ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0501.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: solidification; cooling rate; hyper duplex stainless steel; high-temperature confocal scanning laser microscope
Online: 8 May 2023 (09:57:25 CEST)
Hyper duplex stainless steels, HDSS, are a new alloy group of duplex stainless steels with the highest corrosion resistance and mechanical properties among the existing modern stainless steel. Due to the addition of extra high content of alloying elements, e.g. Cr, Ni, Mo, etc., the crystallization behavior of the δ-ferrite from the liquid is of vital importance for controlling the steel properties. In this work, the effect of cooling rate (i.e. 4°C/min and 150 °C/min) on the growth process of δ-ferrite in S33207 during the solidification process was investigated using high-temperature confocal scanning laser microscopy (HT-CLSM) in combination with electron microscopes and thermodynamic calculation. The results showed that the solidification mode of S33207 steel was a ferrite-austenite type (FA mode). L→δ transformation occurred at a certain degree of supercooling, and merging occurred during the growth of δ phase dendrites. Similar microstructures were observed after solidification under these two different cooling rates. The variation of area fraction of δ ferrite at the free surface and temperature as well as time during solidification of S33207 steels were calculated at different cooling rates of 4 °C/min and 150 °C/min, respectively. The current HT-CLSM study provides in-situ experimental evidence to confirm that a low cooling rate favored the growth of primary δ-ferrite, whereas a high cooling rate favored the nucleation of primary δ-ferrite during the solidification process. The post-microstructure as well as composition evolution is also briefly investigated. This work shed light on the real time insights for the crystallization behavior of hyper duplex stainless steels during solidification, which aims to contribute to the process control of manufacturing of this steel grade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0346.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Extreme gradient boosting algorithm; winter wheat growing areas; machine learning; identification
Online: 20 March 2023 (06:24:43 CET)
Machine learning (ML) is widely used in the field of crop-growing information identification based on high-resolution remote sensing images. With Baoying County in Jiangsu Province, China, as the study area, this paper used Sentinel-2 images during the winter wheat growth period to construct its spectral, textural, and topographic features during its growth period and proposes a winter wheat-growing area extraction method based on the extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) algorithm, which was compared with traditional ML algorithms such as the support vector machine (SVM), classification and regression tree (CART), and random forest (RF) algorithms. The results indicated that (1) a winter wheat-growing area identification model based on the XGBoost algorithm was successfully constructed based on Sentinel-2 images, considering 27 spectral, textural, and topographic features; (2) the constructed model could effectively extract winter wheat in the study area with an overall accuracy of 93.43% and only a small error compared with the actual winter wheat-growing area in Baoying County, meeting the accuracy requirement for crop identification in the study area; and (3) the deep learning algorithm XGBoost outperformed the three traditional ML algorithms, among which the RF algorithm was better than the SVM and CART algorithms, both of which had poor identification performance and a large error compared with the actual growing area. This paper provides a scientific basis for the accurate extraction of winter wheat-growing areas and further research on winter wheat growth monitoring and yield estimation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1067.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: wind Energy; wind turbine; wind shear; wind power density
Online: 17 October 2023 (11:54:28 CEST)
This study examines the wind shear coefficient (WSC) values at three coastal wind sites located in the southern region of Balochistan, Pakistan: Pasni, Ormara, and Jiwani. These WSC values were obtained using 10-minute measured wind speed data at heights of 20, 40, and 60 meters above ground level (AGL). Since wind measurements are typically recorded at lower heights due to cost and resource constraints, extrapolation techniques were employed to estimate wind speeds at higher altitudes. However, using a constant WSC value for extrapolation may lead to significant errors between extrapolated and actual wind speed measurements, impacting the energy output of wind turbines. To evaluate the effect of WSC on energy yield, the study employed power curves and frequency distributions for 2MW and 1.5MW wind turbines. Additionally, wind power density was calculated using air density derived from measured air temperature and surface pressure data, covering two years period from November 2016 to August 2018. The overall mean WSC values were found to be 0.076 at Pasni, 0.094 at Jiwani, and 0.053 at Ormara. The study further investigated the seasonal, monthly, and diurnal variations of WSC. For assessing wind resources at a height of 60m, the study utilized Wind Roses, wind power density, and Weibull parameters. Comparing the actual WSC values presented in this paper with those obtained using the 1/7 power law and measured data at 60m AGL, the energy yield from the wind turbines showed reduced output and capacity factor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1621.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: wind energy; wind turbine blades; wind turbine towers; manufacturing
