar moving base alignment method based on backtracking scheme. Notably, this work first derives a polar coarse alignment method with the inertial frame based on the transverse Earth model. On this basis, we design a polar coarse alignment method based on backtracking scheme and optimize the data storage scheme. Then, an inverse navigation algorithm based on the transverse inertial navigation mechanical arrangement scheme was derived, and a polar fine alignment method based on backtracking scheme was designed. Semi-physical simulation experiments showed that the alignment algorithm based on backtracking scheme can converge in a short time with high alignment accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1138.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Mixed production lines; Multiple varieties; Variable batches; EMA-DCPM; Production scheduling
Online: 15 June 2023 (12:10:58 CEST)
Being able to complete the production of the product project on time is the prerequisite to win more tasks, many enterprises have begun to study intelligent scheduling algorithms to achieve dynamic control of the total project duration. However, the production operation time of products is highly volatile, and it is impossible to predict the possible operation time of future products. In the actual production environment, we often encounter extreme situations such as mixed production lines, multiple varieties, variable batches, etc. A dynamic optimization CPM model in the ERP/MES system with the attention mechanism (EMA-DCPM) will collect, extract and predict the operation time through artificial intelligence technology, and it can accurately predict the exact operation time of a batch of products that have not yet been produced. Through experiments, our algorithm can realize the production scheduling and get more than 200% better precision than former algorithms and realize dynamic optimization of complex projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0363.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: young caregivers; pandemic; service providers; qualitative; social determinants of health
Online: 5 May 2023 (11:37:18 CEST)
This empirical research is part of a larger project beginning in 2020 and ongoing until 2023 exploring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on young caregivers aged 5-25 years and their families in Canada. Utilizing the social determinants of health as a conceptual framework, this case study emphasizes the voices of professionals offering services to young caregiver clients during the pandemic, and explores their perspectives on the impact of the pandemic on young caregivers and their families. Across three (3) different organizations offering programs and services to young caregiver clients in Ontario, six (6) individual interviews were conducted with directors/program managers and four (4) group interviews were conducted with thirteen (13) staff members who worked directly with young caregivers and their families. Nineteen (19) service providers participated in total. The results of this study highlight five (5) primary themes that emerged through data analysis: i) the role of service providers, ii) the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on organizations and service providers supporting young caregivers and their families, iii) barriers for service users, iv) helpful resources for service providers and organizations, and v) resources needed/preferred by service providers and organization. The pandemic significantly impacted young caregivers and their families, as reported by professionals, and organizations working with young caregivers and their families were tasked with addressing increased service demands and adapting service delivery to follow public health guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0087.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Mongolian oak cups; ethanol crude extract (ECE); ellagic acid- and kaempferol-derivatives; alloxan-induced rats; type 1 diabetes; hypoglycemic effect
Online: 8 April 2018 (08:45:39 CEST)
Our previous in vitro reports showed that crude extract prepared with 50% ethanol (ethanol crude extract, ECE) from Mongolian oak cups possessed excellent antioxidant capacities as well as inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein glycation caused by its enrichment in phenolics, including mainly ellagic acid, kaempferol and their derivatives. Nevertheless, few in vivo studies on antidiabetic activities of these phenolics were conducted. The present study investigated hypoglycemic effects with normal and diabetic rats being administrated orally without or with ECE at 200 and 800 mg/kg for 15 days. In normal rats, no significant differences were exhibited after ECE administration in body weight, fasting blood glucose level, levels of chelesterol, triglyceride, LDL and AST in serum, organ indexes, and levels of GSH and MDA in organs. In diabetic rats, the fasting blood glucose level, indexes of heart and liver, and levels of chelesterol and triglyceride in serum and MDA in heart tissue were significantly decreased. Moreover, HDL levels in serum and SOD activities in the four organs of diabetic rats were significantly improved after ECE administration at 800 mg/kg. Thus, in addition to inhibiting α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein glycation reported previously, oak cups might contain novel dietary phytonutrients in preventing abnormal changes in blood glucose and lipid profile and attenuating oxidant stress in vivo. The results also implied that it is ellagic acid, kaempferol and their derivatives enriched in ECE that might play vital roles in managing type 1 as well as type 2 diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1630.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: carboxymethyl chitosan; gelatin; edible coating; performance optimization; sweet cherry; preservation
