ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0230.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Ixeris dentate; lactobacillus, salivation; xerostomia
Online: 13 March 2020 (10:18:15 CET)
Dry mouth, hyposalivation, or xerostomia is a significant problem in diabetic patients; however, there was no way to relieve these symptoms. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Ixeris dentata (IXD) in combination with lactobacillus extract on the salivation rate in diabetes-induced dry mouth, and its mechanism was also investigated. In the streptozotocin-induced diabetes model, dry mouth condition was established as a model. Both control and diabetic rats were treated with a sublingual spray of either water or IXD and subsequently treated with or without a spray of lactobacillus extract. In diabetes condition, the salivary flow rate, amylase activity, and aquaporin-5 and Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE-1) expressions were markedly decreased, whereas they were more significantly recovered in the sequential treatment of IXD-lactobacillus extract than each single treatment. Furthermore, oxidative stress and its related ER stress response were especially regulated in the IXD/lactobacillus extract condition, where the following anti-oxidative enzymes; GSH:GSSG ratio, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were involved. This study suggests that the combination of IXD and lactobacillus would be a potential alternative medicine against diabetes-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Xerostomia; Dry mouth; Salivary hypofunction; Saliva
Online: 22 July 2020 (09:44:12 CEST)
Xerostomia is a subjective symptom of dry mouth resulting from various causes, including side effects of medication, systemic disorders, radiation, and Sjögren’s syndrome. Recently, the number of patients afflicted with xerostomia has increased due to an increase in the elderly population and patients on medication.; (2) Methods: A systematic approach is required to determine the etiology and management of xerostomia. This review summarizes recent literatures on the diagnosis and management of xerostomia.; (3) Results: A patient with xerostomia experiences difficulty in chewing, swallowing, speaking, tasting, and maintaining oral hygiene. Xerostomia and hyposalivation are uncomfortable side-effects in many patients. Assessing the function of the salivary gland is essential for selecting an appropriate treatment, improving symptoms, and preventing oral complications. Also, a more systematic approach is required to differentiate the subjective symptoms of the patient from the objective hyposalivation.; and (4) Conclusions: Although there is no standardized treatment for xerostomia, doctors need to endeavor and adapt the various treatments of xerostomia, to unearth the optimal treatment required for the patient.