ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0039.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Positive youth development, youth sport, realist evaluation, life skills, personal development.
Online: 5 January 2022 (12:40:59 CET)
Part 1 of this 2-paper series identified a wide and deep network of context, generative mechanisms and outcomes responsible for psychosocial development in a performance basketball club. In this – part 2 – study, the stakeholder’s programme theories were tested during a full-season ethnography of the same club. The findings confirm the highly individualised nature of each young person’s journey. Methodologically, immersion in the day-to-day environment generated a fine-grain analysis of the processes involved, including: i) sustained attentional focus; ii) structured and unstructured skill building activities; iii) deliberate and incidental support; and iv) feelings indicating personal growth. Personal development in and through sport is thus shown to be conditional, multi-faceted, time-sensitive and idiosyncratic. The findings of this two-part study are considered to propose a model of psychosocial development in and through sport. This heuristic tool is presented to support sport psychologists, coaches, club administrators and parents to deliberately create and optimise developmental environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0168.v1
Online: 12 July 2022 (04:09:34 CEST)
Various authors have highlighted the importance of marriage as a social marker that alter the so-cial categorization of individuals and their relationships from youth to adulthood according to the cultural construction of the life course in Arab countries. This article aims to analyze the in-teraction between the socio-political framework (structure) and the capacity for individual action (agency) in the context of biographical experiences to achieve emancipation in Morocco. This per-spective responds to the demand of different authors to include the subjective approaches of young people in the process of analysis. This analysis will be guided by some questions: Which is the capacity of young Arabs to decide the orientation of their life trajectories? What factors (cultural, family, socioeconomic, educational, etc.) create and shape the expectations of young people re-garding their transition to adult life? Is there a specific model of emancipation in the Arab Medi-terranean countries?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0038.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Positive youth development, youth sport, realist evaluation, life skills, personal development, psychosocial development.
Online: 5 January 2022 (12:39:46 CET)
Sport has the potential to support psychosocial development in young people. However, extant studies have tended to evaluate purpose-built interventions, leaving regular organised sport relatively overlooked. Moreover, previous work has tended to concentrated on a narrow range of outcomes. To address these gaps, we conducted a season-long ethnography of a youth performance sport club based on a novel Realist Evaluation approach . We construed the club as a social intervention within a complex system of agents and structures. In this - Part 1 - account we detail the perceptions of former and current club parents, players and coaches, using them to build a set of programme theories. The resulting network of outcomes (i.e. self, emotional, social, moral and cognitive) and generative mechanisms (i.e., the attention factory, the greenhouse for growth, the personal boost, and the real-life simulator) spanning across multiple contextual layers provides a nuanced understanding of stakeholders’ views and experiences. This textured perspective of the multi-faceted process of development provides new insights for administrators, coaches and parents to maximise the developmental properties of youth sport, and signposts new avenues for research in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0367.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Tapering; Workload; Performance; Microcycle; Youth
Online: 23 September 2022 (09:27:20 CEST)
French academies almost all implement reactivity drills and small-sided games (SSG) the day preceding a match (MD-1). The present study aimed to determine the physical impact of different training durations on MD-1 on the subsequent matchday performance (MD). Eleven elite U19 academy soccer players con-ducted three typical training sessions lasting 45min (TS45), 60min (TS60), and 75min (TS75) on MD-1. Dur-ing TS60, warm-up, reactivity and SSG were 10, 15, and 24min, respectively, plus coaches' feedback or wa-ter breaks. Durations decreased and increased by 25% for TS45 and TS75, respectively. Tests were con-ducted on MD-4 (CONTROL) and MD before the match (TEST). Tests consisted of a counter movement jump (CMJ), 20m sprint, Illinois agility test (IAT), and Hooper questionnaire. CONTROL values were simi-lar over the three experimental conditions. TEST on MD revealed greater CMJ for TS45 (42.7 ± 5.1cm) compared to TS60 (40.5 ± 5.5cm, p=0.032) and TS75 (40.9 ± 5.7cm, p=0.037). 20m time was lower for TS45 (3.07 ± 0.10s, p<0.001) and TS60 (3.13 ± 0.10s, p=0.017) compared to TS75 (3.20 ± 0.10s). IAT time was lower on TS45 (14.82 ± 0.49s) compared to TS60 (15.43 ± 0.29s, p<0.001) and TS75 (15.24 ± 0.33s, p=0.006). Further-more, the Hooper index was lower at TEST for TS45 (7.64 ± 1.50) compared to TS60 (11.00 ± 3.49, p=0.014) and TS75 (9.73 ± 2.41, p=0.045) indicating a better readiness level. We concluded that as training session duration increases, performance decreases on MD. A 45min training session including reactivity and SSG exercises is therefore recommended on MD-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0646.v1
Online: 26 April 2021 (10:11:24 CEST)
This paper reports data from a study of young Catholic activists. They were concerned about the expansion of Islamist populism in democratic Muslim-majority Indonesia. They actively built inter-faith coalitions with local liberal Muslim youth groups, and with pan-national Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), the largest independent Islamic organization in the world. Islamist populism prioritises religious identity over the national identity of citizenship. In framing their citizenship activism against the current tide of Islamist populism, the informants in our study selectively engaged aspects of Catholic theology. They articulated their religious identity as coterminous with a nationalist identity centred on multi-faith tolerance and harmony. That discourse in itself refutes a key principle of Islamist populism, which argues for primordial entitlement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0341.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: balance; coordination; jumping; motor competence; youth
Online: 5 July 2023 (14:09:30 CEST)
The aim of this study was to assess the differences in motor coordination (MC) of primary school students based on sex, age, and physical activity participation (PAP), as well as investigation the binary and triple interactions of these variables on MC. In addition, ıt is aim to determine the validation and reliability of the KTK3+ test for Turkish schoolchildren aged 6-9. The sample consisted of 848 students from public primary schools, aged between 6-9 years, including 412 boys and 436 girls. Anthropometric characteristics such as height and body weight were meas-ured, and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. The Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK3+) test battery was utilized to evaluate the levels of MC of the students. One-way multi-variate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the binary and triple interactions of sex, age and PAP variables on the MC parameters of the participants. The study revealed that boys had higher scores than girls on eye-hand coordination (EHC) (p < 0.05). No significant dif-ference was found balancing backwards (BB), jumping sideways (JS) and moving sideways (MS) (p > 0.05). When the subtests of the KTK3+ were compared by age levels, a significant difference was determined between the groups in all subtests (p < 0.05). With respect to PAP, students who PAP had a significant advantage in all subtests of the KTK3+ (p < 0.05). It was determined that none of the interaction terms between sex, age, and PAP created a significant difference in any KTK (p= 0.294; 0.680; 0.471; 0.970, p > 0.05, respectively). The results that the boys aged 6-9 per-formed better than girls in EHC, but girls Furthermore, an increase in age level and PAP result-ed in higher scores in all subtests. This study presents evidence supporting sex differences in the motor skills of children within this age range and highlights the potential impact of age and physical activity on motor development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0334.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: ergogenic aid; dietary supplement; youth; athletes
Online: 18 January 2021 (12:36:24 CET)