Online: 27 September 2023 (02:37:20 CEST)
In Zambia, three feasibility studies have been conducted to assess the potential of wind energy for power generation. However, these studies did not investigate the capability of local support industries to manufacture wind turbine blades and towers. This study aimed to investigate and profile the capability of Zambian industries to manufacture wind turbine blades and towers. The study used a mixed-method approach to collect data; this utilized qualitative and quantitative approaches. The population of Zambian industries was collected from the Zambia Association of Manufacturers based on the registered members. This data was used to define the population for the study; the population was arranged into three strata whose characteristics are homogeneous within the stratum. Due to the low population, the study was conducted on the whole population. The qualitative data was collected from each stratum using a quantitative data collection tool developed for each stratum and analyzed. The study considered the capability of manufacturing companies based on wind potential results for Class III and Class IV, which exist in some sites. The results have revealed that on an as-is basis, no company in Zambia can manufacture WT blades and towers unless there is a complete overhaul of some companies or total investment in new infrastructure and equipment. The findings are useful for stakeholders involved in developing the wind power sector in Zambia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0750.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: economic feasibility; load shedding; electricity generation; energy demand; wind regime; sensitivity analysis
Online: 13 October 2023 (07:14:53 CEST)
Zambia recently experienced extended hours of load shedding due to reduced hydroelectricity generation attributed to poor rainfall patterns. The inability to meet energy demand has influenced the government to consider alternative energy sources. This study aims to assess the economic feasibility of the eight sites using a 25-turbine layout for a 4 MW generic wind turbine at 130m hub height. An economic evaluation mathematical model was developed to analyze the economic feasibility using net present value, simple payback period, internal rate of return, and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The study shows that the Lusaka wind farm was the most economical with 386 GWh energy yield analysis (EYA), wind speed of 8 m/s, NPV of 316 million dollars, SPP of 2.9 years, IRR of 82%, and LCOE of $0.182/ kWh. The results also show that the other seven sites are economically feasible, with Petauke being the lowest. The study's economic sensitivity analysis conducted by varying the average electricity tariff shows that Lusaka was the most financially viable site. Therefore, policymakers should develop cost-reflective feed-in tariff (FiT) schemes and power purchase agreements for the country to have cost-reflective electricity tariffs that will motivate independent power producers to invest in Zambia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0255.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: electromagnetic tuned mass damper; H2 optimization; structural vibration control; negative inductance; negative resistance.
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:37:50 CEST)
To realize structural vibration control,a two parameters H2 optimization design was proposed to optimize the tuning ratio and damping ratio for electromagnetic tuned mass damper (EMTMD). The control effect of this two parameters optimization design is better than that of classical tuned mass damper (TMD).For this two parameters optimization,the most important thing is that the inductance of the coil can be set very small and the external load resistance can be positive ,which can avoid the use of complex negative impedance circuit. If Ref. were designed according to the H2 optimization of two parameters, the EMTMD can be used for multi-modal vibration control of structures without connecting negative inductance and negative resistance spontaneously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0184.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Niveum; p-isopropyl benzoic acid; Biofungicide; Disease management
Online: 30 October 2017 (15:46:36 CET)
Watermelon fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum (FON) is a destructive soil-borne disease throughout the world leading to serious economic losses and limit watermelon production. Cuminic acid, extracted from the seed of Cuminum cyminum L., belongs to benzoic acid analogues. In this study, the median effective concentration (EC50) values for cuminic acid in inhibiting mycelial growth of FON was 22.53μg/mL. After treatment with cuminic acid, mycelial morphology was seriously influenced; cell membrane permeability and glycerol content were increased markedly, but pigment and mycotoxin (mainly fusaric acid) were significantly decreased. Synthesis genes of bikaverin and fusaric acid both were down regulated compared with the control confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. In greenhouse experiments, cuminic acid at all concentrations displayed significant bioactivities against FON. Importantly, significant enhancement of activities of SOD, POD, CAT and decrease of MDA content after cuminic acid treatment in watermelon leaves were observed in vivo. These indicated that cuminic acid not only showed high antifungal activity, but also could enhance the self-defense system of the host plant. Above all, cuminic acid showed the potential as a biofungicide to control FON.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0436.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: tillage operation; rainfall pattern; hydrological characteristics; surface rainfall; soil loss
