ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0253.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: point cloud objects (PCOs); volume calculation (VC); co-opposite-direction slicing method (CODSM); systematic directional errors; random errors
Online: 22 November 2019 (05:37:00 CET)
Although the Slicing Method (SM) is effective for calculating the volume of point cloud objects (PCOs), it is restricted in terms of applicability and practicability because of a certain contingency and directional defects. The Co-Opposite-Direction Slicing Method (CODSM) proposed in this paper is an improved method for calculating PCO volume by increasing parallel (co-opposite-direction) observation and considering the two-way mean as the result. This method takes full advantage of the mutual offsetting of random errors and the compensation of systematic directional errors, which can effectively overcome (or mitigate) the effect of random errors and reduce the effect of systematic errors in SM. In this paper, two typical objects, a cone model and a stone lion base, are the examples for calculating PCO volume using CODSM. The results show that CODSM has all the inherent advantages of SM and effectively weakens the volatility of random errors and the directionality of systematic errors from SM. Therefore, CODSM is a robust configuration upgrade of SM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1313.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Radio Occultation; COSMIC-2; water vapor profiles; climate; numerical weather prediction
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:25:44 CEST)
Recently, NOAA has included GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) Radio Occultation (RO) data as one of the crucial long-term observables for weather and climate applications. To include more GNSS RO data in the numerical weather prediction system, the NOAA Commercial Weather Data Pilot program (CWDP) started to explore the commercial RO data available on the market. After two rounds of pilot studies, the CDWP decided to award the first Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract to GeoOptics and Spire Incs. in 2020. This study examines the quality of Spire data products for weather and climate applications. Spire RO data are collected from commercial CubeSats through careful comparison with the data from Formosa Satellite Mission 7–Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate-2 (COSMIC-2), ERA-5, and high-quality radiosonde data. The results demonstrated that although with lower Signal-Noise-Ratio (SNR) in general, the pattern of the lowest penetration height for Spire is similar to those for COSMIC-2. The Spire and COSMIC-2 penetrate heights are between 0.6 and 0.8 km altitude at the tropical oceans. Although using different GNSS RO receivers, the precision of Spire STRASP receivers is of the same quality as those of COSMIC-2 Global Positioning System - GPS, GALILEO, and GLObal NAvigation Satellite System – GLONASS (TGRS) receivers. The retrieval accuracy from Spire is very compatible with those from COSMIC-2. We validated Spire temperature and water vapor profiles by comparing them with collocated radiosonde data. Generally, over the height region between 8 km and 16.5 km, the Spire temperature profiles match those from RS41 RAOB very well with temperature biases < 0.02 K. Over the height range from 17.8 to 26.4 km, the temperature differences are ~-0.034 K with RS41 RAOB being warmer. We also estimated the error covariance matrix for Spire, COSMIC-2, and KOMPSAT-5. Results showed that the COSMIC-2 estimated error covariance values are slightly more significant over the oceans at the mid-latitudes (45oN-30oN and 30oS-45oS), which may also be owing to COSMIC-2 SNR being lower at those latitudinal zones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0290.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: permanent magnet synchronous motor; sideband harmonic component; space vector pulse-width modulation; carrier frequency modulation; vibro-acoustic responses.
Online: 13 July 2021 (10:45:49 CEST)
In the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive system, the unwilling and ear-piercing vibro-acoustics caused by high-frequency sideband harmonics becomes unacceptable in the electric vehicle application. In this paper, a modified space vector pulse-width modulation (SVPWM) technique implemented with hybrid carrier frequency modulation (HCFM) is provided to reduce the sideband current harmonic components and vibro-acoustic responses. The principle and implementation of the proposed HCFM technique are firstly presented, in which the fixed carrier frequency is improved with the sawtooth and random signal-based coupling modulation based on the rotor position. For verification, the experiment tests are carried out on a prototype 12/10 PMSM and microcontroller unit. The effectiveness of the HCFM technique can hence be confirmed, in which the sideband vibro-acoustics reduction shows more effectively than that in conventional random PWM. The proposed approach may provide a new route in noise-cancelling and electromagnetic compatibility for the electric drive powertrain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: natural gas hydrate; reservoir stimulation technique; variance analysis; conversion efficiency; sensitivity analysis; numerical simulation
Online: 11 December 2017 (07:30:36 CET)
Based on the geologic conditions of natural gas hydrate (NGH) accumulations in the Shenhu area, northern slope of the South China Sea, this paper used a method of combining reservoir stimulation technique (RST) with depressurization to investigate the conversion efficiency of marine NGH reservoirs in different intrinsic permeability and initial NGH saturation conditions, and analyze the influence of variably-stimulation effect on marine NGH conversion efficiency in different accumulation conditions, provided a reference scheme for improving the NGH conversion efficiency in the Shenhu area. In this work, we performed calculations for the variations in CH4 production rate and cumulative volume of CH4 in different initial NGH saturation, intrinsic permeability and stimulation effect conditions, variance analysis and range analysis methods were used to analyze the significance of these key factors and their interaction, and investigated the sensitivity of stimulation effect on NGH conversion efficiency, respectively. The simulation results showed that stimulation effect have a significant influence on NGH conversion efficiency, and the influence of interaction between these three factors were not obvious. Possibly most important, we clarified an optimum stimulation effect for higher NGH conversion efficiency under different accumulation conditions, especially in low-permeability and high-saturation, which corresponding stimulation effect were different.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: input current ripple-free; boost converter; coupled-inductor; voltage-doubler cell; passive lossless clamp circuits; high voltage gain; renewable energy
Online: 17 January 2017 (11:10:36 CET)
Abstract: High step-up voltage gain nonisolated DC-DC converter have attracted much attention in photovoltaic, fuel cells and other renewable energy system applications. In this paper, by combining input current ripple-free boost cell with coupled-inductor voltage-doubler cell, an input current ripple-free high voltage gain nonisolated converter is proposed. In addition, passive lossless clamp circuit is adopted to recycle the leakage inductor energy and to reduce the voltage spike across the power switch. By utilizing voltage-doubler cell consisting of diode and capacitor, the voltage stress of switch is further reduced and the resonance between the leakage inductor and the stray capacitor of the output diode is eliminated. A low switch-on-resistance low-voltage-rated MOSFET can therefore be employed to reduce the conduction loss and cost. The reverse recovery loss of output diode is reduced, and the efficiency of converter can be improved. Furthermore, the proposed converter can achieve nearly zero input current-ripple and make the design of electromagnetic interference (EMI) filter easy. Steady state analysis and operation mode of the converter is performed. Finally, experimental results are presented to verify the analysis results of the proposed converter.