Creatine is a popular ergogenic aid among athletic populations with consistent evidence indicating that creatine supplementation also continues to be commonly used among adolescent populations. In addition, the evidence base supporting the therapeutic benefits of creatine supplementation for a plethora of clinical applications in both adults and children continues to grow. Among pediatric populations, a strong rationale exists for creatine to afford therapeutic benefits pertaining to multiple neuromuscular and metabolic disorders, with preliminary evidence for other subsets of clinical populations as well. Despite the strong evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of creatine supplementation among adult populations, less is known as to whether similar physiological benefits extend to children and adolescent populations, and in particular those adolescent populations who are regularly participating in high-intensity exercise training. While limited in scope, studies involving creatine supplementation and exercise performance in adolescent athletes generally report improvements in a number of ergogenic outcomes with limited evidence of ergolytic properties and consistent reports indicating no adverse events associated with supplementation. The purpose of this article is to summarize the rationale, prevalence of use, performance benefits, clinical applications, and safety of creatine use in children and adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0034.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Hikikomori; hidden youth; health; hypertension; obesity
Online: 4 January 2019 (08:46:13 CET)
Background: A prospective study was conducted to follow-up how the living lifestyle of hikikomori could change the social, mental and physical health profile. Methods: A cohort consisted of 104 young people living as Hikikomori were interviewed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months by using the same set of questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Results: Besides the high attrition of 30% in wave 2 and 25% in wave 3, almost half of the participants have recovered from hikikomori by returning to the workforce in society. The three domains of health profile of hikikomori were significantly improved over the follow-up period by: 1) increasing the social network scores from 2.791.80 to 3.091.87, 2) decreasing the perceived stress scores from 21.185.87 to 20.115.79, and 3) reducing blood pressure levels from 118/75 to 115/71 and waist-to-hip ratios. Those variables were also predictable by lifestyle living with the hikikomori according to the Generalized Estimating Equation analysis, whereas the participants of current study had increased the practice of moderate-intensity exercises. Conclusion: Social work intervention was effective in helping the recovery of hikikomori while physical assessments followed by encouragement from social workers to do more exercises might enhance their awareness in health modification towards a better health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: young people experiencing homelessness; disadvantaged youth; engagement; community-based research; positive youth development; mental skills training
Online: 22 August 2022 (03:25:19 CEST)
Underpinned by the new world Kirkpatrick model and in the context of a community-based, sport psychology program (My Strengths Training for Life™) for young people experiencing homelessness, this process evaluation investigated: (1) young peoples’ reactions (program and facilitator evaluation, enjoyment, attendance, and engagement) to and learning (mental skills and transfer intention), (2) the relationship between reaction and learning variables, and (3) the mediators underpinning this relationship. 301 young people living in a West Midlands housing service completed questionnaires on demographics, reaction and learning variables. Higher levels of program engagement were positively associated with more favorable reactions to the program. Enjoyment positively predicted learning outcomes, which was mediated by transfer intention. Recommendations are made for: (1) a balance between rigor and flexibility for evaluation methods with disadvantaged youth, (2) including engagement as well as attendance for indicators of meaningful program participation, (3) measuring program experiences (e.g., enjoyment) to understand program effectiveness, and (4) providing opportunities for skill transfer during and after program participation. Findings have implications for researchers, program commissioners, and policy makers working designing and evaluating programs in community-based settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1916.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Fortune 40; Rural development; Youth; Sustainable Livelihoods
Online: 28 June 2023 (02:28:01 CEST)
The importance of agricultural programs in reducing poverty, improving livelihoods, and increasing productivity cannot be overstated. Poverty and unemployment remain the most pressing developmental concerns in rural communities of Africa in general and South Africa in particular. The study was derived from the contribution of the agricultural development programs and sought to discover how the Fortune 40 initiative impacted rural livelihoods of youth in Bushbuckridge Local Municipality. Primary data using cross-sectional research design was collected from beneficiaries of the Fortune 40 program, through use of a questionnaire. An ordered probit model was used to analyse the impact of Fortune 40 initiative to rural livelihoods. Empirical results revealed that age of beneficiaries, household size, type of farming, credit access and land size were the factors with the likelihood to influence the impact of the Fortune 40 program. Therefore, it can be concluded that the land size for production should increase or expanded to enhance production of vegetables; provision of credit facilities for youths in agriculture through micro-finance and rural commercial banks is essential; also, youth, such as agricultural graduates looking for practical experience and on-farm training, should be considered in the program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0319.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Disposable E-cigarettes Youth Young Adult Prevalence
Online: 17 November 2022 (02:29:42 CET)
Background: In the 2022 National Youth Tobacco Survey disposable e-cigarette devices are shown to be the most widely used e-cigarette devices amongst U.S. youth. In this paper we report the results of research designed to estimate the prevalence of use of BIDI® Stick branded e-cigarettes amongst youth (aged 13 to 17), and under-age young adults (aged 18 to 20) in the U.S. Methods: Cross sectional online survey of a nationally representative sample of 1,215 youth (13 17 years) recruited via the IPSOS probability-based KnowledgePanel and 3,370 young adults aged 18 to 24 - amongst whom 1,125 were aged 18 to 20. Results: Amongst youth aged 13 to 17, 0.91% [95% CI: 0.44-1.68] or 190,000 [95% CI: 90,000-350,000] youth reported having ever used a BIDI® Stick branded product and 0.04% [95% CI: 0.00-0.38] or less than 10,000 youth reported currently using a BIDI® Stick branded product. Amongst those young adults aged 18 to 20, 3.90% [95% CI: 2.49-5.81] or 470,000 [95%CI: 300,000-700,000] reported having ever used a BIDI® Stick product whilst 0.60% [95% CI: 0.17-1.55] or 70,000 [95% CI: 20,000-180,000] reported they now use a BIDI® Stick product “every day” or “some days”. Conclusions: The low prevalence of youth and underage adult current use of the BIDI® Stick e cigarette suggests that this product is not responsible for the recent growth in the use of disposable e-cigarettes by youth within the U.S. as demonstrated by the 2022 National Youth Tobacco Survey.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0580.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Workload; Injuries; Youth; Rugby Union; ACWR; EWMA
Online: 24 July 2020 (11:48:15 CEST)
Workloads may be classified as either internal or external. Internal workloads (heart rate, blood lactate, session rate of perceived exertion (sRPE) are categorised as the individual’s response to an external workload (volume, intensity). sRPE is an easily monitored variable which has been shown to have possible associations with other internal (1) and injury rates (2, 3) in contact sports. This case study describes the internal workload monitoring of a schoolboy rugby player during the entirety of his season (September to March) with the subsequent relationships between workload and time loss injuries being explored. Time loss injuries are defined as injuries which caused the individual to miss training or match play time (4). Acute to chronic workload ratio (ACWR) and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) were monitored, a novel ACWR:EWMA ratio was also calculated. High ACWR and low EWMA values were associated with injury occurrence, the ACWR:EWMA ratio may account for this. EWMA may be a better predictor of “time loss” injuries than ACWR. The ACWR:EWMA ratio may merit further scientific exploration in the future.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0031.v1
Online: 4 June 2018 (10:23:46 CEST)
Background: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among youth in Poland has become very popular. The aim of this study was to identify potential points of access to these products among students aged 16-17 before implementation of sales restrictions to minors in Poland in November 2016. Methods: A school-based, cross-sectional survey was administered in 2015-2016 in 21 secondary/technical schools across two regions of Poland. Analyses focused on 341 students aged 16-17 who reported past 30-day use of e-cigarettes. Pearson chi-square analyses were utilized to examine associations between access-related items, e-cigarette use, and demographics. Results: Among youth e-cigarette users, the most common access to their first e-cigarette was from a friend (38%), followed by purchasing from vape shops (26%). Similar patterns emerged when students were asked about the access to their currently used e-cigarette. Most youth reported no difficulty purchasing cartridges/e-liquid containing nicotine (90%); the majority of users (52%) reported buying such products in vape shops. Conclusions: Prior to implementing age-related sales restrictions, youth access to e-cigarettes and paraphernalia did not pose any significant barriers. Poland’s introduction of a new age limit on e-cigarette sales may help limit the number of youth who purchase e-cigarettes from vape shops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0329.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: school connectedness; substance abuse; LGBTQ youth; bullying
