CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0259.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: alternative splicing; microRNA; gene expression; Arabidopsis
Online: 16 April 2020 (07:37:32 CEST)
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a typical class of small RNAs that could modulate gene expression in trans at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs bind to the miRNA binding sites (MBSs) in target mRNAs by sequence complementarity. Alternative splicing (AS) is another commonly occurred process in pre-mRNAs that changes the isoforms of a gene. It is hypothesized that there should be an interaction for gene regulation that involves both AS and miRNA targeting. Studies have verified this hypothesis in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. High-throughput sequencing data suggested that in Arabidopsis a considerably large fraction of MBSs are affected by AS events. The overlapping between MBS and AS exceeds the randomly simulated number. Functional experiments have indicated that the AS events are required for the gene expression changes of miRNA targets. Therefore, AS and MBS are mutually favored. The observed expression changes caused by miRNAs could also be contributed by AS events. In the present perspective article, we propose that the AS analysis should be incorporated in the differential-expression analysis of miRNA studies. When defining a differentially-expressed gene, it should be clarified whether the change in gene expression is caused by AS events or solely by miRNA targeting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0182.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Electricity peak load; Taoussa’s energy sources; Long-term electricity demand planning; Scenarios simulation
Online: 12 October 2021 (12:53:37 CEST)
A long-term forecast study on the electricity demand of Taoussa of Mali is conducted in this paper, with various scenarios of socioeconomic and technological conditions. The analysis tool, which is applied in scenarios simulation, is the Model for Analysis of Energy Demand from the International Atomic Energy Agency. The analysis results are annual electricity demand and peak load forecast for the electrification from the period 2020 to 2035. During the planning period, the analysis results show that the electricity demand will increase to 49.40 MW (332.57 GWh) for the low scenario (LS), 66.46 MW (472.61 GWh) for the reference scenario (RS), and 89.47 MW (635 GWh) for the high scenario (HS). In addition, the total electricity demand increased at an average rate of 8.13% in the LS, 10.31% in the RS and 12.56% in the HS in all sectors. The electricity peak demand is expected to grow at 7.92%, 10.53% and 12.91% corresponding to the three scenarios; in this case, the system peak demand in 2035 will increase to 64.88 MW for the LS, 92.2 MW for the RS and 126.22 MW, the days of peak load are between 17th -23rd in May. The Industry sector will be the biggest electricity consumer of Taoussa area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0585.v1
Online: 28 January 2021 (13:15:37 CET)
It has been recognized for some time that even for perfect conductors, the interaction Casimir entropy, due to quantum/thermal fluctuations, can be negative. This result was not considered problematic because it was thought that the self-entropies of the bodies would cancel this negative interaction entropy, yielding a total entropy that was positive. In fact, this cancellation seems not to occur. The positive self entropy of a perfectly conducting sphere does indeed just cancel the negative interaction entropy of a system consisting of a perfectly conducting sphere and plate, but a model with weaker coupling in general possesses a regime where negative self-entropy appears. The physical meaning of this surprising result remains obscure. In this paper we re-examine these issues, using improved physical and mathematical techniques, partly based on the Abel-Plana formula, and present numerical results for arbitrary temperatures and couplings, which exhibit the same remarkable features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0412.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: multiocular vision; random sampling consistency; 3D reconstruction; parallel robot; target localisation and grasping
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:27:00 CEST)
Some traditional robots are based on offline programming reciprocal motion, and with the continuous upgrading of vision technology, more and more tasks are replaced by machine vision. For the current problem of insufficient accuracy of robot target localization based on binocular vision, and an improved random sampling consistency algorithm is proposed to complete parallel robot target localization and grasping under the guidance For the current problem of insufficient accuracy of robot target localization based on binocular vision, an improved random sampling consistency algorithm is proposed to complete parallel robot target localization and grasping under the guidance of multi Firstly, the RANSAC algorithm is improved based on the SURF algorithm; then the parallax gradient method is applied to iterate the matched point pairs several times to further optimize the data; then the 3D reconstruction is completed by the program technique; finally the obtained data is finally the obtained data is input into the robot arm and the camera internal and external parameters are obtained by the calibration method so that the robot can accurately locate and The experiments show that the improved algorithm has advantages in recognition accuracy and grasping success rate under multi- The experiments show that the improved algorithm has advantages in recognition accuracy and grasping success rate under multi-vision system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0157.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Vanadium-titanium-iron concentrate; Pellet; Sulfuric acid; Cyclic leaching; Vanadium; Eh-pH diagrams