Online: 25 July 2023 (05:17:40 CEST)
To prepare an edible coating with a good preservative effect on sweet cherries, carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) and gelatin (GL) were selected as the film-forming matrix in this experiment, and CaCl2 and ascorbic acid (AA) were added as crosslinking agents and antioxidants, respectively. First, the film was prepared by the casting method, and the film formula with better mechanical and barrier performance was filtered out by one-factor and response surface optimization test, and the differences in the preservation effect of different film formulations (CMCS-GL, CaCl2- CMCS-GL, AA -CaCl2- CMCS-GL) on sweet cherries were compared. and then the different film formulations were compared. The difference in film formulation on the preservation effect of sweet cherries was investigated. The results showed that the optimal formulation for an edible film based on CMCS-GL with good performance was CMCS: GL (w:w)=2:1, with the additional amount of 1% glycerol, 2% CaCl2, 0.1% Tween-20, 2% AA, the tensile strength, elongation at break, oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability of the film obtained with this formula were: 16.28 MPa, 71.46%, 1.39×10-12 g- cm/(cm2-s-Pa), 5.10×10-11 cm3-cm/(m2-s-Pa), respectively. In the preservation of sweet cherries, all three film formulations effectively reduced the rotting rate and weight loss during storage while preserving the high hardness and skin color of the fruit. Among them, the formulation AA -CaCl2- CMCS-GL showed the best preservation effect and can be used as a new method for postharvest preservation of sweet cherries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0037.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Optical fiber-sensors; Rayleigh backscattering; Φ-OTDR system; Vibration measurement.
Online: 4 March 2019 (10:26:13 CET)
Recently, the phase-sensitive OTDR (Φ-OTDR) based vibration sensor system has gained the focus of many researchers and some efforts have been undertaken to push further the limitations imposed on the performance of the Φ-OTDR sensor system. Then, progress in the different areas of its performance evaluation factors such as: improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), spatial resolution (SR) in the sub-meter range, enlargement of the sensing range, frequency response bandwidth over the conventional limit and phase signal demodulation for quantitative measurement have been realized. This paper presents an overview of the recent progress in the Φ-OTDR based vibration sensing system in the different areas mentioned above.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0903.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae; plasma membrane H+-ATPase; PMA1; suppressor; ALY1/2
Online: 14 November 2023 (10:27:31 CET)
The regulation of intracellular pH in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells is critical for cell function and viability. In yeast, protons (H+) can be excreted from cell by the plasma membrane ATPase Pma1 and pumped into vacuoles by the vacuolar H+-ATPase. Because Pma1 is critical to the survival of yeast cells, it is unknown whether other compensatory components are involved in the pH homeostasis in the absence of Pma1. To elucidate how intracellular pH is regulated independently of Pma1, we employed a screening approach by exposing the yeast haploid deletion mutant library (ver 4.0) to the selective plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase inhibitor PS-1, which we previously reported. After repeated screenings and verification, we identified two proteins, ALY1 and ALY2, that play a role in the regulation of intracellular pH when Pma1 is deficient. Our research uncovers a new perspective on the regulation of intracellular pH related to Pma1 and also preliminarily reveals a role for ALY1 and ALY2 in the regulation of intracellular pH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1202.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: young caregiver; baseline interviews; pandemic; qualitative; COVID-19; longitudinal; social determinants of health
Online: 29 April 2023 (04:09:48 CEST)