Online: 17 April 2023 (09:50:43 CEST)
Many studies have focused on the impacts of rainfall duration and intensity while overlooking the role of rainfall patterns on intensive tillage erosion in hilly agricultural landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine the combined effects of rainfall patterns and intensive tillage erosion on surface runoff and soil loss on sloping farmland in the purple-soil area of China. Five simulated rainfall patterns (constant, rising, falling, rising-falling, and falling-rising) with the same total precipitation were designed, and the intensive tillage erosion treatment (IT) and no-tillage treatment (NT) were subjected to simulated rainfall using rectangular steel tanks (2 m × 5 m) with a slope of 15°. To analyse the differences in the hydrodynamic characteristics induced by tillage erosion, we calculated the flow velocity (V), Reynolds number (Re), Froude number (Fr), and Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficient (f). The results indicate that significant differences in surface runoff and soil loss were found among different rainfall patterns and stages (P < 0.05). The falling pattern and falling-rising pattern had faster runoff-initiating times and larger sediment yields than those of the other rainfall patterns. f varied from 0.30 to 9.05 for the IT and 0.48 to 11.57 for the NT and exhibited an approximately inverse trend to V and Fr over the course of the rainfall events. Compared with the NT, the mean sediment yield rates from the IT increased the dynamic range of 8.34%–16.21% among different rainfall patterns. The net contributions of the IT ranged from 2.77% to 46.39% on surface runoff and 10.14%–78.95% on soil loss on sloping farmland. Surface runoff and soil loss were positively correlated with rainfall intensity, V, and Fr but negatively correlated with f irrespective of tillage intensive (P < 0.05). For varying-intensity rainfall patterns, soil and water loss fluctuated during rainfall events, suggesting that the changes in rainfall intensity and tillage intensity would result in drastic variations in soil hydrological characteristics and sediment transport mechanisms. The time sequences of rainfall intensity in each rainfall pattern significantly affected surface runoff, soil erosion, and their contribution rates to total soil and water loss. Moreover, tillage erosion effects on soil and water loss were closely related to rainfall patterns in hilly agricultural landscapes. Our study not only sheds light on the mechanism of tillage erosion and rainfall erosion but also provides useful insights for developing tillage-water erosion prediction models to evaluate soil and water loss on cultivated hillslopes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Leymus chinensis; fungal endophyte; stromata; morphological properties; phylogenetic properties
Online: 6 January 2023 (04:34:04 CET)
During Sep. 2011, forty-four Leymus chinensis culms with stroma development were collected from Inner Mongolia. Stromata surrounded the flag leaf sheathes, white, at the final stage of development. Perithecium but not asci were observed under microscope. Nine epichloid endophyte strains were obtained from Tongliao subdivision, and sixteen from Horqin. Morphological and phylogenetic properties of these strains were investigated. Morphological properties of these strains were similar among these 27 strains. Colonies could grow to 28.5~41.1 mm/21d at 25℃; phialides 24.1~26.4 μm long, 2.1~2.5 μm at base, tapering to less than 1.0 μm at tip; conidia reniform to elliptical, 4.7~5.5×2.8~3.5 μm, indicating typical properties of Epichloë endophytes. Based on the sequences of tefA and tubB gene fragments, strains isolated from Inner Mongolia formed a distinct subclade in E. bromolica/ E. yangzii clade, with a bootstrap value of 66% and 64% respectively. Considering morphological and phylogenetic properties, we tend to determine strains isolated from Leymus chinensis as a new taxon. The detailed taxonomic position of this taxon needs further investigations on hybridization or genomic sequence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0303.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: nuclear magnetic resonance; shale oil; occurrence space characteristics; imbibition
Online: 5 May 2023 (05:08:14 CEST)
