ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: anaesthesia; workforce challenges; qualitative research; Pakistan
Online: 5 September 2022 (04:30:46 CEST)
Global anaesthesia workforce limitations contribute to emigration of skilled anaesthesiologists from lower- to higher-income countries, jeopardizing workforce balance and patient outcomes in Pakistan. This study aims to explore challenges experienced by anaesthesiologists in Punjab, Pakistan’s most populous province, and necessary changes to encourage their retention. We conducted a qualitative study to examine perspectives of anaesthesiologists who chose to serve in Pakistan. We drew data from semi-structured interviews conducted with 25 purposively-sampled consultant anaesthesiologists. We analysed data thematically and distinguished the practice hurdles faced by anaesthesiologists in public and private hospitals of Punjab. The main reasons to work abroad could be broadly categorized under two inductive themes, i.e. practice hurdles in public and private sector. Both had distinct issues which compromised the number and quality of anaesthesia workforce in the country. The key outcomes were workplace security, promotion/incentive issues and gender inequalities in the government sector. The private sector had improper salaries and facilities, anaesthesiologist’s dependency on surgeons for getting work and lack of out-of-theatre practice which minimise the scope and earnings of anaesthesiologist within the country. There is a need to overcome surgeon dependency and hospital manipulation by fixing salary percentages for each surgical case and encouraging direct patient-anaesthesiologist relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: medical workforce shortage; rural and remote; recruitment and retention; sustainable rural medical workforce; medical school innitiatives.
Online: 1 December 2022 (01:05:35 CET)
.Abstract: Indonesia, one of the Asia Pacific LMICs, has suffered from a chronic medical workforce shortage. However, there are limited published studies describing the approaches implemented by the Indonesian government regarding the recruitment and retention of the medical workforce. This case study aimed to understand the current practices for recruitment and retention of the medical workforce in Indonesian rural and remote provinces. We conducted a case study of the Maluku Province of Indonesia with document analysis and key informant interviews with officials responsible for medical workforce recruitment and retention. We used the WHO’s guidelines as an analytical matrix to examine the recruitment and retention practices under four domains, i) educational, ii) regulatory, iii) financial, and iv) professional and personal development, and classified them into University/Medical School level and Government/Non-government level. Our findings suggest that Indonesia has implemented most of the WHO-recommended medical workforce recruitment and retention strategies. However, implementation is still problematic; hence, the aim of establishing an adequate, sustainable medical workforce has not been reached. Nationwide government intervention in educational aspects is important to magnify the impact of the regional medical school initiatives. Relevant programs must be re-evaluated and re-enforced concerning significance, comprehensiveness and effectiveness for sustainable rural and remote medical workforce.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0418.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: health workforce; operational models; planning; skill mix; integration
Online: 21 January 2021 (12:35:46 CET)
Over the last decade, there has been a renewed interest in oral health workforce planning. The purpose of this review is to examine oral health workforce planning models on supply, demand and needs, mainly in respect to their data sources, modelling technique and use of skill mix. A search was carried out on PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases for published scientific articles on oral health workforce planning models between 2010 to 2020. No restrictions were placed on the type of modelling philosophy, and all studies including supply, demand or needs based models were included. Rapid review methods guided the review process. Twenty-three studies from 15 different countries were included in the review. A majority were from high income countries (n=17). Dentists were the sole oral health workforce group modelled in 13 studies; only five studied included skill mix (allied dental personnel) considerations. The most common application of modelling was a workforce to population ratio or a needs-based demand weighted variant. Nearly all studies presented weaknesses in modelling process due to the limitations in data sources and/or non availability of necessary data to inform oral health workforce planning. Skill mix considerations in planning models were also limited to horizontal integration within oral health professionals. Planning for the future oral health workforce is heavily reliant on quality data being available for supply, demand and needs models. Integrated methodologies that expand skill mix considerations and account for uncertainty are essential for future planning exercises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Intensive Care Units; Workforce; Mechanical Ventilation; Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Online: 8 July 2021 (13:34:14 CEST)
Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the number of nurses who independently care for pa-tients with severe respiratory failure receiving mechanical ventilation (MV) or veno-venous ex-tracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). Additionally, the study analyzed the actual role of nurses in the treatment of patients with MV and VV-ECMO. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using postal surveys. The study included 725 Japanese intensive care units (ICUs). Descriptive statistics were conducted. Results: Among the 725 ICUs, we obtained 302 re-sponses (41.7%) and analyzed 282 responses. The median number of nurses per bed was 3.25. The median proportion of nurses who independently cared for patients with MV was 60% [IQR: 42.3-77.3]. The median proportion of nurses who independently cared for patients with VV-ECMO was 46.9 (35.7-63.3%) in the ICU experiencing VV-ECMO use. Concerning task-sharing, 33.8% of ICUs and nurses did not facilitate weaning from MV. Nurses always ti-trated sedatives in 44.5% of ICUs. Conclusion: Nurse staffing might be inadequate in all ICUs, es-pecially for severe respiratory failure. The proportion of competent nurses for caring for severe respiratory failure in ICUs should be considered when determining the work force of nurses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0034.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: remote work; telework; systematic literature review; work design; workforce planning