This qualitative research study is a part of a larger research project exploring the experiences of young caregivers aged 5-26 years and their families navigating the COVID-19 pandemic between 2020 to 2023. Data was collected from 14 young caregivers who participated in baseline interviews. The central research question guiding this study: What was, is, and will be the impact of changing public health restrictions on young caregivers and their families during the pandemic and pandemic recovery? Seven themes emerged through analysis: 1) Navigating Care During the Height of Public Health Restrictions, 2) Neighbourhood and Built Environment During the Pandemic, 3) Perceptions Towards COVID and Public Health Restrictions/Efforts, 4) The Impact of Public Health Restrictions on Relationships, 5) Mental Health Challenges of Being a Young Caregiver During a Pandemic, 6) Navigating Formal Services and Supports and 7) Recommendations from Young Caregivers. The findings from this empirical research suggest that young caregivers found it easier to navigate their caregiving responsibilities when public health restrictions and work-from-home mandates were initially implemented, however, this later changed due to challenges in finding respite from caregiving, maintaining social connections with friends, creating personal space at home, and finding adequate replacements of programs once offered in-person.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0602.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Thyroid hormones; thyroid hormone transporters; MCT8; OATP1C1; human; monkey; basal ganglia; motor thalamus; MSN cells; nucleus basalis of Meynert
Online: 20 April 2023 (03:25:07 CEST)
Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1C1 (OATP1C1) are thyroid hormones (TH) transmembrane transporters relevant for the availability of TH in neural cells, crucial for their proper development and function. Mutations in MCT8 or OATP1C1 result in severe disorders with dramatic movement disability related to alterations in basal ganglia motor circuits. Mapping the expression of MCT8/OATP1C1 in those circuits is necessary to explain their involvement in motor control. We studied the distribution of both transporters in the neuronal subpopulations that configure the direct and indirect basal ganglia motor circuits using immunohistochemistry and double/multiple labeling immunofluorescence for TH transporters and neuronal biomarkers. We found their expression in the medium-sized spiny neurons of the striatum (the receptor neurons of the corticostriatal pathway), and in various types of its local microcircuitry interneurons, including the cholinergic. We also demonstrate the presence of both transporters in projection neurons of intrinsic and output nuclei of the basal ganglia, motor thalamus and nucleus basalis of Meynert, suggesting an important role of MCT8/OATP1C1 for modulating the motor system. Our findings suggest that a lack of function of these transporters in the basal ganglia circuits would significantly impact motor system modulation, leading to clinically severe movement impairment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1288.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Traffic shaping; Anomaly detection; Intrusion detection; Network security; Internet of Things; Network traffic analysis; Machine learning. (SDN (Software-defined networking); GNN (Graph neural network); MAB (Multi-armed bandit))
Online: 19 June 2023 (04:55:33 CEST)
Traffic shaping is a critical task in software-defined -IoT networks (SDN-IoTs) to efficiently manage network resources and ensure Quality of Service (QoS) for end-users. However, traditional traffic shaping approaches based on queuing theory or static policies may not be effective due to the dynamic and unpredictable nature of network traffic. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that leverages Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) and Multi-arm Bandit algorithms to dynamically optimize traffic shaping policies based on real-time network traffic patterns. Specifically, our approach uses a GNN model to learn and predict network traffic patterns and a Multi-arm Bandit algorithm to optimize traffic shaping policies based on these predictions. We evaluate the proposed approach on three different datasets, including a simulated corporate network (KDD Cup 1999), a collection of network traffic traces (CAIDA), and a simulated network environment with both normal and malicious traffic (NSL-KDD). The results demonstrate that our approach outperforms other state-of-the-art traffic shaping methods, achieving higher throughput, lower packet loss, and lower delay, while effectively detecting anomalous traffic patterns. The proposed approach offers a promising solution to traffic shaping in SDNs, enabling efficient resource management and QoS assurance
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0513.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: HBV; potential HBV carriers; stability analysis; reproduction number; vaccine
Online: 14 June 2023 (04:12:55 CEST)
Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which affects the liver. Every year, about 390,000 people die from HBV-related diseases in China, about 86 million people are carriers of HBV, accounting for about 6% of the total population, and 30 million people are chronically infected. From 2002 to 2007, though China government launched “The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI)” program to reduce HBV infection in children, but the number of hepatitis B cases in China remains high. Reasonable estimation of potential HBV carriers is crucial to prevention and control the spread hepatitis B virus. This study is based on the case data from the National Bureau of Statistics of China from 2003 to 2021. We build a dynamic model that includes potential hepatitis B virus carriers, use nonlinear least squares and genetic algorithms to fit the parameters in the model, and calculate the reproduction number of hepatitis B virus transmission in the population and obtain R_c=1.741. The number of potential hepatitis B virus carriers is estimated to be 449,535 (95%CI [415651 to 483420]) based on our model, which is 30.49% of the total number of hepatitis B cases, and the simulation results show the number of chronic hepatitis B incidence decreases as the vaccination rate α increases, increasing α by 20%, the number of chronic hepatitis B incidence decreases by 169,469 on average.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0435.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika virus; ZIKV; the Numb protein; the Capsid protein