The Gulong shale oil reservoir is formed in freshwater to slightly saline lacustrine basins, mainly consisting of pure shale geological structure, which is quite different from other shale reservoirs around the world. Currently, the development of Gulong shale oil mainly relies on hydraulic fracturing, while the subsequent shut-in period for imbibition has been proven to be an effective method for enhancing shale oil recovery. To clarify the characteristics of fluid occurrence space and the variation of fluid occurrence during saltwater imbibition in Gulong shale, this paper carried out porosity and permeability tests on Gulong shale cores, and analyzed the fluid occurrence space characteristics and imbibition oil recovery based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In the porosity and permeability tests, the porosity measured by saturation method was calibrated using NMR T2 spectra. Combined with the identification of fractures in shale cores using micro-CT and the analysis of porosity and permeability parameters, it was found that the permeability of shale cores was related to the development of fractures in shale cores. Through the testing and analysis of NMR T1-T2 two-dimensional spectra of the shale cores before and after saturation with oil, it was found that the shale mainly contains heavy oil, light oil, and clay-bound water, and they were distributed in different positions in the T1-T2 spectrum. Finally, the T1-T2 two-dimensional spectra of the shale core at different imbibition stages were analyzed, and it was found that the saltwater mainly entered the minuscule inorganic pores of clay minerals during the imbibition process, and squeezed the larger-sized inorganic pores containing light oil through the hydration expansion effect, thus expelling the light oil from the shale core and achieving the purpose of enhanced oil recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0581.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: 2.2 GPa ultra-high strength steel; TMCP-DQP process; martensite; retained austenite; mechanical properties
Online: 9 November 2023 (07:25:32 CET)
Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) have a wide range of applications in equipment safety and lightweight design, and enhancing the strength of AHSS to the ultra-high level of 2 GPa is currently a key focus. In this study, a new process of thermo-mechanical control process followed by direct quenching and partitioning (TMCP-DQP) is developed based on Fe-0.4C-1Mn-0.6Si (wt.%) low-alloy steel, and the effects of microstructure evolution on mechanical properties under TMCP-DQP process and conventional hot rolled quenched and tempered process (HR-QT) are comparatively studied. The results show that the TMCP-DQP process not only shortened the processing steps but also achieved outstanding comprehensive mechanical properties. The TMCP-DQP steel exhibits a tensile strength of 2.23 GPa, accompanied by 11.9% elongation and a Brinell hardness of 624 HBW, with an impact toughness of 28.5 J at -20 ℃. In contrast, the HR-QT steel exhibits tensile strengths ranging from 2.16 GPa to 1.7 GPa and elongations between 5.2% and 12.2%. The microstructure of TMCP-DQP steel primarily consists of lath martensite, containing thin-film retained austenite (RA), nanoscale rod-shaped carbides, and a minor number of nanoscale twins. The volume fraction of RA reaches 7.7%, with an average carbon content of 7.1 at.% measured by three-dimensional atom probe tomography (3DAP). Compared to the HR-QT process, the TMCP-DQP process results in finer microstructure, with a prior austenite grain (PAG) size of 11.91 μm, forming packets and blocks with widths of 5.12 μm and 1.63 μm. The TMCP-DQP process achieves the ultra-high strength of low-alloy steel through the synergistic effects of grain refinement, dislocation strengthening, and precipitation strengthening. The dynamic partitioning stage stabilizes the RA through carbon enrichment, while the relaxation stage reduces a small portion of the dislocations generated by thermal deformation, and the self-tempering stage eliminates internal stresses, all guaranteeing considerable ductility and toughness. The TMCP-DQP process may offer a means for industries to streamline their manufacturing processes and provide a technological reference for producing 2.2 GPa grade AHSS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0088.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Canine; feline; chaphamaparvovirus; codon usage; phylogenetic; cross-species transmission
Online: 1 June 2023 (12:26:50 CEST)
Chaphamaparvovirus (ChPV) is an ancient virus that has been detected in a variety of hosts. In this study, based on the phylogenetic analysis and the adaptability of ChPV to multiple hosts, we evaluated the potential of feline (FeChPV) and canine ChPV (CaChPV) for cross-species transmis-sion. Phylogenetic analysis showed that FeChPV and CaChPV were closely related. Notably, two strains of ChPVs isolated from domestic cats and 2 from dogs clustered together with CaChPVs and FeChPVs, respectively, suggesting the stringent boundaries between canine and feline ChPV may be broken. Further analysis revealed that CaChPV and FeChPV were more adapted to dogs than to cats, strongly suggesting the possibility of unidirectional or bidirectional transmission be-tween dogs and cats. Mutation analysis identified several shared mutations in cross-species-transmissible strains that were not located within immune epitopes. Furthermore, the VP struc-tures of FeChPV and CaChPV exhibited a high degree of similarity across both cross-species-transmissible and non-cross-species-transmissible strains. However, definitive experimental evi-dence is lacking, and its capacity for cross-species transmission should be approached with cau-tion and elucidated in further studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0416.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: kidney disease; hemodialysis; immunosuppression; pulmonary infections; computed tomography
Online: 24 August 2022 (08:30:16 CEST)