Online: 8 November 2022 (16:04:55 CET)
Here, a process for leaching vanadium from calcified roasting pellets (CPVC) of vanadium-titanium iron concentrate by a two-stage sulfuric acid cycle was proposed. When the silicon removal acid concentration of the pellet in the first stage was 1.5 mol/L, the solid-liquid ratio was 6: 1, the silicon removal acid concentration of the leaching solution was 3.0 mol/L, and the standing time was 48 h, the silica gel formation time was 23 h, the filtration time was 70 s, and the loss rates of vanadium and iron were 1.52% and 0.17%, respectively. When the acid concentration was 2 mol/L, at room temperature, using a leaching time of 28 days, and a solid-liquid ratio of 5: 1 in the second stage, the total leaching rates of vanadium and iron were 75.52% and 0.71%, respectively. The concentration of vanadium in the leaching solution reached 6.80 g/L, and vanadium was directly precipitated without extraction. After secondary roasting, the crushing strength of the pellets reached 2250 N, which met the requirement for blast furnace iron making. The Eh-pH diagrams of the V-Fe-H2O system at different temperatures were plotted. Thermodynamically, it was difficult to selectively leach vanadium and iron by changing the conventional acid leaching conditions. In addition, the pellets before and after leaching were analyzed. The grade of iron in the pellets increased slightly after leaching, and the main phases in the pellets remained as Fe2O3 and Fe9TiO15. The S in the sulfuric acid solution entered the leached pellets during the acid leaching reaction and was removed by the secondary roasting of the leached pellets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1317.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Starchy food; potato protease inhibitors; phytochemicals; antioxidants; cancer prevention
Online: 18 May 2023 (09:48:15 CEST)
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) gradually becomes a stable food worldwide since it can be treated as practical nutritional supplement and antioxidant, as well as energy provider for human beings. Financially and nutritionally, cultivation and utility of potatoes is worthy enough attention of the world. To further explore functionality and maximize utilization of component parts, also to develop new products based on potato still be an ongoing issue. To maximize the benefits of potato and induce new high-value products while avoiding unfavorable properties of the crop has been a growing trend in food and medical areas. This review intends to summarize the factors that influence the changes in the key functional components of potatoes and discuss referred research focuses, then help further researchers to make efforts into. Afterwards, it summarizes the application of the latest commercial products and potential value of components existing in potato. Particularly, there are several main tasks for the next potato research: preparing starchy foods for special group of people and developing fiber-rich products to supply the dietary fiber intake as well as manufacturing bio-friendly and specific design films/coating in packaging industry; extracting bioactive proteins and potato protease inhibitors with high biological activity, and continue to build new commercial products based on potato protein and examine their health benefits. Noteworthy, the preservation methods play a key role in phytochemicals contents left in foods and potato performs superior to many common vegetables when meeting demand of mineral daily intake and alleviating mineral deficiencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0111.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Glove-wearing detection; YOLOv8; Feature Pyramid Network; Feature Layer
Online: 2 November 2023 (04:07:54 CET)
Wearing gloves while operating machinery in workshops is an essential precaution to prevent mechanical injuries and burns from high temperatures, among other potential hazards. Ensuring workers are properly equipped with gloves, which is a crucial measure in accident prevention. Glove images often occupy a minimal proportion of the frame and are easily obscured by cluttered backgrounds, especially with limited edge computing resources. Consequently, this study proposes a glove detection algorithm called YOLOv8-AFPN-M-C2f based on YOLOv8, offering swifter detection speeds, lower computational demands, and enhanced accuracy for workshop scenarios. This research innovates by substituting the head of YOLOv8 with the AFPN-M-C2f network, amplifying the pathways for feature vector propagation, and mitigating semantic discrepancies between non-adjacent feature layers. Additionally, the introduction of a superficial feature layer enriches surface feature information, augmenting the model's sensitivity to smaller objects. To assess the performance of the YOLOv8-AFPN-M-C2f model, we conducted multiple experiments using a factory glove detection dataset compiled for this study. The results indicate that the enhanced YOLOv8 model surpasses other network models. Compared to the baseline YOLOv8 model, the refined version shows a 2.6% increase in mAP@50%, a 90.1% rise in FPS, and a 13% reduction in the number of parameters. This research contributes an effective solution for the detection of glove adherence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0511.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: interpretable solving; GCN; retinaNet; formal language; diagram parsing
