ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: heating cycles; thermodynamic cycles; thermodynamics; temperature difference utilization; heating; cold energy utilization; sustainable energy; cogeneration; thermal science
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:49:58 CET)
Considering the significance of thermodynamic cycles in the global energy system, it is necessary to develop new general classes of thermodynamic cycles to relieve current energy and environmental problems. Inspired by the relationship between power cycles and refrigeration cycles, we realize that general classes of thermodynamic cycles should occur in pairs with opposite functions. Here we reverse class 1 heating cycles to obtain another new general class of thermodynamic cycles named class 2 heating cycles (HC-2s). HC-2s have two basic forms, and each contains six thermodynamic processes. HC-2s present the simplest and most general approach to utilizing the temperature difference between a medium-temperature heat source and a low-temperature heat sink to achieve efficient high-temperature heating. HC-2s fill the gaps that have existed since the origin of thermal science, and they will play significant roles in the global sustainable energy system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0437.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: heating cycles; thermodynamic cycles; thermodynamics; temperature difference utilization; heating; cooling; cogeneration; thermal science
Online: 28 October 2021 (13:00:46 CEST)
Thermodynamic cycles are not only the core concepts of thermal science, but also key approaches to energy conversion and utilization. So far, power cycles and refrigeration cycles have been the only two general classes of thermodynamic cycles. While diverse types of systems have been developed to perform thermodynamic cycles, no new general classes of thermodynamic cycles have been proposed. Based on the basic principles of thermodynamics, here we propose and analyze a new general class of thermodynamic cycles named class 1 heating cycles (HC-1s). Two basic forms of HC-1s are obtained by connecting six essential thermodynamic processes in the proper order and forming a thermodynamic cycle. HC-1s present the simplest and most general approach to utilizing the temperature difference between a high-temperature heat source and a medium-temperature heat sink to achieve efficient medium-temperature heating and/or low-temperature cooling. HC-1s fill the gaps that have existed since the origin of thermal science, and they will play significant roles in energy conservation and emission reduction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0484.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Lyapunov equation; HSS iterative method; PHSS iterative method
Online: 20 November 2018 (06:51:55 CET)
Based on previous research results, we propose a new preprocessing HSS iteration method (PHSS) for the generalized Lyapunov equation. At the same time, the corresponding inexact PHSS algorithm (IPHSS) is given from the angle of application. All the new methods presented in this paper have given the corresponding convergence proof. The numerical experiments are carried out to compare the new method with the existing methods, and the improvement effect is obvious. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are proved from two aspects of theory and calculation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Technology Acceptance Model, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Golf Croquet, Mobile Applications, Companion Robot, AIoT, Senior
Online: 16 August 2023 (20:28:42 CEST)
In 2020 the world experienced the threat of the COVID-19 epidemic, as seniors and chronic disease patients typically try to reduce their exercise and social activities to avoid increasing the risk of infection, which could lead to increased loneliness and even many diseases. This research combining golf croquet games with AIoT companion robots constructs a home-based intelligent exercise system thus uses the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), deduces users’ intention to use this system based on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and adds the needs of love and belonging, esteem, cognitive, aesthetic, and self-actualization in Maslow’s needs theory to conduct system needs analysis. The analysis results show that participants have a high level of acceptance of this system, believing that it is easy to learn and operate, can increase interaction with others, also found that this system can improve self-confirmation, satisfying the third for knowledge, feeling happy, and self-actualization needs are easier to fulfill. In the future, we shall collect and record the seniors in the process of use, so as to find out their health problems as soon as possible, expand their daily life through this exercise, and achieve the goal of happy living and health care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0296.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: reading comprehension; speech-in-noise recognition; nature F0 contours; flattened F0 contours; Chinese character decoding
Online: 10 June 2021 (13:36:17 CEST)
Theories of reading comprehension emphasize decoding and listening comprehension as two essential components. The current study aimed to investigate how Chinese character decoding and context-driven auditory semantic integration contribute to reading comprehension in Chinese middle school students. Seventy-five middle school students were tested. Context-driven auditory semantic integration was assessed with speech-in-noise tests in which the fundamental frequency (F0) contours of spoken sentences were either kept natural or acoustically flattened with the latter requiring a higher degree of contextual information. Statistical modelling with hierarchical regression was conducted to examine the contributions of Chinese character decoding and context-driven auditory semantic integration to reading comprehension. Performance on Chinese character decoding and auditory semantic integration scores with the flattened (but not natural) F0 sentences significantly predicted reading comprehension. Furthermore, the contributions of these two factors to reading comprehension were better fitted with an additive model instead of a multiplicative model. These findings indicate that reading comprehension in middle schoolers is associated with not only character decoding but also the listening ability to make better use of the sentential context for semantic integration in a severely degraded speech-in-noise condition. The results add to our better understanding of the multi-faceted reading comprehension in children. Future research could further address the age-dependent development and maturation of reading skills by examining and controlling other important cognitive variables, and apply neuroimaging techniques such as functional magmatic resonance imaging to reveal the neural substrates for the contribution of auditory semantic integration and the observed additive model to reading comprehension.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0172.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Climate Change; Coastal Disasters; Vulnerability; Disaster Risk.