Patients under immunosuppressive therapy for kidney diseases or on maintenance hemodialysis are more susceptible to infection than the general population since loss of renal function per se was an immunocompromised condition. Of relevance, CT imaging plays a crucial role in the detection and management of pulmonary infectious diseases. We hence presented diverse CT findings of pulmonary infections in the above said patients collected during our arduous work against a wide range of pathogens including klebsiella pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus, candida parapsilosis, aspergillus, cryptococcus, mucor, pneumocystis carinii, cytomegalovirus, mycobacterium and nocardia. Notably, the pulmonary pathological changes were either primary pneumonia or secondary to the catheter-associated bloodstream infection. For a descriptive purpose, pulmonary manifestations of Wegener’s granuloma, lung cancer and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage/infection in vasculitis were also examined. As such, we retrospectively elaborated most likely CT features of each individual pathogen and briefly covered the differential diagnosis as well. Arguably, combination of pattern recognition with knowledge of the clinical setting could make a presumptive diagnosis and early treatment even more convenient. From the experience of first-line nephrologists, our work could make a substantial contribution to the expeditious and efficacious management of pulmonary infections in the pertinent patient population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0339.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Sulfonyl chlorides; sulfonyl bromides; sulfonyl hydrazides; NCS; NBS
Online: 16 August 2021 (13:31:28 CEST)
A simple and rapid method for efficient synthesis of sulfonyl chlorides/bromides from sulfonyl hydrazide with NXS (X = Cl or Br) and late-stage conversion to several other functional groups has been described. A variety of nucleophiles could be engaged in this transformation thus permitting the synthesis of complex sulfonamides, sulfonates. In most cases, these reactions are highly selective, simple, and clean, affording products in excellent yields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0575.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: OsNAC050; CRISPR-Cas9; cold stress; RNA-seq; photosynthesis; soluble sugar
Online: 9 May 2023 (05:32:06 CEST)
Because rice is native to tropical and subtropical regions, it is generally more sensitive to cold stress compared to other cereals. Low temperature stress has become one of the most important conditions that affects the growth, development, and yield of rice. Plant NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC) transcription factors are known to play significant regulatory roles in the stress response. In our research, we found that OsNAC050 (LOC_Os03g60080） is mainly expressed in leaves, and low temperature can further up-regulate its expression. OsNAC050 mutants created using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology showed significantly enhanced tolerance to low temperature treatment. Detection of enzyme activities related to the redox pathway also showed that the mutants had stronger viability under low temperature stress. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that photosynthesis and soluble sugar metabolism were significantly affected in the osnac050 mutant lines, suggesting that OsNAC050 may participate in the above molecular pathways in the response to low temperature stress. The results will enhance our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the responses to cold stress in rice and can provide new strategies for engineering cold-tolerance in high-yielding rice varieties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0253.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: LMNA; AMPK; lipid metabolism; cancer
Online: 18 July 2022 (08:59:58 CEST)
Laminopathies are a spectrum of diseases caused by LMNA mutations. In familial partial lipodystrophy of Dunnigan (FPLD), LMNA plays role in the differentiation and development of adipocytes and lipid metabolism. Changes in LMNA predict not only the differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) but also the transformation of cancer cells. Hence, our in-depth study aimed to identify the molecular connection between disordered lipid metabolism and hepatic carcinogenesis. We first discovered significant positive correlations between pLMNA and two key rate-limiting enzymes in de novo fatty acid synthesis, acetyl-CoA-carboxylase 1 (ACC1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN), in the liver tissue but not in adipose tissue of obese model rats. Moreover, LMNA knockdown (KD) in rat AD-MSCs prevented the differentiation and maturation of adipocytes. To clarify the mechanistic relationship with lipogenesis, gain- and loss-of-function experiments in which functional changes and the related molecular pathways were investigated in a normal hepatocyte line (7701 cells). Adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) was found to be activated by abnormalities in the LMNA structure under conditions of LMNA deletion, farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI) treatment and LMNA mutations associated with clinical FPLD pathogenic phenotype. Active AMPKα could directly phosphorylate ACC1 and thus inhibit lipid synthesis but induced glycolysis in both HCC cells and normal cells. The HCC cells could not survive with LMNA knockout (KO) or even KD. Lonafarnib (an FTI) combined with low-glucose conditions significantly decreased the proliferation of HepG2 and MHCC cells by inhibiting glycolysis and the maturation of prelamin A.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0795.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: HER2; colorectal cancer; immune cell