Online: 2 September 2022 (05:54:08 CEST)
The practice of telework, remote work, and working from home has grown significantly across the pandemic era (2020+). These practices offer new ways of working but come with a lack of clarity as to the role it plays in supporting the wellbeing of staff. (1) Background: the purpose of this study is to examine the current literature on wellbeing outcomes and effects of telework; (2) Methods: this study adopts a systematic literature review from 2000-2022 using the PRISMA approach and thematic analysis guided by the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (Wellbeing, Decent Work, Gender Equality, and Inclusive Production); (3) Results: it was evident that there is a lack of clarity on the actual effects of telework on employee wellbeing, but it appeared that it had a generally positive effect on short-term wellbeing of staff, and created more flexible and proactive work design opportunities; (4) Conclusions: there is a need for more targeted research into work designs that support wellbeing and productivity of staff, and consider the environmental sustainability changes from reduced office and onsite work and increased working from home.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0452.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: nursing faculty shortage; nurse faculty; educator; nursing academic workforce; scoping review; Canada
Online: 22 January 2021 (14:18:36 CET)
Background: Strong nursing faculty is paramount to promote disciplinary leadership and to prepare future nurses for practice. Our understanding of the factors associated with or predictive of nurse faculty retention and/or turnover is lacking. Purpose: The aim of this review is to identify and synthesize the existing literature on factors contributing to nurse faculty shortage in Canada and implications on nursing practice. Methods: A scoping review based on the Arskey and O’Malley’s five stage framework for scoping reviews was undertaken. Utilising the PRISMA protocol, a comprehensive and structured literature search was conducted in five databases of studies published in English.Findings: Limited through search inclusion and relevance of research, nine studies out of 220 papers met the criteria for this review and were thematically analyzed. Identified themes were: supply versus demand; employment conditions; organizational support; and personal factors.Discussion: Impending retirement of faculty, unsupportive leadership, and stressful work environments were frequently reported as significant contributing factors to the faculty shortage.Conclusions: This scoping review provide insights into how Canada’s schools of nursing could engage in grounded efforts to lessen nursing faculty shortage, both nationally and globally. We identified a gap in the literature that indicates that foundational work is needed to create context-specific solutions. The limited studies published in Canada suggests that this is a critical area for future research and funding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Data Management; Utilization and Analysis; Capacity Building; Health professionals; Workforce Development; Evidence Based
Online: 7 June 2018 (08:54:20 CEST)
The objective of the study was to investigate the gap between data and evidence-based decisions among healthcare professionals considering the enormous amount of individual and aggregate data collected. Our study assessed the capacity, skills, and knowledge of the Ministry of Health leadership staff to understand data management, analysis, utilization, and dissemination. Three key components were assessed: 1) Knowledge through true/false questions, 2) Level of Skill (and Competency) using a Likert scale, and 3) Understanding of Key Concepts and Tools based on a Likert scale. The 183 study respondents were diverse healthcare professionals from Kenya, Tanzania, and Rwanda. Majority of respondents had not received any training on data management, analysis, interpretation, and utilization techniques, further there was a significant difference between those who had received training versus those who had not(p=0.005). The respondents were competent in work-related experiences but lacked skills and knowledge on: data concepts and tools, study designs, and types of data analysis. These findings explain the gap between data management, analysis, utilization, and dissemination among health professional’s cadre. To enhance service delivery and optimal provision of health care, it is imperative to have all health care professionals receive a well-designed training on data management, analysis, interpretation, and utilization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0560.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: nursing education; undergraduate curricula; nursing workforce; digital literacy; information and communication technologies; digital health
Online: 31 January 2023 (01:22:38 CET)
Background and Aims: Nurses are increasingly engaging with digital technologies to enhance safe, evidence-based patient care. Digital literacy is now considered a foundational skill and an integral requirement for lifelong learning, and includes the ability to search efficiently, critique information and recognise the inherent risk of bias in information sources. However, at many universities, digital literacy is assumed. In part, this can be linked to the concept of the Digital Native, a term first coined in 2001 by the US author Marc Prensky, to describe young people born after 1980 who have been surrounded by mobile phones, computers, and other digital devices their entire lives. The objective of this paper is to explore the concept of the Digital Native and how this influences undergraduate nursing education. Materials and Methods: A pragmatic approach has been used for this narrative review, working forward from Prensky’s definition of the Digital Native and backward from contemporary sources of information extracted from published health, education, and nursing literature. Results: The findings from this narrative review will inform further understanding of digital literacy beliefs and how these influence undergraduate nursing education. Recommendations for enhancing the digital literacy of undergraduate nursing students are also discussed. Conclusions: Digital literacy is an essential requirement for undergraduate nursing students and nurses, and is linked with safe, evidence-based patient care. The myth of the Digital Native negates the reality that exposure to digital technologies does not equate with digital literacy and has resulted in deficits in nursing education programs. Digital literacy skills should be a part of undergraduate nursing curricula, and National Nursing Digital Literacy competencies for entry into practice as a Registered Nurse should be developed and contextualised to individual jurisdictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0460.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; psychological wellbeing; workforce; peer-to-peer support; psychological first aid; wellbeing