Online: 26 April 2018 (04:47:30 CEST)
Transgender youth experience elevated levels of victimization and may therefore report greater drug use than their cisgender peers, yet little is known about protective factors like school belonging that may mediate this relationship. Further, scant research has explored the experiences of youth at the intersection of transgender identity and youth of color status or low socioeconomic status, especially with respect to these multiple minority statuses’ associations with peer victimization, drug use, and school belonging. Using data from the California Healthy Kids Survey, the current study employs structural equation modeling to explore the relationships among school belonging, peer victimization, and drug use for transgender youth. Findings indicate that school belonging does mediate the pathway between peer victimization and drug use for transgender youth and that although youth of color experience greater victimization, they do not engage in greater drug use than their white transgender peers. Based on these results, those concerned with the healthy futures of transgender youth should advocate for more open and affirming school climates that engender a sense of belonging and treat transgender youth with dignity and fairness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0959.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: community; inner areas; (social) vulnerability; depopulation; sustainability; youth.
Online: 15 November 2023 (10:03:47 CET)
The essay focuses, from a sociological perspective, on the phenomenon of depopulation of Inner Areas in Italy. In this areas, younger generations, live a great inequality that exposed them to risk of social vulnerability. So, on the one hand, the desire to leave their community is growing among younger, on the other hand, the desire to deal with extreme adverse conditions is falling down. The research aims to explore the depopulation phenomenon in the context of Southern Italy, considering it as an emerging social vulnerability that impacts very deeply onto the sustainability of a social, economic and community systems such as the Molise region one. The following paper therefore presents an empirical web-survey conducted in the Molise region. The methodology used is Quantitative, and the research design is Exploratory. The essay underlines how proximity welfare can act as a flywheel to counter the depopulation Inner Areas of Italy enacted by the younger generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1062.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Internet Addiction Test; Reduced Version; Factorial Analysis; Youth
Online: 17 October 2023 (09:27:19 CEST)
This study adapted and assessed a shortened version of the IAT (Internet Addiction Test) scale completed by young people aged 12 years and older regarding their online behaviors and risk of online addiction. The psychometric qualities of the reduced version - Screening IAT - youth are presented in order to validate its use in the early detection of online addiction. The total sample is composed of 3021 participants being 55.9% female and 44.1% male, with a mean age of x ̅=15 years (σ=3.028), attending junior high school (56.2%), high school (37.8%) and college (5.9%). The procedure included a factorial analysis, in which the total sample was randomly divided into three samples. An exploratory factor analysis was performed with one part of the sample, and a confirmatory factor analysis was performed with the others parts, assessing internal consistency, construct reliability, and discriminant validity. The results indicate that this reduced version of the IAT for young people has good psychometric qualities and can be applied in research and clinical settings. With this version and the parent-teacher version there is a direct contribution to a tripartite assessment of internet addiction risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: ethnic identity; mental health; migrant; transcultural psychiatry; youth
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:58:41 CEST)
Background: The number of young Japanese Brazilians, who are return migrants with Japanese ancestral roots, is increasing rapidly in Japan. However, the characteristics of their mental health and the relation between mental health and a complex ethnic identity remains unclear. Methods: This cross-sectional study compared 25 Japanese-Brazilian high school students with 62 Japanese high school students living in the same area. Research using self-report questionnaires on mental health, help-seeking behavior tendencies, and ethnic identity was conducted. The Japanese-Brazilian group was also divided into high and low ethnic identity groups, and their mental health conditions were compared. Results: The Japanese-Brazilian group had significantly poorer mental health conditions and lower ethnic identities than the Japanese group and were less likely to seek help from family members and close relatives. Among the Japanese Brazilians, those with low ethnic identity had significantly poorer mental health than those with high ethnic identity. Conclusions: Young Japanese Brazilians may face conflicts of ethnic identity that can disturb their mental health. To build an inclusive society, the establishment of community services to support mental health and to help return migrants develop their ethnic identity is essential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0461.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: information and communication technology; mobile phones; dependence; youth
Online: 29 February 2020 (09:41:22 CET)
The use of mobile devices facilitates access to knowledge and is at the base of the education of the future. Although the digital society has contributed a number of benefits, however, it has also been associated with worrying behaviours. The study design consisted of a quantitative approach that was descriptive, inferential and ex post-facto in nature. Its purpose was to better understand the opinion of young people regarding mobile phone use and describe dependence deriving from regular use. The sample was formed of 420 students from the Faculty of Education at the University of Granada. Results indicate that mobile phone use has displaced use of other technologies such as the television, and is associated with communication and recreational activities. In addition, a profile was identified for young people at greater risk of developing a dependence on their mobile devices. This profile constituted females, mobile phone users with recreational motives and individuals who exceeded mobile phone use by more than six hours a day. To improve the educational use of mobile phone, prevention and intervention plans must be designed which ensure correct management of this device, taking advantage of the benefits it offers whilst avoiding problems derived from inappropriate use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0190.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: thinness, girls, youth, body satisfaction, body mass index
Online: 21 March 2018 (16:00:02 CET)
Psychological wellbeing can be impacted substantially by changes in body image during youth, which can be a predictive factor for positive or negative attitudes, such as for self-esteem and satisfaction. In this study, adherence to the thinness model and to healthy behaviours were analysed in terms of the emotional patterns and body management of the young female Italian population (N = 2287). Skinny girls fitting better with the thinness model tended to develop higher positive emotional patterns, but their body management was low. Findings suggest the urgent need for preventive programmes to enhance awareness of healthy behaviours against appearance models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1455.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Brazil; wellbeing; mood; emotion; performance; elite sport; youth sport
Online: 23 November 2023 (03:38:05 CET)
Regular assessment of mood is used in Brazil for a wide variety of purposes, including screening athletes to provide an indicator of psychological wellbeing and risk of mental health issues. The present study tested the psychometric characteristics of the Brazil Mood Scale (BRAMS) using both “right now” and “past week” response time frames and investigated between-group differences in mood based on athlete sex, age, and social vulnerability. Participants were 898 athletes (511 male, 387 female, age range: 12–44 years) from eight sports. Structural equation modelling supported the BRAMS measurement model using both response time frames independently and in a multi-sample analysis. Subscale reliability was supported for both time frames. Fatigue, depression, and tension scores were higher using the past week time frame than the right now time frame. Males reported higher vigor scores than females, and younger participants (<18 years) reported lower scores for anger and depression than older participants (18+ years). No significant between-group differences emerged for social vulnerability. Findings supported the psychometric integrity of the BRAMS and its use as a screening measure for psychological wellbeing among youth and elite athletes in Brazil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0344.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Rural Non-Farm Enterprises; dynamics; youth households; matured households
