ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0269.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind energy; wind turbines; SCADA; retrofitting; performance evaluation
Online: 20 April 2018 (14:11:15 CEST)
Full-scale wind turbine technology has been widely developing in the recent years and condition monitoring techniques assist at the scope of making 100\% technical availability a realistic perspective. In this context, several retrofitting techniques are being used for further improving the efficiency of wind kinetic energy conversion. This kind of interventions is costly and, furthermore, the estimation of the energy enhancement is commonly provided under the hypothesis of ideal conditions, as for example absence of wakes between nearby turbines. A precise quantification of the energy gained by retrofitting is therefore precious in real conditions, that can be very different from ideal ones. In this work, three kinds of retrofitting are studied through the operational data of test case wind farms: improved start-up through pitch angle adjustment near the cut-in, aerodynamic blade retrofitting by means of vortex generators and passive flow control devices, extension of the power curve by raising cut-out and high wind speed cut-in. SCADA data are employed and reliable methods are formulated for estimating the energy improvement from each of the above retrofitting. Further, an insight is provided about wind turbine functioning under very stressing regimes, as for example high wind speeds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1621.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: wind energy; wind turbine blades; wind turbine towers; manufacturing
Online: 27 September 2023 (02:37:20 CEST)
In Zambia, three feasibility studies have been conducted to assess the potential of wind energy for power generation. However, these studies did not investigate the capability of local support industries to manufacture wind turbine blades and towers. This study aimed to investigate and profile the capability of Zambian industries to manufacture wind turbine blades and towers. The study used a mixed-method approach to collect data; this utilized qualitative and quantitative approaches. The population of Zambian industries was collected from the Zambia Association of Manufacturers based on the registered members. This data was used to define the population for the study; the population was arranged into three strata whose characteristics are homogeneous within the stratum. Due to the low population, the study was conducted on the whole population. The qualitative data was collected from each stratum using a quantitative data collection tool developed for each stratum and analyzed. The study considered the capability of manufacturing companies based on wind potential results for Class III and Class IV, which exist in some sites. The results have revealed that on an as-is basis, no company in Zambia can manufacture WT blades and towers unless there is a complete overhaul of some companies or total investment in new infrastructure and equipment. The findings are useful for stakeholders involved in developing the wind power sector in Zambia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Vertical Axis Wind Turbine; Wind Energy; Helical Blade; CFD
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:00:17 CET)
The global energy crisis has lead researchers explore other sources of energy like wind, resulting in a wide acceptance of wind turbines. Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) more suitable for small scale application in urban conditions than their horizontal-axis counterparts. A Helical bladed VAWT would reduce the ripple effect when compared to Straight bladed VAWT. The effect of the blade helix angle on the aerodynamic performance of VAWT using 3D numerical simulations is studied. Turbulence modelled using 4-Equation transition SST k-w model. Three different helix angles of 60, 90 and 120 of a 3 bladed VAWT operating across different tip speed ratios were studied. The 60 helical bladed VAWT was found to perform better than all other helical bladed and straight bladed VAWT. Standard deviation of the moment coefficient generated by a blade plotted against 360 of azimuth rotation revealed that the ripple effect on the shaft produced by cyclic loading of the straight blade is considerably reduced upon introduction of helix angle, with 120 helical blade giving lowest standard deviation. The analysis has been done for the percentage of power generated by each quartile of flow and the contribution of each section of the blade. A comparative study was also conducted between different helical bladed VAWT and straight bladed VAWT. Flow feature analysis also revealed the reasons behind secondary peaks and the performance improvement when tip speed ratio increases. Wake structure analysis and flow contours were also studied for a better understanding of the flow field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0058.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Wind power; Generating set; Venturi Effect
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:01:16 CET)
The growing need to use renewable sources and the current difficulty in spreading the electricity grid in a widespread manner raise the question of how to respond to the need for more electricity immediately. The idea behind this study is to power a horizontal axis wind turbine with the air flow generated for cooling a stationary internal combustion engine. The power extracted from this solution is significantly lower than that of the internal combustion engine (about 0.3%) and could be advantageous only in limited contexts. Installation costs are limited because many elements deriving from wind variability can be removed or simplified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0417.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: wind power; wind turbine fatigue; active yaw control
Online: 24 January 2023 (02:52:15 CET)