Online: 22 February 2021 (11:37:12 CET)
Supported wellbeing centres were set up in UK hospital trusts as an early intervention aimed at mitigating the psychological impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers. These provided high quality rest spaces with peer-to-peer psychological support provided by National Health Service (NHS) staff volunteers called ‘wellbeing buddies’, trained in psychological first aid. The aim of the study was to explore the views of centre visitors and operational staff towards this COVID-19 workforce wellbeing provision. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were undertaken with twenty-four (20F, 4M) employees from an acute hospital trust in the UK. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed, data were handled and analysed using thematic analysis. Interviews generated 3 over-arching themes, and 13 sub-themes covering ‘exposure and job roles’, ‘emotional impacts of COVID-19 and ‘the wellbeing centres’. Supported wellbeing centres were viewed as critical for the wellbeing of hospital employees during the first surge of COVID-19 in the UK. Wellbeing initiatives require managerial advocacy and must be inclusive. Job-related barriers to work breaks and accessing staff wellbeing provisions should be addressed. High quality rest spaces and access to peer-to-peer support are seen to benefit individuals, teams, organisations and care quality. Training NHS staff in psychological first aid is a useful approach to supporting the wellbeing of the NHS workforce during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0433.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: primary health care; workforce crisis; general practitioner vacancy; aging of general practitioners; premature mortality
Online: 30 May 2018 (05:47:53 CEST)
The workforce crisis of primary care is reflected in the increasing number of general medical practices (GMP) with vacant general practitioner (GP) position, and the GPs’ ageing. Our study aimed to describe the association between this crisis and premature mortality. Age-sex-standardized mortality for 18-64 years old adults were calculated for all Hungarian GMPs annually in the period from 2006 to 2014. The relationship of premature mortality with GPs’ age and vacant GP position were evaluated by standardized linear regression controlled for list size, urbanization, geographical location, clients’ education, and type of the GMP. The clients’ education was the strongest protective factor (beta=-0175; p<0.001), followed by urban residence (beta=-0.149; p<0.001), and the bigger list size (beta1601-2000=-0.054; p<0.001; beta2001-X=-0.096; p<0.001). The geographical localization influenced significantly also the risk. Although, GMP with a GP aged older than 65 years (beta=0; p=0.995) did not affected the risk, GP vacancy was associated with higher risk (beta=0.010; p=0.033), but the corresponding number of attributable cases was 23.54 for 9 years. The vacant GP position is associated with significant but hardly detectable increased risk of premature mortality without considerable public health importance. Nevertheless, employment of GPs aged more than 65 does not impose premature mortality risk elevation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0300.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: health service managers; competency frameworks; capacity building; digital health; health informatics; health workforce; health management degrees
Online: 20 September 2022 (09:47:29 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has sped up digital health transformation across the health sectors to enable innovative health service delivery. Such transformation relies on competent managers with the capacity to lead and manage. However, the health system has not adopted a holistic approach in addressing the health management workforce development needs, with many hurdles to overcome. The objectives of this paper are to present the findings of a three-step approach in understanding the current hurdles in developing a health management workforce that can enable and maximise the benefits of digital health transformation, and to explore ways of overcoming such hurdles. Methods: A three-step, systematic approach was undertaken, including an Australian digital health policy documentary analysis, an Australian health service management postgraduate program analysis, and a scoping review of international literatures. Results: The main findings will guide the formulation of strategies in developing a digitally enabled health management workforce in the digital health era. Conclusions: With the ever-changing landscape of digital health, being able to lead and manage in times of system transformation requires a holistic approach to develop the necessary health management workforce capabilities and system-wide capacity. The evidence would support that this can be achieved with the required system, policy, educational and professional organizational enablers, which drive a digital health focused approach across all the healthcare sectors, in a coordinated and contextual manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Care home; Long-term care; Social care; Preparedness; Contingency plan; Safety culture; Workforce; Survey
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:52:34 CEST)
(1) Background: Nursing homes’ preparedness in managing a public health crisis has been fragile, with effects on safety culture. The objective of this study was to assess nursing homes’ COVID-19 preparedness in Southern Portugal, including personnel’s work experiences during the pandemic. (2) Methods: We used a COVID-19 preparedness checklist to be completed by management teams, followed by follow-up calls to nursing homes. Thereafter, a survey to personnel was applied. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and thematic analysis of open-end questions. (3) Results: In total, 71% (138/195) of eligible nursing homes returned the preparedness checklist. We conducted 83 follow-up calls and received 720 replies to the personnel survey. On average, 25% of nursing homes did not have an adequate decision-making structure to respond to the pandemic. Outbreak capacity and training were fragile areas among nursing homes’ contingency plans. We identified compliance with procedures and nonpunitive response to mistakes as fragile areas of safety culture, and teamwork as a strong safety area. (4) Conclusions: To strengthen how nursing homes cope with upcoming phases of the COVID-19 pandemic or future public health emergencies, nursing homes’ preparedness and safety culture should be fostered and closely monitored.