Online: 10 October 2023 (03:02:38 CEST)
This paper proposes an interpretable geometry solution based on the formal language set of text and diagram. Geometry problems are solved by machines, which still poses challenges in natural language processing and computer vision. Significant progress promotes existing methods in the extraction of geometric formal languages. However, the neglect of the graph structure information in the formal language and the lack of further refinement of the extracted language set can lead to the poor effect of the theorem prediction and affect the accuracy in problem solving. In this paper, the formal language graph is constructed by the extracted formal language set and used to theorem prediction by graph convolutional network. So as to better extract the relationship set of diagram elements, an improved diagram parser was proposed. The test results indicate that the improved method has good results in solving the problem with interpretability geometry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0464.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Ti3SiC2; Si3N4; mechanical properties; fracture toughness
Online: 29 February 2020 (10:30:51 CET)
In-situ grown C0.3N0.7Ti and SiC, which derived from non-oxide additives Ti3SiC2, are proposed to densify silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics with enhanced mechanical performance. Remarkable increase of density from 79.20% to 95.48% could be achieved for Si3N4 ceramics with 5vol% Ti3SiC2. The capillarity of decomposed Si from Ti3SiC2, and in-situ reaction between nonstoichiometric TiCx and Si3N4 were believed to be responsible for densification of Si3N4 ceramics. An obvious enhancement of flexural strength and fracture toughness for Ti3SiC2 doped Si3N4 ceramics was observed. The maximum flexural strength of 795 MPa for Si3N4 composites with 5vol% Ti3SiC2 and maximum fracture toughness of 6.97 MPa.m1/2 for Si3N4 composites with 20vol% Ti3SiC2 are achieved when mixed powders are hot-press sintered at 1700℃. Pull out of elongated Si3N4 grains, crack bridging, crack branching and crack deflection were demonstrated to dominate enhance fracture toughness of Si3N4 composites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0066.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: biomass yield; carbon storage; growth pattern; poplar; short-rotation coppices; seasonal trends
Online: 3 May 2018 (11:10:21 CEST)
It is required to manage sustainable Short-Rotation Coppices (SRCs) as an important role on carbon sink and bioenergy output, because most of SRCs were established in reclaimed land in South Korea. However, during the last three years, growth pattern of the SRCs was remarkably changed with soil condition. This study aimed to identify the sustainability of SRCs on carbon storage, biomass and fuel pellet production, monitoring the neighboring vegetation of SRCs by land-use exchange, physiological change of poplar on seasonal trend, and to evaluate whether poplar is suitable for making wood pellets. The calculated biomass yield per area of poplar grown was 103.07 Mg per total area (55.6 ha), and volumes of carbon dioxide absorption was estimated to be 330 Mg CO2. Wood pellet quality based on the criteria scored third grade, indicating that poplar is suitable for manufacturing fuel pellets. Moreover, monitoring of the flora distribution in SRCs revealed changes in species composition. As halophyte was increased during drought, soil organic matter, net growth and total chlorophyll of poplar were significantly decreased. These findings indicated that photosynthesis and growth pattern of SRCs may be negatively affected by microclimate and will provide valuable information for effective management of SRCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0407.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: public health; physical activity; rural resident; physical exercise; epidemiology
Online: 26 October 2022 (09:51:36 CEST)
Physical inactivity is a well-known risk factor for various non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Sufficient physical activity (PA) is essential for the prevention of NCDs and thus it is imperative to study the current status of PA and its influencing factors among rural residents in China. A population-based survey was conducted in rural areas of Shandong, Shanxi and Yunnan Provinces using a stratified random sampling method. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-S) was used to collect the data on PA. A total of 3780 rural residents participated in the survey. The result showed that 22.2% of rural residents were physical inactivity. The proportion of rural residents reporting practice of physical exercise was 54.4%. The most frequently performed physical exercise was walking/brisk walking(78.3%).Binary logistic regression analyses showed that being female, people at age between 15 to 34 years or 60 years old and above, employees of governmental departments/retirees, school students, the unemployed, people with NCDs were risk factors of PA and ethnic minority groups,smoking and alcohol consumption were risk factors of physical exercise. Health promotion programme aiming at increasing people’s PA in rural China is needed and it should focus on the populations groups of the female, people at age 60 years and above ,school students, the unemployed, and people with NCDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0890.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Nonlinear optics; Z-scan; Transient absorption and refraction; Pump probe
Online: 25 April 2023 (05:40:29 CEST)
