REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: disorders of consciousness; EEG; fMRI; PET; fNIRS; multimodal
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:38:12 CEST)
Accurate evaluation of patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) is crucial for personalized treatment. However, misdiagnosis remains a serious issue. Neuroimaging methods could observe the conscious activity in patients who have no evidence of consciousness in behavior, and provide objective and quantitative indexes to assist doctors in their diagnosis. In the review, we discussed the current research based on the evaluation of consciousness rehabilitation after DoC using EEG, fMRI, PET, and fNIRS, as well as the advantages and limitations of each method. Nowadays single-modal neuroimaging can no longer meet the researchers` demand. Considering both spatial and temporal resolution, recent studies have attempted to focus on the multi-modal method which can enhance the capability of neuroimaging methods in the evaluation of DoC. As neuroimaging devices become wireless, integrated, and portable, multi-modal neuroimaging methods will drive new advancements in brain science research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0482.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: cellulose; graphene oxide; polyaniline; aerogel electrode; supercapacitors
Online: 21 July 2020 (12:29:21 CEST)
The cellulose/GO networks as the scaffold of free-standing aerogel electrodes are developed by using lithium bromide aqueous solution as the solvent to ensure the complete dissolution of cotton linter pulp and well dispersion/reduction of GO nanosheets. PANI nanoclusters are then coated onto cellulose/GO networks via in-situ polymerization of aniline monomers. By optimized weight ratio of GO and PANI, the ternary cellulose/GO3.5/PANI aerogel film exhibits well-defined three-dimensional porous structures and high conductivity of 1.15 S/cm that contributes to its high areal specific capacitance of 1218 mF/cm2 at the current density of 1.0 mA/cm2. Utilizing this cellulose/GO3.5/PANI aerogel film as electrodes in a symmetric configuration supercapacitor can result in an outstanding energy density as high as 258.2 μWh/cm2 at a power density of 1201.4 μW/cm2. Moreover, the device can maintain nearly constant capacitance under different bending deformations, suggesting its promising applications in flexible electronics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1828.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: genetically modified; Cre/loxP; site-specific excision; transgenic maize; insect-resistance
Online: 28 August 2023 (08:48:49 CEST)
Genetic engineering technology offers opportunities to improve many important agronomic traits in crops, including insect-resistance. However, genetically modified (GM) exogenous proteins in edible tissues of transgenic crops has become an issue of intense public concern. To advance the application of GM techniques in maize, a Cre/loxP-based strategy was developed for manipulating the transgenes in green tissues while locking it in non-green tissues. In the strategy, the site-specific excision can be used to switch on or off the expression of transgenes at specific tissues. In this work, two basic transgenic maize named KEY carrying the Cre gene and LOCK containing the Vip3A gene with a blocked element, were obtained based on their separate fusion gene cassettes. The expression level and concentration of Vip3A were observed with high specific accumulation in green tissues (leaf and stem), and only a small amount in root and kernel tissues in the KEY × LOCK hybrids. The insect-resistance of transgenic maize against two common lepidopteran pests, Ostrinia furnacalis and Spodoptera frugiperda, was assessed in the laboratory and field. The results indicated that the hybrids possessed high resistance levels against the two pests, with mortality rates above 73.6% and damage scales below 2.4 compared with the control group. Our results suggested that the Cre/loxP-mediated genetic engineering approach has a competitive advantage in GM maize. Overall, findings from this study are significant for providing a feasible strategy for transgenes avoiding expression in edible parts and exploring novel techniques toward the biosafety of GM plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1379.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: maize; Gibberella ear rot; Fusarium graminearum; genome-wide association study; kernel bioassay
Online: 23 October 2023 (09:43:00 CEST)
Gibberella ear rot (GER) caused by Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae) is one of the most destructive diseases in maize that severely reduces grain yield and contaminates several potential mycotoxins. However, few efforts had been devoted to dissect the genetic basis of maize GER resistance. In the present study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted in a maize association panel consisting of 303 diverse inbred lines. The phenotypes of GER severity were evaluated using kernel bioassay across multiple time points in the laboratory. Then, three models including fixed and random model circulating probability unification model (FarmCPU), general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM), were conducted simultaneously in GWAS to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with GER resistance. A total of four individual significant association SNPs with the phenotypic variation explained (PVE) ranging from 3.51 to 6.42% were obtained. Interestingly, the peak SNP (PUT-163a-71443302-3341) with the greatest PVE value, was co-localized in all models. Subsequently, 12 putative genes were captured from the peak SNP that several of these genes were directly or indirectly involved in disease resistance. Overall, these findings contribute to understand the complex plant-pathogen interactions in maize GER resistance. The regions and genes identified herein provide a list of candidate targets for further investigation, in addition to the kernel bioassay that can be used for evaluating and selecting elite germplasm resources with GER resistance in maize.