Online: 4 August 2023 (07:20:37 CEST)
Using LSMS-ISA panel data, we analyzed determinants of diversification into Rural Non-Farm Enterprises (RNFEs) and dynamics of the sector by studying the transition between farming and both low- and high-return RNFEs. We found that diversification into RNFE is determined by household characteristics mainly age and gender of the household head, whereas initial capital endowments such as assets, human capital, land and livestock significantly affect level of participation than entry into RNFE. Furthermore, analysing dynamics of RNFE separately for the youth and matured households, our study finds that continuous participation in RNFE is higher among the youth than among matured households. Similarly, initial capital endowments mainly educational level and access to credit are important factors for the youth to transit to high return RNFE, implying that entrepreneurial skills development and access to finance that enhance investments and gradual accumulation of capital are vital for the youth to benefit from RNFEs. Moreover, shocks that affect agricultural productivity are significant in increasing the probability of transition out of high-return RNFE signifying the need for social protection measures to ensure growth of RNFEs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0127.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: youth; adiposity; psychopathology; anxiety; depression; physical activity; exercise; MRI
Online: 7 November 2022 (14:34:46 CET)
Obesity during childhood has been associated with many important physiological and neurological health considerations. Specifically concerning are the associations between youth obesity and declines in mental health, as shown with increasing rates of adolescent depression and anxiety worldwide. The emergence of mental health disorders commonly arises during adolescent development, and approximately half the global population satisfy the criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder in their lifetime, suggesting a need for early intervention. Adolescence is critical time whereby brain structure and functions are not only negatively associated with obesity and declines in mental health, while also coinciding with significant declines in rates of physical activity among individuals in this age group. Physical activity is thus a prime candidate to address the intersection of obesity and mental health crises occurring globally. This review addresses the important considerations between physiological health (obesity, aerobic fitness, physical activity), brain health (structure and function), and mental wellbeing symptomology. Lastly, we pose a theoretical framework which asks important questions regarding the influence of physiological health on the association between brain health and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0091.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: tobacco age of sale; tobacco policy; youth; young adults
Online: 7 June 2022 (03:44:33 CEST)
Background: Prior to the federal law passed in late 2019, many states passed an increased age of sale law prohibiting youth under age 21 (or Tobacco 21) from purchasing tobacco products and e-cigarettes. Although previous research has documented tobacco retail sales violations, fewer studies have examined age verification and illegal tobacco sales in the context of Tobacco 21 or in repeated purchase attempts in various settings. Methods: In this study conducted between 2019 and 2022, buyers aged 18 to 20 years made repeated unsupervised purchase attempts of cigarettes, cigars, e-cigarettes, tobacco-free nicotine pouches and/or smokeless tobacco in store visits to over 180 tobacco or vape retailers in New Jersey, New York City, and Pitt County, North Carolina. Buyers documented whether they were asked for identification and whether they were able to successfully purchase a tobacco or nicotine product at each visit. Results: The primary outcome will be the percent of retailers that checked buyers’ identification at store visits and the precent of visits that resulted in a successful underage tobacco product purchase. We will aim to compare the results across time periods and study sites while controlling for other factors (including repeated visits). Conclusion: These results will be beneficial to designing compliance check inspections and/or interventions that reduce youth access to tobacco.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0433.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: GIAHS; farmer involvement; youth inclusivity; tourism management; Tokimai branding
Online: 24 September 2021 (12:48:06 CEST)
Sado island in Niigata prefecture is among the first GIAHS designated sites in Japan and among developed countries worldwide. Recent studies have pointed out the need to incorporate culture and farmer opinions to further strengthen GIAHS inclusivity in rural farming. In connection to this, the study explored whether farmer visibility, which is highlighted by GIAHS designation, actually translates to farmers’ actual perception of GIAHS involvement. A survey was conducted among Sado island farmers to determine their knowledge and perception of their GIAHS involvement, in connection to their perspectives on youth involvement, Sado island branding, and tourism management. Results showed that 56.3% of Sado island farmers feel uninvolved or unsure towards GIAHS, which is in stark contrast with the prevalent farming method in the area which is special farming (complies with GIAHS regulations). Further analyses revealed that farmers who feel that GIAHS does not promote youth involvement, Sado island branding, and tourism management have higher predisposition to perceive themselves as uninvolved towards GIAHS. This study highlights the need for careful reevaluation and integration of farmer insights and needs to the current GIAHS implementation in Sado island and in other GIAHS as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0263.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: youth; secondary education; entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurial interest; psychological variables
Online: 23 January 2020 (10:02:46 CET)
Introduction: Studies of the socio-economic function of entrepreneurship have emphasized the critical role that entrepreneurial competence and its implementation play at different stages of the education system. In this paper, we seek to determine the entrepreneurial interest of Spanish youth aged between 15 to 18 years of age, who find themselves in the state-regulated education system, at an initial stage in the development of entrepreneurship. A previously validated ad hoc questionnaire was applied through simple random sampling to 1,764 students at a secondary school in Spain. The analysis is done with Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), a technique that reduces the high dimensionality of data through Cooperative Maximum Likelihood Hebbian Learning (CMLHL), applying neurocomputational methods to the educational sciences. Spanish youth expressed a medium level of interest in entrepreneurship. Analysis with ANN shows that education in entrepreneurial competence is an influential aspect of interest in entrepreneurship. As conclusion, educational and curricular reforms must be undertaken to promote the development of entrepreneurial competence at various stages of compulsory education to increase interest in entrepreneurship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0143.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: expectations convergence; NAFTA; sustainable development; technological transfer; youth awareness
Online: 13 May 2019 (08:01:33 CEST)
Relying on the USA, Canada and Mexico extract from the cross-national data sample on the environmental affection and cognition of adolescent students (Niankara, 2019), along with seemingly unrelated bivariate weighted ordered probit regression modeling (Niankara and Zoungrana, 2018), this study reports on the convergence of technological awareness and expectations within the context of international trade. We achieve this by adopting a regional perspective in investigating the effects of affective, cognitive and situational factors on youth's awareness and expectations about genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and nuclear power technology (NPT) within the North American free trade block. Identification of model parameters is achieved using maximum simulated likelihood methods. The findings show that although it has been over 20 years as of 2015 that USA, Canada, and Mexico ratified the north American free trade agreement (NAFTA), the diffusion of technology and information within the trade block has not succeeded in homogenizing awareness and expectations about GMOs and Nuclear power technology, as observed in the youth population across the three countries. Indeed, with regards to technological awareness, compared to youth from the USA, those from Canada show 15% (GMOs) and 7.1% (NPT) more awareness respectively; while those in Mexico are respectively 34.4% and 19.5% less aware about GMOs and NPT. With respect to technological expectations, compared to youth from the USA, those from Canada and Mexico are respectively 34.4% and 39.9% more optimistic about GMOs, while 15% and 49.7% more optimistic about NPT. Overall, youth within NAFTA country members are respectively 2.5% and 6.7% more optimistic about GMOs and NPT for every level increase in their awareness about the two technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0049.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: youth; secondary education; entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurial interest; psychological variables