Online: 21 March 2017 (16:41:53 CET)
This study integrated coastal-watershed models and combined a risk assessment method to develop a methodology to investigate the impact resulting from coastal disasters under climate change. The mid-western coast of Taiwan suffering from land subsidence was selected as the demonstrative area for the vulnerability analysis based on prediction of sea level rise (SLR), wave run-up, overtopping, and coastal flooding under the scenarios of 2020 to 2039. Database from tidal gauges and satellite images were used to analyze sea level rise using EEMD (Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition). Extreme wave condition and storm surge were estimated by numerical simulation using WWM (Wind Wave Model) and POM (Princeton Ocean Model). Coastal inundation was then simulated via WASH123D watershed model. The risk map of study areas based on the analyses of vulnerability and disaster were established using the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) technique. Predictions of sea level rise, the maximum wave condition and storm surge under the scenarios of 2020 to 2039 are presented. The results indicate that the sea level at the mid-western coast of Taiwan will rise in an average of 5.8 cm, equivalent to a rising velocity of 2.8 mm/year. The analysis indicates that Wuqi, Lukang, Mailiao, and Taixi townships are susceptive, low resistant and low resilient, and reaches the high risk level. The assessment provides that important information for making adaption policy in the mid-western coast of Taiwan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0151.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Cyhalothrin; Nerve injury; Synaptic plasticity; A2AR
Online: 2 November 2023 (10:56:57 CET)
This experiment was conducted to study the effects of Cyfluthrin (Cy) exposure on neurobehaviour, hippocampal tissue and synaptic plasticity in Wistar rats. First, high-dose Cy exposure can cause nerve injury with symptoms such as deficits in learning and memory ability, spatial exploration and autonomic motor ability. Moreover, it was found that medium- and high-dose Cy exposure can cause disordered energy metabolism in hippocampal cells and an abnormal release of the neurotransmitter Glu. Second, pathological brain sections showed that the middle and high doses of Cy caused deformation, reduction and disorder of hippocampal pyramidal cells, a decrease in the number of Nissl bodies, pyknosis of the hippocampal cell nuclear membrane and serious damage to organelles, indicating that exposure to these doses of Cy may cause hippocampal tissue damage in rats. Third, with the increase in exposure dose, the morphological changes in hippocampal synapses were more obvious, including blurred synaptic spaces, decreased synaptic vesicles and a decreased number of synapses. Moreover, the expression levels of the key synaptic proteins PSD-95 and SYP also decreased in a dose-dependent manner, indicating obvious synaptic damage. Finally, the study found that medium and high doses of Cy could upregulate the expression of A2AR in the hippocampus, and the expression levels of inflammatory factors and apoptosis-related proteins increased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the expression of A2AR mRNA was correlated with neurobehavioural indicators, inflammatory factors, synaptic plasticity factors and apoptosis factors, suggesting that Cy may cause nerve damage in rats and has a close relationship with A2AR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1061.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: urban blue space; spatio-temporal analysis; mechanism simulation; landscape analysis
Online: 15 August 2023 (03:02:23 CEST)
With the rapid development in Beijing, there is a critical need to explore the circumstance and reveal the mechanisms of precious urban natural resources. In this context, urban blue space has attracted more and more attention by driving microcirculation, cooling heat islands, and relaxing residential. We extracted the UBS at Beijing using remote sensing, explored the spatial and temporal development in the last two decades via USDA methods, uncovered the full spectrum of landscape patterns from an ecological perspective, and simulated the mechanisms of the UBS area and the landscape quantitatively. We found that: (1) The UBS area in Beijing increased with fluctuation from 2000 to 2020. (2) The spatial clustering has distributed stable with some subtle changes. (3)The ecological circumstance has improved in the last 21 years in Beijing, with the increasing habitat diversity and richness, while the inferior landscape fragmentation has indicated some severe challenges. (4) Natural factors impact urban blue space areas more than social ones, while both similarly influence the UBS landscape. (5) Vegetation circumstances and precipitation are the most important natural factors on both area and landscape of UBS, and population and artificial surface are the most important social factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0489.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sleep; academic performance; grade point average; college students; wearable device; longitudinal; nighttime sleep awakening