Broadband reverse saturable absorption is systematically investigated via Z-scan, transient absorption spectrum (TAS). The excited state absorption and negative refraction of Orange IV are observed in the Z-scan experiment at 532 nm. Meanwhile, two-photon induced excited-state absorption and pure two-photon absorption are observed at 600 nm and 700 nm with the pulse width of 190 fs, respectively. An ultrafast broadband absorption in visible wavelength region is observed via TAS. The different nonlinear absorption mechanism at multiple wavelengths is discussed and interpreted from the results of TAS. In addition, the ultrafast dynamics of negative refraction in the excited state of Orange IV is investigated via degenerate phase object pump probe, from which the weak long-lived excited state is extracted. All studies indicate that Orange IV has the potential to be further optimized into a superior broadband reverse saturable absorption material and also has certain reference significance for the study of optical nonlinearity in organic molecules containing azobenzene groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0704.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Virtual Reality; restrictive practices; inpatient wards; restraint; isolation; rapid tranquilisation; covert medication; procedural restrictions; health professions training
Online: 10 November 2023 (11:11:28 CET)
BACKGROUNDRestrictive practices are defined by measures linked to physical and chemical restraints to reduce the movement or control behaviours during any emergency. Seclusion is an equal part of restrictive practices intended to isolate and reduce the sensory stimulation to safeguard the patient and those within the vicinity. Using interventions by way of virtual reality (VR) could assist with reducing the need for restrictive practices as it could help reduce anxiety or agitation by way of placing users into realistic and immersive environments. This could also aid staff to and change current restrictive practices.AIMTo assess the feasibility and effectiveness of using a VR platform to provide reduction in restrictive practice (RRP) training. METHODSThe study received ethics approval was obtained prior to starting the study from the Health Research Authority in United Kingdom (22/HRA/3030 REFERENCE). A randomised controlled feasibility study was conducted alongside of an evaluation at at 1 month and 6 within inpatient psychiatric wards at Southern Health NHS Foundation Trust, UK. Virti Virtual Reality scenarios will be used on VR headsets to provide training on reducing restrictive practices in 3 inpatient psychiatric wards. Outcome measures included General Self-Efficacy (GSE) scale, Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment 7 (GAD-7), Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT-12), The Everyday Discrimination (EDS) Scale, and the Compassionate Engagement and Action (CEA) Scale. RESULTSThe statistical significance of most variables is high, with the exception of the BAT12 score, compassionate engagement to others score, compassionate to others total score, compassionate engagement from others score, and compassionate from others total score, which exhibit lower statistical power in two-sample t-tests. To assess the acceptability, preference, and adherence of users to the Virti VR technology for RRP training, we calculated the System Usability Scale (SUS) scores and visualized the program's completion using pie charts. The majority of respondents reported SUS scores exceeding 70, with a mean SUS score of 71.79. In accordance with the insights provided by Bangor et al. (38), the VR platform demonstrated superior usability compared to approximately 62% of other products. we utilized the GAD7 score to assess the confidence levels within the two groups. We compared the data for the VR group and the control group after one month, as well as the baseline and one-month data for both the VR group and the control group. Given that the p-values are below 0.05 and the statistical power is high, it can be concluded that there are no statistically significant differences in confidence levels between the VR and control groups at baseline and day-30. CONCLUSIONSOur study has revealed the challenges associated with implementing such a program, even though the staff has given it high usability ratings. With the ongoing advancement of VR technology, we have the capability to create scenarios and simulations tailored to various healthcare environments. This empowers staff to receive more comprehensive and effective training for handling a wide range of situations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0934.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: wild oats; feeding value; Germplasm resource; environmental factor; origin
Online: 14 September 2023 (04:32:21 CEST)
To explore the forage quality of wild oat populations under different growth environments, the basic nutrient composition and forage quality of five wild oat populations in Israel were compared. Ash, crude protein, and soluble sugar content of oats were significantly (P<0.05) related to some forage quality and possible environment of population origin. Among them, the environmental factors of origin had significant effects on the indicators of ash, crude protein, and soluble sugars of oat straw, but less on the contents of crude fat, total phosphorus, and total potassium. Meanwhile, the annual rainfall and the number of days of rainfall in the country of origin greatly influenced the cellulose content. Finally, we investigated the similarity of feeding values of different populations using PCA analysis. The results showed that, in conclusion, the higher variability of wild oat populations may be a new possibility brought by feeding oats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0362.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: alternative oxidase; mitochondria; critical node; rice