Online: 7 January 2019 (06:45:40 CET)
Background: Despite the abundant scientific literature on entrepreneurship, there is still only limited information on young students’ entrepreneurial intentions. The reasons may be generally found in the different conceptual approaches to entrepreneurial intention and particularly in the variables that regulate and act as antecedents to such intentions. This bias has generated different lines of investigation into the factors relating to entrepreneurial intention among students: one is centered on the variables that influence entrepreneurial intention, in particular, relational, educational, and psychological variables; and the other is centered on the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention, among which is entrepreneurial interest. Methods: In the present paper, we seek to analyze the relationship between the entrepreneurial interest of Spanish youth and a set of socio-educational, psychological, and health-related variables using principal component analysis. A previously validated ad hoc questionnaire was administered to 1764 students (15–18 years old). Results: Notably, few Spanish youth expressed significantly high entrepreneurial interest; those who did were mostly men with a family tradition of entrepreneurial parents, who held high perceptions of their health and quality of life and considered it important in business to detect opportunities beforehand and to create employment. Conclusions: Their principal motives were to improve their professional development, to put their ideas into practice, and to achieve economic independence. This paper proposes the early detection of entrepreneurial interests in young people in order to reinforce these interests as potential long-term initiatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0457.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: disadvantages; living conditions; longitudinal; resilience; self-rated health; youth
Online: 28 June 2018 (05:10:36 CEST)
Disadvantaged circumstances in youth tend to translate into poor health development. Yet, the fact that this is not always the case has been seen as indicative of differential resilience. The current study highlights factors outside the context of the family with the potential to counteract the long-term negative influences of social and material adversity in adolescence on general health status. This study was based on two waves of questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort. From the wave in 1981 (age 16), indicators of social and material conditions as well as factors related to school, peers, and spare time, were derived. From the wave in 2008 (age 43), information about self-rated health was used. Ordinal logistic regression models (n=908) showed that adversity in youth was associated with poorer self-rated health in midlife among men and women alike, net of health status at baseline. However, having an advantaged situation with regard to school, peers, or spare time appeared to protect against the detrimental influences of disadvantaged circumstances in the family context on subsequent health. This suggests that health-promoting interventions may benefit from focusing on contexts outside the family in their effort to strengthen processes of resilience among disadvantaged youths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0944.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Neuropsychological tests; youth football; concussion; cognition; helmets; head acceleration events
Online: 16 October 2023 (08:40:00 CEST)
Weight and age interact to modify cognitive effects of head acceleration events after two seasons of youth football Abstract This is a follow-up study of youth American football players in a second season of play. Season-one findings identified a relationship between a head acceleration measure (HITsp) and cognitive score changes with weight modifying the effect in 9 to 10 year-olds. Sixty-eight youth completed a second season of play wearing helmet-mounted sensors and were assessed with neuropsychological tests pre- and post-season. Regression analysis of the full sample demonstrated a small but significant negative effect of HAE on cognition as indexed by test score changes: R2 = .06, F = 4.06, p = .024. Outcome differences between those who started playing at ages nine to 10, compared to those who started between 11 and 13 were identified: t(66) = -3.39, p<.01, d = -.84, 95th CI -2.77 to -.72. Regression models including players’ weights found that the relationship of weight to outcome was different by group: greater negative cognitive effects were found in younger-heavier players (R2 = 0.21, F =3.21, p = 0.03) and older-lighter players (R2 = 0.18, F =4.26, p <.001). These findings confirmed a negative relationship of HAE and cognitive change and point to player weight as an important developmental factor to consider in understanding concussion biomechanics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1881.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: youth; unemployment; urban; determinant factors; regression model; Somali regional state
Online: 29 August 2023 (04:40:47 CEST)
Youth is the essential entrepreneurial force for every country's social, political, and economic development. Urban youth make up about 34.27 percent of the population in Ethiopia. The youth unemployment crisis is one of the serious challenges that Ethiopia is facing nowadays, and it should be mentioned in the nation's public discourse. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to specify the socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence urban youth unemployment in the Somali Regional State, specifically in Jigjiga, Degahbour, Kebridahar, Gode, and Dollo Ado towns. Both primary and secondary data sources were employed. A multi-stage sampling technique has been used to select 385 sample respondents from the total population of the study. This study found that almost 63% of youth in the study area were unemployed, and a large number of unemployed youths live in Jigjiga and Dollo Ado Towns as compared to other city administrations. The econometric model's findings indicate that factors like gender, education level, work experience, access to credit, access to information, time applied for job vacancy, active job seeker, social network (network with clan elders, government officials, businessmen, and other friends), and residence in Jigjiga and Gode town have a significant association with the likelihood of youth unemployment in the Somali regional state. Therefore, this study recommends that the regional government and local city administration should develop effective policies and strategies to address the underlying causes of gender inequality, improving access and quality of education, supporting freshman graduates to find jobs, providing access to credit and job vacancies, ensuring fair and free job competition, and managing youth migration for job seeking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0150.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Bayesian methods; digital media; ecosystem services; Sustainable development; youth health
Online: 13 May 2019 (10:03:54 CEST)
Along with the advantages associated with access to information and fast communication, screen time from increased digital media consumption has recently been associated with adverse effects on youth well-being. To get a clearer picture of its value for global youth based sustainability initiatives, this study investigates the effects of increased digital media consumption on youth's interests in ecosystem services, sustainability and science as a means for disease prevention. We achieve this, using data on 187821 adolescent students from 50 countries worldwide. Methodologically, we rely on a mixed bivariate ordered probit representation of youth's joint interest in the biosphere (ecosystem services and sustainability) and science as a means for disease prevention, which we then estimate using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Methods. We found that each level increase in adolescent students' reported frequency of news blogs visits and web browsing on broad science adversely affect their interests in ecosystem services, sustainability and science as a means for disease prevention. Although each level increase in youth's frequency of ecological website visits also reduces by 20% (with 95% CI [-0.36; -0.32]) their interests in the biosphere, it is found to increase however by 3% (with 95% CI [0.02; 0.05]) their interest science as a means for disease prevention. Overall, our results highlight heterogeneous effects of digital media consumption on adolescents' well-being in terms of their interests in ecosystem services, sustainability, and science as a means for disease prevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0098.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Theater Keywords: theatre for adolescents; theatre for young audiences; art for youth
Online: 28 August 2017 (08:44:33 CEST)