Online: 30 December 2021 (13:45:37 CET)
Although the relations between sleep and academic performance have been extensively examined, how sleep predicts future academic performance (e.g., 2 -3 years) remains to be further investigated. Using wearable smartwatches and a self-report questionnaire, we tracked sleep activities of 45 college students over a period of approximate half a month to see whether their sleep activities predicted their academic performance, which was estimated by grade point average (GPA). Results showed that both nighttime sleep awakening frequency and its consistency in the tracking period were not significantly correlated with the GPA for the courses taken in the semester during sleep tracking (current GPA). However, both nighttime sleep awakening frequency and its consistency inversely predicted the GPA for the rest of the courses taken after that semester (future GPA). Moreover, students with more difficulty staying awake throughout the day obtained lower current and future GPAs, and students with lower inconsistency of sleep quality obtained lower future GPA. Together, these findings highlight the importance of nighttime sleep awakening frequency and consistency in predicting future academic performance and emphasize the necessity of assessing the consistency of sleep measures in future studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0588.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: protein palmitoylation; apoptosis; autophagy; ferroptosis; pyroptosis
Online: 9 November 2023 (07:43:38 CET)
In this comprehensive survey, we delve into the multifaceted role of palmitoylation across vari-ous cell death modalities in the oncological context. From its intricate correlations with tumor-igenesis, steered by the DHHC family, to the counter-process of depalmitoylation mediated by enzymes like PPT1. Innovations in detection methodologies have paralleled our growing under-standing, transitioning from rudimentary techniques to sophisticated modern methods. Central to our discourse are agents like GNS561 and DC661, promising heralds in palmitoylation-targeted cancer therapy. Collectively, this review accentuates palmitoylation's transformative potential in oncology, foreshadowing groundbreaking therapeutic strategies and deepening our molecular comprehension of cancer dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0981.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Pulmonary sequestration; computed tomography angiography; intralobar and extralobar sequestration; supplying artery; draining vessel
Online: 14 June 2023 (04:35:55 CEST)
Background: Pulmonary sequestration (PS), generally diagnosed using computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), is a rare congenital developmental malformation of the lung that is characterized by nonfunctional lung tissue independent of the normal lung tissue. This study summarizes the imaging features of the supplying arteries and draining vessels in patients with PS with an aim to assist with timely clinical diagnosis and operation guidance. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 patients with PS diagnosed on CTPA from multiple clinical centers were retrospectively analyzed. Data included demographic characteristics, imaging features, disease location, isolation type, and the features of supplying and draining vessels, as shown on CTPA images. Results: Of the 55 patients reviewed, 3 (5.45%) were children, 3 (5.45%) were adolescents, and 49 (89.09%) were adults, with a mean age of 44 years. Fifty-four (98.18%) patients had intralobar sequestration and one (1.82%) had extralobar sequestration. PS was noted 3.5 times more frequently in the left lower lobe than in the right lower lobe. For the supplying arteries, 47 (85.45%) were derived from the descending thoracic aorta, 1 (1.82%) from the abdominal aorta, 7 (12.73%) from the celiac axis, and 1 (1.82%) from the bronchial artery. The draining vessels were the pulmonary veins in 49 patients (89.09%), the umbilical vein in 1 (1.82%), the venae intercostal in 1 (1.82%), the pulmonary arteries in 11 (20.00%), and not shown on the images in 2 (3.64%). Conclusion: Clinical presentations of PS are non-specific and can be easily missed or misdiagnosed. However, CTPA can help improve the diagnostic accuracy and identify the supplying arteries and draining vessels, which significantly contribute to surgical planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0167.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: N-n-Butyl-4-(N′,N′-dihydroxyethylamino)-1,8-naphthalimide; mono-substituted; di-substituted; synthesis, crystal structure; fluorescence
Online: 23 May 2017 (08:10:02 CEST)