Online: 17 April 2023 (09:49:56 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and causes an infection that is associated with neurological manifestations, including microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome. The mechanism of ZIKV-mediated neuropathogenesis is not well understood. In this study, we discovered that ZIKV induces the degradation of the Numb protein, which plays a crucial role in neurogenesis by allowing asymmetric cell division during embryonic development. Our data show that ZIKV reduced the Numb protein level in a time- and dose-dependent manner. However, ZIKV infection appears to have minimal effect on the Numb transcript. Treatment of ZIKV-infected cells with a proteasome inhibitor restores the Numb protein level, which suggests the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In addition, ZIKV infection shortens the half-life of the Numb protein. Among the ZIKV proteins, the capsid protein significantly reduces the Numb protein level. Immunoprecipitation of the Numb protein co-precipitates the capsid protein, indicating the interaction between these two proteins. These results provide insights into the ZIKV-cell interaction that might contribute to its impact on neurogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: president election; renewable energy; energy future; public opinion; polarization
Online: 31 August 2016 (08:34:50 CEST)
As the leader of the largest economy, President of the United States has substantive influence on addressing the global climate change problem. However, presidential election is often dominated by issues other than energy problems. This paper focuses on the on-going 2016 presidential election, examining the energy plans proposed by the leading Democrat and Republican candidates. Our data from the Iowa caucus survey in January 2016 suggests that voters are more concerned about terrorism and economic issues than environmental relative issues. We then compare the Democratic and Republican candidate’s view of American’s energy future, and evaluate their proposed renewable energy targets. We find that the view on renewable energy is polarized between Democratic and Republican candidates, while candidates from both parties agree on the need for energy efficiency. Results from our ordinal least squares regression models suggest that Democratic candidates have moderate to ambitious goals for developing solar and other renewable energy. The Republican candidates favor fossil fuel and they neglect to provide any plan for renewable energy. In addition, this trend of polarization has grown more significant when compared with the past three presidential elections. Our observation suggests that energy issues need to be discussed more to draw broader attention to salient issues of diversifying and decarbonizing the nation’s energy system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0628.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: 3D bioprinting; hydrogel; bioink; tissue engineering; bionic scaffold
Online: 20 April 2023 (08:00:19 CEST)
Regeneration of biological tissues in medicine is challenging, and 3D bioprinting offers an innovative way to create functional multicellular tissues. One common way in bioprinting is bioink which is one type of the cell-loaded hydrogel. For clinical application, however, the bioprinting still suffers from satisfactory performance, e.g. in vascularization, effective antibacterial, immunomodulation and regulation of collagen deposition. Many studies have incorporated different bioactive materials into the 3D printed scaffolds to optimize the bioprinting. Here, we review a variety of additives added to the 3D bioprinting hydrogel. The underlying mechanisms and methodology for biological regeneration are important and will provide useful basis for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0131.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Citrus aurantium L. blossoms; total phenolics; ultrasonic-assisted extraction; Box-Behnken design; free radical scavenging activity; anti-HMG-CoA reductase activity
Online: 10 May 2019 (14:41:59 CEST)
The objective of this study was to develop an ultrasonic-assisted procedure for the extraction of total phenolics from Citrus aurantium L. blossoms (CAB) and evaluate the free radical scavenging activity, anti-HMG-CoA reductase activity of total phenolics. In this work, a Box-Behnken design based on the single-factor experiments was used to explore the optimum extraction process. Under the optimum conditions (extraction solvent 70.31% ethanol, extraction temperature 61.94 °C, extraction time 51.73 min and liquid-to-solid ratio 35.63 mL/g), the extraction yield of total phenolics was 95.84 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry matter (DM), which was highly consistent with the theoretical value (96.12 mg GAE/g DM). The total phenolic extract showed excellent free radical scavenging properties against DPPH·, ABTS+·, ·OH and ·O2-, with the IC50 values of 197.007, 83.878, 218.643 and 158.885 μg/mL, respectively, and the extracts also showed good inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity, with the IC50 value of 117.165 μg/mL. Total phenolics from CAB could be a potential source of natural free radical scavenger and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0347.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Jason-2; Jason-3; glacier; Landsat; Mt. Tanggula; satellite altimeter; Tibet; TOPEX/Poseidon