Online: 13 October 2023 (07:08:38 CEST)
(1) Background: This study aimed to investigate the effect of increased HER-2 expression on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and determine its impact on the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients; (2) Methods: HER-2, CD4, CD8, CD19, LY6G, CD56, CD68, CD11b, and EpCam expression in CRC tissues and adjacent paracancerous tissues were assessed using multiplex fluorescence immunohistochemical staining. The correlation between HER-2 expression and the number of TILs in CRC tissues was analyzed. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze survival outcomes; (3) Results: The expression of HER-2 in tumor tissues was higher than that in paracancerous tissues (1.31 ± 0.45 vs. 0.86 ± 0.20, P < 0.05). Additionally, there was an increase in the numbers of CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, and CD68+ cells in CRC tissues (14.11 ± 1.10 vs. 3.40 ± 0.18, P < 0.005; 0.16 ± 0.12 vs. 0.04 ± 0.04, P < 0.005; 0.71 ± 0.46 vs. 0.25 ± 0.13, P < 0.0005; 0.27 ± 0.24 vs. 0.03 ± 0.11, P < 0.05). The increase in HER-2 expression was positively correlated with an increase in CD4, CD8, and CD19 (p < 0.0001). In HER-2-positive CRC tissues, CD68 expression was increased (0.80 ± 0.55 vs. 0.25 ± 0.22, P < 0.05). In HER-2-upregulated CRC tissues, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD68, CD11b, Ly6G, and CD56 expressions were elevated (0.70 ± 0.37 vs. 0.32 ± 0.17, P = 0.03; 0.22 ± 0.13 vs. 0.09 ± 0.06, P = 0.03; 0.31 ± 0.19 vs. 0.12 ± 0.08, P = 0.02; 1.05 ± 0.62 vs. 0.43 ± 0.21, P < 0.01; 1.34 ± 0.81 vs. 0.53 ± 0.23, P < 0.01; 0.50 ± 0.31 vs. 0.19 ± 0.10, P < 0.01; 1.26 ± 0.74 vs. 0.52 ± 0.24, P < 0.01). Furthermore, increased HER-2 expression is an independent risk factor for recurrence-free survival (RFS) in patients (P < 0.01, HR = 3.421); (4) Conclusions: The increased expression of HER-2 and its relationship with immune cells will provide new insights for immunotherapy in CRC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0382.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: intercropping; microbial community; high throughput sequencing; nifH gene; sugarcane
Online: 17 October 2018 (10:20:19 CEST)
Intercropping significantly improves land use efficiency and soil fertility. This study examines the impact of three cultivation systems (monoculture sugarcane, peanut-sugarcane and soybean-sugarcane intercropping) on soil properties and diazotrophs. Sugarcane rhizosphere soil was sampled from the farmers’ field. Soil properties and nifH gene abundance were analyzed by high throughput sequencing. Moreover, a total of 436,458 nifH gene sequences were obtained and classified into the 3201 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Maximum unique OTUs resulted with soybean-sugarcane intercropping (<375). The dominant groups across all cultivation were Alpha-proteobacteria and Beta-proteobacteria. On the basis of microbial community structure, intercropping systems were more diverse than monoculture sugarcane. In the genus level, Bradyrhizobium, Burkholderia, Pelomonas, and Sphingomonas were predominant in the intercropping systems. Moreover, diazotrophic bacterial communities of these cultivation systems were positively correlated to the soil pH and soil enzyme protease. Moreover, low available P recovered from intercropping system showed a strong correlation with higher nutrient uptake activity of soil microbes. Based on the results, our investigation concluded that intercropping system caused a positive effect on the growth of diazotrophic bacterial communities and it might boost the soil fertility and this kind of study helps to develop an eco-friendly technology for sustainable sugarcane production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0022.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: P. pseudoannulata; Cadmium; Transcriptome; RT-qPCR
Online: 8 October 2016 (11:07:25 CEST)
Pardosa pseudoannulata is one of the most common wandering spiders in agricultural fields and a potentially good bioindicator for heavy metal contamination. However, little is known about the mechanism by which spiders respond to heavy metals at the molecular level. In this study, high-throughput transcriptome sequencing was employed to characterize the de novo transcriptome of the spiders and to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) after cadmium exposure. We obtained 60,489 assembled unigenes, 18,773 of which were annotated in the public databases. Ultimately, 3450 cDNA simple sequence repeats were identified and validated as potential molecular markers in the unigenes. A total of 2939, 2491 and 3759 DEGs were detected among the three libraries of two Cd-treated groups and the control. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that metabolism processes and digestive system function were predominately enriched in response to Cd stress. At the cellular and molecular levels, significantly enriched pathways in lysosomes and phagosomes as well as replication, recombination and repair demonstrated that oxidative damage resulted from Cd exposure. Based on the selected DEGs, certain critical genes involved in defence and detoxification were analysed. These results may elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying spiders' responses to heavy metal stress.