A series of novel N-n-butyl-1,8-naphthalimide derivatives were synthesized via a three-step reaction involving nucleophilic substitution and acylation. All of the compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, and elemental analysis, and the crystal structure of N-n-butyl-4-[N’,N’-bis(2`,4`-dichlorobenzoyl)ethylamino]-1,8-naphthalimide was determined. The π-π stacking interactions and hydrogen bonds between the two molecular core planes (naphthalimide ring) and the van der Waals forces between the flexible n-butyl groups resulted in a 3D long-chain structure. The UV-vis and fluorescence properties of the title compounds were investigated. The results indicated that the monosubstituted 1,8-naphthalimide derivatives bearing an electron-donating group on the benzene ring or a structure with a larger conjugative effect exhibited enhanced fluorescence properties.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: soybean; strigolactones; biosynthesis and signaling genes; expression patterns; salt stress
Online: 3 October 2019 (14:01:36 CEST)
Strigolactones (SLs) are a novel emerging plant hormones, which play important roles in regulating plant organ development and environmental stress tolerance. Even though the SL related genes have been identified and well characterized in some plants. The information of SL related genes in soybean is not fully established yet, especially in response to salt stress. In this study, we identified nine SL biosynthesis genes: two D27, two CCD7, two CCD8, and three MAX1, and seven SL signaling genes: two D14, two MAX2 and three D53 in soybean genome. We found that SL biosynthesis and signaling genes are conserved during evolution in different species. Syntenic analysis of these genes revealed their location on nine chromosomes as well as existence of ten pairs of duplication genes. Moreover, plant hormone and stress-responsive elements were identified in the promoter regions of SL biosynthesis and signaling genes. By using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), we confirmed that SL genes have different tissue expression in roots, stems and leaves. Further, we also explored the expression profiles of SL biosynthesis and signaling genes under salt stress. These results suggested that SL signaling genes may play important regulatory roles in response to salt stress. In conclusion, we identified and provided valuable information on the soybean SL biosynthesis and signaling genes, and established a foundation for further functional analysis of soybean SL related genes in response to salt stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0516.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: ALK5 inhibitor; TGF-β; kinase assay; selectivity; docking
Online: 30 August 2018 (05:52:08 CEST)
The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), in which overexpression have been associated with various diseases, has become an attractive molecular target for the treatment of cancers. Three series of 3-substituted-4-(quinoxalin-6-yl) pyrazoles 14a–h, 15a–h, 16a–h, 22a, 22b, 22d, 23a, 23b, 23d, 24b, and 24d were synthesized and evaluated for their activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) and p38α mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitory activity in an enzymatic assays. Among these compounds, the most active compound 16f inhibited ALK5 phosphorylation with an IC50 value of 0.28 µM, with 98% inhibition at 10 µM. Compound 16f also had good selectivity index of >35 against p38α MAP kinase, with 9.0-fold more selective than clinical candidate, compound 3 (LY-2157299). Molecular docking study was performed to identify the mechanism of action of the synthesized compounds and their good binding interactions were observed. ADMET prediction of good active compounds showed that these ones possess good pharmacokinetics and drug-likeness behavior.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: humans; infection control; therapy; coronavirus; immunoglobulins; drug therapy; therapeutic use; corticosteroid
Online: 8 March 2020 (17:04:19 CET)
Background: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has spread globally with more than 80,000 people infected, and nearly 3000 patients died. Currently, we are in an urgent need for effective treatment strategy to control the clinical deterioration of COVID-19 patients. Methods: The clinical data of 10 COVID-19 patients receiving short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid (160mg/d) plus immunoglobulin (20g/d) were studied in the North Yard of The First Hospital of Changsha, Hunan from January 17th to February 27th, 2020. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological findings were analyzed. Results: After treatment with combination of low-dose corticosteroid (40-80mg/d) and immunoglobulin (10g/d), patients’ lymphocyte count (0.88±0.34 vs 0.59±0.18, P<0.05), oxygenation index including SPO2 (94.90±2.51 vs 90.50±5.91, P<0.05) and PaO2/FiO2 (321.36±136.91 vs 129.30±64.97, P<0.05) were significantly lower than pre-treatment, and CT showed that the pulmonary lesion deteriorated in all patients. While after treatment of short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid plus immunoglobulin, patients’ APACHE Ⅱ score (9.10±6.15 vs 5.50±9.01, P<0.05), body temperature (37.59±1.16 vs 36.46±0.25, P<0.05), lymphocyte count (0.59±0.18 vs 1.36±0.51, P<0.05), Lactate dehydrogenase (419.24±251.31 vs 