In this paper I analyze the three plays produced during the inaugural season (2011) of the Theatre for Young Audiences Research Center of the National Theater Company of Korea and place it within the context of contemporary ideas and realities surrounding Korean youth. In the first part of this paper I explore how Korean youth are perceived by society and the reality in which they live. In the second part I analyze the aforementioned plays, especially through the directions of the production and portrayal of adult and young characters. The last part offers concluding thoughts. Through this study I ask the question of whether if it is possible for theatre to actually portray the realities of adolescents, when in fact the identities of youth are still fluid and the experiences of youth as diverse as those of adults. I suggest that theatre artists break free to depict reality or educate audiences and focus on providing a critical experience to adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0345.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online critical thinking; clothing motivation; behavioural intentions; clothing collocation; Chinese youth
Online: 25 July 2022 (03:17:05 CEST)
Recent years have witnessed a boom of fashion bloggings sharing information about clothing and cosmetics on diverse social media platforms. Constant exposure to fashion-related digital information heavily impacts the cognition and behaviour of Chinese youth. Compared to the substantial studies on the impact of social media, scarce research has been conducted on how youth’s cognitive processing of fashion-related digital information interacts with motivational factors to determine the subsequent behaviour. This study made an initial attempt to address this issue by exploring the successive associations between clothing motivation (amotivation, controlled, and autonomous motivation), online critical thinking (for information credibility, objectivity, and relevance), and the subsequent behavioural intentions. A total of 1997 Chinese youths with diverse educational backgrounds voluntarily participated in the study. Results confirmed the direct links between clothing motivation and behavioural intentions, but these links were mediated by different online critical thinking skills. This study provides new insights for both practitioners and scholars in the fields of education, psychology, social media, and marketing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0126.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: LGBTQ+ youth; peer victimization; identity development; social support; outness; mixed methods
Online: 9 March 2022 (02:27:55 CET)
Research rarely explores LGBTQ+ youth bullying in the context of culture-specific outcomes (e.g., LGBTQ+ identity development) and what can mitigate the impact of peer stressors. This study used a concurrent mixed methods design to explore how experiences of peer victimization predicted LGBTQ+ youth’s identity development (i.e., stigma sensitivity, concealment motivation, and difficult process) and whether social support and outness served as protective, moderating factors. The mixed-methods approach provides a culture-specific context via qualitative inquiry to inform whether the quantitative findings align with how youth qualitatively discuss their experience of bullying, negative outcomes, and social support. Our sample consisted of 349 LGBTQ+ youth 14-17 years old who completed a survey (quantitative sample), and a subset of 39 LGBTQ+ youth who completed a semi-structured interview (qualitative sample). Our quantitative findings indicated that greater overall peer victimization was positively related to LGBIS-revised subscales of stigma sensitivity, concealment motivation, and difficult process, where both outness and social support moderated such relations. Qualitatively, victimized youth also reported stigma sensitivity and concealment motivation, while also endorsing how being out and having a support system played a role in their experience of being victimized. These qualitative findings align with our quantitative findings that classmate support mitigated the effects of peer victimization on difficulty of coming out. Implications for practitioners and researchers are provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0133.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial interest; youth, family; entrepreneurial eco-system; principal component analysis
Online: 10 February 2020 (15:52:32 CET)
As entrepreneurial interest is believed to represent a causal factor increasing entrepreneurship, research has begun to explore how family systems affect youth entrepreneurial interests. In the present study, we attempt to identify different types of family influence on the entrepreneurial interests of young people. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from 1,633 Spanish youths, who were 15 to 18 years old, and another questionnaire was used to obtain data from 839 parents. Principal Component Analysis identified unique family types and revealed that they have differential associations to entrepreneurial interest among youths. These findings reaffirm the influence of family on the entrepreneurial ecosystem and the promotion of an entrepreneurial family cuture. This study further suggests that early attention should focus on the detection of entrepreneurial interest among youths so that actions can be implemented in the families of low-interest youths to incentivize an entrepreneurial family culture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0369.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: schools; youth; policy; built environment; food environment; social environment; organizational environment
Online: 29 November 2019 (04:18:03 CET)
Open campus policies that grant access to the off-campus food environment influence U.S. high school students’ exposure to unhealthy foods, yet predictors of these policies are unknown. Policy holding and built (walkability), food (access to grocery stores), social (school-to-neighborhood demographic similarity), and organizational (policy holding of neighboring schools) environment data were collected for 200 Oregon public high schools. These existing data derived from the Oregon School Board Association, WalkScore.com, 2010 Decennial Census, 2010-2014 American Community Survey, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, TDLinex, Nielson directories, U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, and Common Core of Data. Most (67%) of Oregon public high schools had open campus policies. Logistic regression analyses modeled open campus policy holding as a function of built, food, social, and organizational environment influences. With health and policy implications, results indicate that schools’ walkability, food access, and extent of neighboring open campus policy-schools are significantly associated with open campus policy holding in Oregon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0194.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: hikikomori; hidden youth; social withdrawal; health; hypertension; obesity; adolescent; physical health
Online: 28 December 2017 (07:53:05 CET)
To understand the health impacts of “hikikomori” lifestyle and to establish its first comprehensive health profile, a cross-sectional study was designed to measure how well the cases of hikikomori youths of Hong Kong were living, in terms of social, mental and physical aspects. This study involved 104 eligible participants at age 19.02 year-old who had completed the set of questionnaires and a series of anthropometric and physical health measurements. Despite SF36 score of 84.0 indicated good physical functioning in general, participants were lived sedentarily with high incidence of hypertension at 15.4% and prehypertension at 31.7%. Occurrence of hypertension in cases living as hikikomori >6 months was 3-times higher than those newly onset cases. The blood pressure levels were correlated with age and all obesity index parameters measured including waist circumference and body mass index. Half of the hypertensive cases involved the elevation of systolic blood pressure, which suggested higher odds of cardiovascular complications. Participants were mentally stable living with moderate levels of perceived stress and state anxiety, but borderline clinical depression. In conclusion, the hikikomori lifestyle could be a risk behavior that may harm the younger generation physically by promoting obesity and hypertension and probably other chronic illnesses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1826.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: policy; entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship education; South Africa; educational policy; policy analysis; youth empowerment
Online: 30 August 2023 (10:25:14 CEST)
Entrepreneurship education in South Africa holds significant promise in empowering the youth and fostering economic growth. This article explores the impact of entrepreneurship education on youth empowerment, focusing on case studies of successful young entrepreneurs, evaluation of entrepreneurial skills development, and analysis of employment and economic outcomes. While effective models of entrepreneurship education emphasize experiential learning and collaboration with local businesses, resource constraints and infrastructure gaps pose challenges. Moreover, socio-cultural perceptions and gender disparities influence youth's willingness to engage in entrepreneurship, hindering inclusivity. Evaluating the long-term impact remains challenging, requiring robust monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. The article concludes with recommendations to enhance the impact of entrepreneurship education, including increasing funding, challenging stereotypes, fostering collaboration, and developing evaluation mechanisms to support South Africa's youth in realizing their entrepreneurial potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0606.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: life satisfaction; depression; self-esteem; stigma; out of school youth; structural equation modeling