Online: 14 April 2023 (09:56:24 CEST)
Mitochondrial alternative oxidase 1a (AOX1a) plays an extremely important role in critical node of seed viability. However, the regulatory mechanism is still poorly understood. The study aims to identify regulatory mechanisms by comparing between OsAOX1a-RNAi and wild type (WT) rice seed during artificial aging treatment. Gain weight and P50 significantly decreased in OsAOX1a-RNAi rice seed, indicating that there might be impaired in seed development and storability. Compared to WT seeds in the 100%, 90%, 80%, and 70% germination, respectively, NADH and succinate-dependent O2 consumption, the activity mitochondrial malate dehydro-genase and ATP contents were decreased in OsAOX1a-RNAi seeds in the 100%, 90%, 80%, and 70% germination, respectively, indicating that mitochondrial status in the OsAOX1a-RNAi seeds after imbibition was weaken than the WT. In addition to, the reduced abundance of complex I N and P module subunits might showed that the capacity of mitochondrial electron transfer chain was significantly inhibited in the OsAOX1a-RNAi seed at critical node of seed viability. Above results might indicated that the ATP production was impaired in OsAOX1a-RNAi seeds during ageing. Therefore, we conclude that the activities of mitochondrial metabolism and alternative pathways were severely inhibited in OsAOX1a-RNAi seeds at critical node of viability, which was leading to accelerate the collapse of seed viability. The precise regulatory mechanism of the alternative pathway at the critical node of viability still needs to be further analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0113.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Solanum nigrum; anthocyanins purification; HPLC-MS/MS; antioxidant capacity; SnMYB
Online: 15 May 2017 (17:31:53 CEST)
Solanum nigrum fruits have been conventionally available as a material of beverage due to its nutritional substances such as minerals, vitamins, amino acids, proteins, sugars, polyphenols and anthocyanins. Here has rarely reported on the characterizaton of the components and the regulatory mechanism of Anthocyanins in S. nigrum. In this study, we determined that the peel and flesh of S. nigrum fruits shared the similar HPLC profiles, but the different contents and total antioxidant activities for Anthocyanins. After an efficient purification method mainly including extraction with pH 1.0 distilled water and then desorption with pH 1.0 95% ethanol after a DM-130 resin adsorption step to obtain more pure anthocyanins extracts, the purity of anthocyanins extract from S. nigrum fruits reached to 56.1%. Moreover, eight anthocyanins from S. nigrum fruit were identified with HPLC-MS/MS for the first time. A typical R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, SnMYB, was also cloned for the first time by RACE-PCR from S. nigrum. Moreover, the contents of anthocyanins was shown a good correlation (r = 0.93) with the expression levels of SnMYB during the fruits developmental stages. Most significantly, SnMYB successfully produced high anthocyanins contents (1.03 mg/g) when SnMYB was transiently expressed in tobacco leaves. Taken together, S. nigrum fruits are a promising resource for anthocyanins extraction and SnMYB is an activator that positively regulates anthocyanins biosynthesis in S. nigrum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1256.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: supernovae; general; supernovae; individual: SN 2017fzw; transitional supernovae
Online: 17 May 2023 (14:21:28 CEST)
In this study, we analyzed the optical observations of a subluminous Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2017fzw, which exhibited high photospheric velocity (HV) at B-band maximum light. The absolute B-band peak magnitude was determined to be MBmax = -17.77 0.10 mag, similar to 91bg-like SNe Ia. The decline rate of the B-band light curve was estimated to be Dm15(B) = 1.60 0.06 mag. The spectra of SN 2017fzw were similar to those of 91bg-like SNe Ia, with prominent Ti II and Si II l5972 features at early phases, gradually transitioning to spectra resembling normal (mainly HV subclass) SNe Ia at later phases, with a stronger Ca II NIR feature. Notably, SN 2017fzw exhibited spectral evolution features similar to those of HV SNe Ia at all phases, with a maximum-light Si II l6355 velocity of 13, 786 414 km s
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Cortex Periplocae; traditional Chinese medicines; periplocin; phytochemistry; biological activities
Online: 8 December 2016 (10:24:43 CET)
Cortex Periplocae, as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been widely used for autoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis. Due to its potential pharmaceutical values, more studies about the biological activities of Cortex Periplocae have been conducted recently. Meanwhile, the adverse reaction of Cortex Periplocae is not a negligible problem in clinic. In this article, we reviewed a series of articles and summarized the recent studies of Cortex Periplocae in the areas of phytochemistry and pharmacology. More than 100 constituents have been isolated and identified from Cortex Periplocae, including steroids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, and fatty acid compounds. The crude extracts of Cortex Periplocae and its active compounds exhibit various biological activities, such as cardiotonic effect, anticancer action, and anti-inflammatory effect. This paper aims to provide an overall review on the bioactive ingredients, pharmacological effect, and toxicity of this plant. Furthermore, this review suggests investigating and developing new clinical usages according to the above pharmacological effects.