257.40±177.88, P<0.05), and C-reactive protein (49.94±26.21 vs 14.58±15.25, P<0.05) significantly improved compared with post-treatment with low-dose therapy. In addition, oxygenation index including SPO2 (90.50±5.91 vs 97.50±1.18, P<0.05), PaO2 (60.47±14.53 vs 99.07±34.31, P<0.05), and PaO2/FiO2 (129.30±64.97 vs 340.86±146.72, P<0.05) significant improved. Furthermore, CT showed that pulmonary lesions obviously improved in 7 patients. After systematic therapy, 4 out of 10 COVID-19 patients recovered and discharged. Conclusions: Short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid plus immunoglobulin is effective for reversing the continued deterioration of COVID-19 patients who failed to respond to the low-dose therapy. Funding: This work was supported by the Innovative Major Emergency Project Funding against the New Coronavirus Pneumonia in Hunan Province (Dr. Ji-Yang Liu, number 2020SK3014; Dr. Yuan-Lin Xie, number 2020SK3013).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0084.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: light pollution; monitoring approach; spatial distribution; residential zone; Beijing
Online: 14 March 2017 (13:23:18 CET)
Outdoor lighting is becoming increasingly widespread, and residents are suffering from serious light pollution as a result. Residents’ awareness of their rights to protection has gradually increased. However, due to the sometimes-inaccessible nature of residential vertical light incidence intensity data and the high cost of obtaining specific measurements, there is no appropriate hierarchic compensation for residents suffering from different degrees of light pollution. It is therefore important to measure light pollution levels and their damage at the neighborhood scale to provide residents with basic materials for proper protection and to create more politically suitable solutions. This article presents a light pollution assessment method that is easy to perform, is low-cost, and has a short data-processing cycle. This method can be used to monitor residential zone light pollution in other cities. We chose three open areas to test the spatial variation pattern of light intensity. The results are in accordance with spatial interpolation patterns and can be fit, with high precision, using the IDW method. This approach can also be used in 3 dimensions to quantitatively evaluate the distribution of light intensity distribution. We use a mixed-use zone in Beijing known as The Place as our case study area. The vertical illumination at the windows of residential buildings ranges from 2 lux to 23 lux; the illumination in some areas is far higher than the value recommended by CIE. Such severe light pollution can seriously interfere with people's daily lives and has a serious influence on their rest and health. The results of this survey will serve as an important database to assess whether the planning of night-time lighting is scientific and whether it provides residents with a basis for the protection of their rights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0023.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: UPLC-MS/MS; mycotoxins; feedstuffs; flow-through; multiple analysis
Online: 5 December 2016 (09:40:24 CET)
A novel determination method using flow-through cartridge purification and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the identification and quantification of 30 mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2, sterigmatocysin, T-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, roquefortine C, methylergonovine, ergocornine, lysergol, enniatin A, enniatin A1, enniatin B, enniatin B1, beauvericin, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetylDeoxynivalenol, 15-acetylDeoxynivalenol, patulin, verruculogen, neosolaniol, gliotoxin, HT-2 toxin, wortmannin, zearalenone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, α-zearalanol, and β-zearalanol) in feedstuffs. Mycotoxins were extracted from sample by 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution/acetonitrile (16/84 v/v), then purified by a Cleanert® MC clean-up column. As a result, the pigments and other matrices were efficient removed from the sample extract solution. The purified eluate was collected, then evaporated and redissolved by 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution/acetonitrile (70:30 v/v) for UPLC-MS/MS detection. A BEH Shield RP18 chromatographic column was employed for separation of 30 mycotoxins in a total of 14 min. Multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was applied for qualitative and quantitative analysis, and matrix calibration curves obtained with the external-standard method was used for quantitation of target analytes. Under optimized conditions, the linearity range was from 2 to 1000 ng/g, and the limit of quantification of the developed method was from 2 to 50 ng/g. The recoveries of 30 mycotoxins spiked in urine samples were from 72.0% to 118.5%, and the relative standard deviation was below 20%. The method was also well approved by certified reference sample, and applied on the real feedstuff samples testing successfully.