Online: 27 August 2020 (09:02:07 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which self-esteem and depression mediated the influence of internalized stigma on life satisfaction among Korean out-of-school youths. Cross-sectional data on 318 youths provided information on perceived stigma, self-esteem, depression, life satisfaction, and personal characteristics. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was followed by structured path analysis to investigate the mediation effects. Internalized stigma was negatively associated with life satisfaction. Self-esteem significantly mediated the influence of stigma on depression and the influence of depression on life satisfaction. Further, stigma directly and significantly influenced depression. This study demonstrated that self-esteem and depression were important to the relationship between internalized stigma and life satisfaction. Implications for possible policies and programs with the aim of helping out-of-school youths to integrate and lead successful satisfying lives are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1351.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: health care needs; assessment methodology; shared decision-making; child welfare; preventive youth health care
Online: 21 November 2023 (15:13:56 CET)
This study presents the development and pilot implementation of an assessment and shared deci-sion-making methodology called the Gezamenlijk Inschatten van Zorgbehoeften (GIZ), designed for youth (health) care professionals working with children and families. The three-phase approach included a needs assessment, development of the GIZ methodology, and pilot implementation in a preventive youth health care and youth care setting, involving parents, adolescents, and youth (health) care professionals. The needs assessment produced nine criteria that the GIZ methodology needed to meet. Based on these criteria, the GIZ methodology was developed and described using the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR). The pilot implementation demonstrated high client engagement, satisfaction, and feasibility in daily practice. The GIZ ap-proach promotes appropriate support for families by improving the joint assessment and shared decision-making process in youth (health) care. This study supports the implementation of GIZ in youth (health) care practice and highlights the need for further focus on implementation and sus-tainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1896.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: trafficked youth and trauma; ACEs; early maternal age; teen pregnancy; exploitation and trauma; self-harm; psychological trauma
Online: 18 August 2023 (07:25:07 CEST)
The impact of early maternal age on several outcomes (e.g. mental health issues, delinquency, aggression, impulsivity, victimization and interpersonal difficulties) has been studied since the late 1980s. Research has demonstrated links between exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and trauma related outcomes such as substance abuse, interpersonal and self-directed violence, and sexual risk-taking, to name a few. The current study analyzed the incidence of ACE exposure and mental health outcomes (e.g. suicidal behaviors or self-harm, psychiatric hospitalizations, and substance use) as related to early maternal age in youth known to have experienced trafficking or sexual abuse. General demographics and incidence of various experiences and clinical presentations (e.g. ACE exposure, age of mother at birth of youth and age at first birth), and history of self-harm, substance use and psychiatric hospitalization were examined in a sample of 225 youth referred for services subsequent to experiences of sex trafficking or exploitation. Relationships between ACE exposure and maternal age related to mental health outcomes was also examined. Trafficked and exploited youth reported rates of ACE exposure and poor mental health outcomes at far greater rates than the general population. Significant findings were related to early maternal age and engaging in self-harm or suicidal behaviors. Previously anticipated mediational analyses were not conducted due to the sample size and lack of correlations. Findings highlight the significant ACE exposure and high needs of exploited, trafficked and abused youth and related mental health outcomes, emphasizing the need for early and comprehensive preventive and therapeutic interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0355.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Scale; youth violent extremism; Arab countries; exclusion; intolerance; rigidity; social pessimism; grievances; violence; jihad
Online: 10 April 2023 (09:43:21 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to examine the problem of violent extremism among young people. Additionally, a youth violent extremism scale (YVES) was developed that takes into account the differences between and within Arab cultures. The goal was to produce a scale that could be used and tested within an Arab country or between Arab countries. The scale was developed in three stages: generation, refinement, and validation. A literature review and nomological network were utilized to show the scale's dimensions, correlations to those dimensions, and other relevant variables (such as the LSC, LSE, and criminality scale). A sample of 6726 young students from fifteen Arab countries and the authorities involved were selected. Findings showed that six factors were obtained through principal component factor analysis using Varimax and Kaiser normalization (29 items). A significant positive association was found (r=.651, p = 0.000), supporting the scale's validity. Using Cronbach's alpha, the scale reliability was strong and assessed at 0.98. The scale's construct validity was estimated by assessing the correlation between the Youth Violent Extremism scale and low self-control. A significant positive correlation (r=.651, p = 0.000) indicates the scale's validity. Findings showed significant differences between males and females in youth violent extremism (F = 13.678, α ≤0.000). Descriptive results showed, however, that females have a slightly higher mean of violent extremism than males (M =85.2 vs. 87.6), with a close variation (26 vs. 27) for males and females, respectively. In this study, a measurement tool was provided that can be used as a knowledge base for security strategies. The scale can be applied to identify legal, social, and educational policies and applications of violent extremism. Future research is needed to test the scale on different professions like teachers, police officers, and parents. Also, a need to test the scale on different age groups, settings, and cultures. A need for atheoretical and empirical framework for understanding and preventing youth violent extremism through promoting a more cohesive and resilient youth society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0262.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: research ethics; longitudinal methodology; youth; phone survey; COVID-19; low- and middle-income countries
Online: 21 June 2020 (11:17:06 CEST)
In this paper, we draw on recent experiences from the Young Lives study to discuss some of the ethical and practical challenges facing longitudinal cohort studies in low- and middle-income countries in the time of coronavirus. We argue that COVID-19 has instigated an ‘ethics of disruption’ for social researchers across the world, and for longitudinal cohort studies like Young Lives, this requires navigating three core considerations: first, managing research relationships and reciprocity within an observational study design; second, maintaining methodological continuity and consistency across time; and third, balancing an immediate short-term response to COVID-19 against the longer-term perspective. We refer to the study’s plan to implement a new COVID-19 phone survey to illustrate how the team are navigating this altered ethical terrain.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; Human Capital; youth unemployment; Probit model; multinomial logit model; cohort study
Online: 2 December 2019 (04:42:18 CET)
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) raise quality employability, gender equity in access to employment and increase coverage in education, however, in Colombia, high unemployment rates and informality of young people are risks of fulfilling these objectives. This is verified by a study with cohorts on access to employment, labor mobility and entry to quality occupations, through the use of probabilistic models. This study found that young people are less likely to be employed than adults, education has increased in the new generations and allowing them to enter a higher quality occupation, job segmentation and lack of experience of young people are the main cause of unemployment and Women are less likely to be employed than men and to do so in quality jobs. To comply with the SDGs, you must increase coverage in education, make a differential gender policy and expand programs as learners and insert dual education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0339.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Film, Radio And Television Keywords: National Cinema; Transnational Japanese Film; taiyōzoku; mukokuseki; ’kimono effect’; youth icons; postwar film festivals.