Online: 15 November 2018 (06:03:39 CET)
An oceanic radar altimeter such as TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) is typically for observing elevation changes over the open oceans or large inland lakes/rivers, with limited applications over solid earth due to its large footprint and susceptibility to waveform contamination and slope effect. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to construct a long-term time series of glacier elevation change from T/P-series radar altimeters over two flat surfaces near a glacier terminus and an icefield (Sites A and B, with slopes of 2° and 0.8°) in Mt. Tanggula, Tibet, at elevations over 5400 m. We retracked radar waveforms using the subwaveform threshold algorithm, selected quality altimeter data (1/4 of the original) with nearly the same slope and adjusted the original elevations by fitting with a time-varying, 2nd order surface. The glacier elevation changes at the two sites from T/P (1993–2002) show seasonal elevation oscillations with linear rates at about −3 m/year and abnormal seasonal changes around the 1997–98 El Niño. Site A is over a deep valley in southern Tanggula. Its elevation dropped about 30 m over 1993–2002 (from T/P) and the glacier almost disappeared by 2016 (from altimeters and satellite images). Despite the sporadic Jason-2 and Jason-3 altimeter data, we also derived long-term rates of glacier elevation change over 1993–2017. Landsat-derived glacier area and elevation changes near the two sites confirm the rapid glacier thinning from the altimeters. The glacier meltwater near Site A supplied increasing source water to Chibuzhang Co west of Mt. Tanggula, contributing partially to its accelerated rising lake level. The glacier thinning at Site B (icefield) was correlated with the increased discharge of the Tuotuo River in eastern Mt. Tanggula, a source region of the Yangtze River. The successful detection of glacier thinning at the two sites shows that T/P-series altimeters can serve as a virtual station at a flat glacier spot to monitor long-term glacier elevation changes in connection to climate change. This virtual station concept is particularly useful for inaccessible glaciers, but its implementation faces two challenging issues: increasing the volume of quality altimeter data and improving the ranging accuracy over a targeted mountain glacier spot.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0054.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Risk assessment; Evidential reasoning; Fire/explosion
Online: 9 November 2016 (10:29:29 CET)
This paper aims to develop a hierarchical risk assessment model using the newly-developed evidential reasoning (ER) rule, which constitutes a generic conjunctive probabilistic reasoning process. In this paper, we first provide a brief introduction to the basics of the ER rule and emphasize the strengths for representing and aggregating uncertain information from multiple experts and sources. Further, we discuss the key steps of developing the hierarchical risk assessment framework systematically, including (1) formulation of risk assessment hierarchy, (2) representation of both qualitative and quantitative information, (3) elicitation of attribute weights and information reliabilities, (4) aggregation of assessment information using the ER rule and (5) quantification and ranking of risks using utility-based transformation. The proposed hierarchical risk assessment framework can potentially be implemented to various complex and uncertain systems. A case study on the fire/explosion risk assessment of marine vessels demonstrates the applicability of the proposed risk assessment model.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: permutation entropy; irreversibility; gait; Alzheimer's disease; Mild Cognitive Impairment
Online: 16 August 2019 (07:24:00 CEST)
Gait is a basic cognitive propositive action that has been shown to be altered in late stages of neurodegenerative dementias. Nevertheless, alterations are less clear in mild forms of dementia, and the potential use of gait analysis as a biomarker of initial cognitive decline has hitherto mostly been neglected. We here report the results of a study of gait kinematic time series for two groups of patients (Mild Cognitive Impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease) and a group of matched control subjects. Two metrics based on permutation patterns are considered, respectively measuring the complexity and irreversibility of the time series. Results indicate that kinematic disorganisation is present at early phases of cognitive impairment; in addition, they depict a rich scenario, in which some joint movements display an increased complexity and irreversibility, while others a marked decrease. Beyond their potential use as biomarkers, complexity and irreversibility metrics can open a new door towards the understanding of the role of the nervous system in gait, as well as its adaptation and compensatory mechanisms.