Online: 18 September 2018 (09:49:29 CEST)
The Western ‘discovery’ of Japanese cinema in the 1950s prompted scholars to articulate essentialist visions understanding its singularities as a result of its isolation from the rest of the World and its close links to local aesthetic and philosophical traditions. Recent approaches however, have evidenced the limitations of this paradigm of ‘national cinema’. Higson (1989) opened a critical discussion on the existing consumption, text andproduction-based approaches to this concept. This article draws on Higson´s contribution and calls into question traditional theorising of Japanese film as a national cinema. Contradictions are illustrated by assessing the other side of the ‘discovery’ of Japanese cinema: certain gendaigeki works that succeeded at the domestic box office while jidaigeki burst into European film festivals. The Taiyōzoku and subsequent Mukokuseki Action created a new postwar iconography by adapting codes of representation from Hollywood youth and western films. This article does not attempt to deny the uniqueness of this film culture, but rather seeks to highlight the need to reformulate the paradigm of national cinema in the Japanese case, and illustrate the sense in which it was created from outside, failing to recognise its reach transnational intertextuality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Health Related Quality of Life, EQ-5D-Y-3L, EQ-5D-Y-5L, Youth, children, orthopaedic
Online: 20 January 2022 (07:23:51 CET)
Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the EQ-5D-Y-3L (Y-3L) and the expanded five level version, the EQ-5D-Y-5L (Y-5L). Methods: Children/adolescents with an acute or chronic health condition and from the general population completed the Y-5L and Y-3L self-report questionnaires. Performance of the Y-5L and Y-3L was determined by comparing feasibility, redistribution of dimension responses, discriminatory power, validity, and test-retest reliability. Results. Five hundred and fifty children/adolescents completed baseline measures and 173 completed repeat measures. The ceiling effect decreased by 15% from the Y-3L to Y-5L. Informativity of dimensions improved by 0.094 on the Y-5L. There was a range of 4-9% inconsistent responses moving from the Y-3L to Y-5L. Convergent validity of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Y-3L, Y-5L dimensions was similar, weak to moderate (rs range: 0.18 – 0.38) but similar and strong on paired Y-3L and Y-5L dimensions: Kendall Tau B (range 0.69 – 0.80) and Gamma (range 0.92 – 0.98). The Y-5L and Y-3L showed moderate to substantial agreement for test-retest reliability across dimensions and VAS scores in stable chronic health conditions and fair agreement for the general population. Conclusion: The EQ-5D-Y-5L is a valid, reliable extension of the Y-3L for children/adolescents across health conditions and healthy children/adolescents. The expanded levels reduced the ceiling effect. The relative informativity of report across dimensions increased on the Y-5L compared to the Y-3L with retention of the evenness of reporting. The convergent validity and test-retest reliability of the Y-5L was comparable to the Y-3L.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0290.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychology of cinema; influence of mass media; psychological influence of cinema; representations of youth; image of the elderly person
Online: 27 October 2019 (03:02:13 CET)
The research is devoted to the acute problem of cinema influence on the young audience. With the continuous development of mass media, cinema is still one of the most popular leisure activities, remaining an influential tool on the picture of the world, values, stereotypes, the behavior of viewers, etc. The paper studies the effects of the cinema on young viewers in relation to their ideas about the elderly. Using a psychosemantic technique that includes 25 scales designed specifically to identify the content of representation of older people, respondents evaluated their various characteristics before and after watching the film. It should be noted that after watching a film about the elderly, the respondents changed their representations of motivational and regulatory, cognitive and emotional characteristics of the older people. However, the changes were not similar in different groups of young people: students seemed to have more negative representation, graduate students’ assessment, on the contrary, changed for a better one. The discovered opposite effects of the cinema influence can be explained by a number of reasons starting from age, personal experience of the respondents, the formation of ideas to the special features of the film itself. In this regard, the contribution of individual factors to the efficiency of the cinema impact and the prediction of its specific effects requires further study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1782.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: youth mental health; health policy; monitoring and evaluation; participatory systems modelling; system dynamics modelling; lived experience participation; participatory action research
Online: 26 June 2023 (10:09:36 CEST)
Australia’s mental health system is failing young people. Calls for accountability, strategic long-term policy planning, and regional leadership have been identified as solutions to guide mental health reform. Developing system dynamics models using a participatory approach (participatory systems modelling, PSM) is recognised as a useful method that can support decision-making for strategic reform. This paper reports evaluation findings of a youth mental health PSM process conducted in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Baseline and follow-up mixed-methods evaluation data were collected in 2022 across diverse stakeholder groups to investigate the feasibility, value, impact, and sustainability of PSM. Though youth mental health system reform was viewed as desirable and a necessity across all stakeholder groups, shared perceptions of disabling powerless was observed regarding their ability to influence current decision-making processes to improve the youth mental health system. This suggests greater accountability is required to support systemic reform in youth mental health. PSM offers promise in improving transparency and accountability of decision-making for youth mental health as exemplified in the ACT. However, more support and time are required to facilitate transformational change. Future research should investigate empowerment strategies to complement the implementation of findings from dynamic models developed through PSM, as well as the effectiveness of regional youth mental health policy decision-making supported by systems modelling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0709.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; psychological impacts; self-harm; suicide; COVID-19 suicide; teenage suicide; adolescent suicide; youth suicide; press reporting suicide
Online: 31 August 2020 (05:43:25 CEST)
Background: The incidences of COVID-19 related suicide among adolescents and youths have been reported across the world. There is no cumulative study focusing on nature, patterns, and causative factors that lead to the present investigation. Methods: A purposive sampling of google news between 15 February to 6 July was performed. After excluding duplicate reports, the final list comprised a total of 37-suicide cases across 11 countries. Results: More male suicides were reported (21-cases, i.e., 56.76%), and the mean age of the total victims was 16.6±2.7 years (out of a total of 29-cases). About two-thirds of the suicides were from three countries named India (11-cases), United Kingdom (8-cases), and the USA (6-cases). Out of 23-student victims, 14 were school-going students. Hanging was the most common suicide method accounting in 51.4% of cases. The most common suicide causalities were related to mental sufferings such as depression, loneliness, psychological distress, etc., whereas either online schooling or overwhelming academic distress was placed as the second most risk factors followed by TikTok addiction-related psychological distress, and tested with COVID-19. Conclusion: The finding of the temporal distribution of suicides concerning lockdowns may help in exploring and evolving public measures to prevent/decrease pandemic-related suicides in young people.