This study investigates the power production and blade fatigue of a three-turbine array subjected to active yaw control (AYC) in full-wake and partial-wake configurations. A framework of two-way coupled large-eddy simulation (LES) and aeroelastic blade simulation is applied to simulate the atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) flow through the turbine array and the structural responses of the turbine blades. Mean power outputs and blade fatigue loads are extracted from the simulation results. By exploring the feasible AYC decision space, we find that (a) in the full-wake configuration, the local power-optimal AYC strategy with positive yaw angles endures less flapwise blade fatigue and more edgewise blade fatigue than the global power-optimal strategy; (b) in the partial-wake configuration, applying positive AYC in certain inflow wind directions achieves higher optimal power gains than that in the full-wake scenario and reduces the blade fatigue from the non-yawed benchmark. Through a theoretical analysis based on the blade element momentum theory, we reveal that the aforementioned differences in flapwise blade fatigue between the positively and negatively yawed turbine are due to the differences in the azimuthal distributions of the local relative velocity on blade sections, resulting from the combined effects of vertical wind shear and blade rotation. Furthermore, the difference in the blade force between the positively and negatively yawed front-row turbine induces different wake velocity and turbulence distributions, causing different fatigue loads on the downwind turbine exposed to the wake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0356.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Wind turbine; Renewable energy; Wind energy; Machine learning; Gearbox
Online: 18 January 2021 (15:12:17 CET)
Wind energy is becoming an essential source of power for countries which have the aim to reduce greenhouse gases emission and mitigate the effects of global warming. The Wind Turbines (WTs) installed around the globe is increasing significantly every year. The dramatic increase in wind power has encountered quite a few challenges, among which the major issues are availability and reliability. The unexpected failure in WTs Gearbox (GB) ultimately increases the Operation and Maintenance (O&M) cost. The identification of faults in the earlier stages before it turns to catastrophic damage to other components of WT is crucial. This research deals with the prediction of WT failures by using a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. The main aim is to forecast the temperature of the WTs GB to predict the impending overheating of the GB at an early stage. The earlier prediction will help to optimize the maintenance period and to save maintenance expenses and, even more important, generate warnings in due time to avoid major damages or even technical disasters. In the proposed method we compared six different machine learning (ML) models based on error and accuracy of prediction. The bagging regressor is the best ML model, which results in the mean square error of 0.33 and R of 99.8 on training data. The bagging regressor is then used to predict the fault in the WT GB, which detected the anomalous behavior of WT GB 59 days earlier than the actual failure. This model also detects the extremely unusual behavior of the GB 9 days earlier than a complete failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0484.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: CFD; unsteady BEM; floating offshore wind turbine; scaled wind turbine rotor
Online: 29 August 2018 (06:43:56 CEST)
Aerodynamic performance of a floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) is significantly influenced by platform surging motions. Accurate prediction of the unsteady aerodynamic loads is imperative for determining the fatigue life, ultimate loads on key components such as FOWT rotor blades, gearbox and power converter. The current study examines the predictions of numerical codes by comparing with unsteady experimental results of a scaled floating wind turbine rotor. The influence of platform surge amplitude together with the tip speed ratio on the unsteady aerodynamic loading has been simulated through unsteady CFD. It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamic loads of FOWT are highly sensitive to the changes in frequency and amplitude of the platform motion. Also, the surging motion significantly influences the windmill operating state due to strong flow interaction between the rotating blades and generated blade-tip vortices. Almost in all frequencies and amplitudes, CFD, LR-BEM and LR-uBEM predictions of mean thrust shows a good correlation with experimental results.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: marine hydrokinetic turbine; wind energy; floating offshore wind turbine; mooring lines; floating platform; vertical axis turbine
Online: 4 November 2019 (05:13:32 CET)
In April 2019, a team of Keio University and Bucknell University students was assembled to participate in Ericsson Innovation Awards with a novel concept for generating renewable energy. This conceptual system consists of a vertical axis wind turbine, a crossflow marine hydrokinetic turbine, a floating platform integrated with a quadcopter system, and three to four temporary mooring lines with ship-type anchors. The proposed designed aims to offer solutions to two current problems of floating offshore wind energy: high construction cost of floating platforms and difficulties in maintenance of mooring lines. The combination of two vertical-axis turbines into a single floating platform would enable the system, namely ESwift, to extract energy from both wind and current resources. Additionally, due to the utilization of vertical axis turbines, the center of gravity of the proposed concept is significantly lower with respect to water level, compared to that of existing floating horizontal axis wind turbines, which would potentially reduce the floater's size and construction cost. Lastly, the integrated quadcopter mechanism would assist the floater in terms of stability and mobility, and enables an array of ESwifts to automatically rearrange for maximal energy generation. The authors hope that readers would find the idea described in this open access letter worth pursuing and would further develop and commercialize the ESwift concept.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0488.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: aerodynamics; dynamic stall; engineering model; wind energy; wind turbine
Online: 28 March 2023 (12:43:07 CEST)
Considering the dynamic stall effects in engineering calculations is essential for correcting the aerodynamic loads acting on wind turbines, both during power production and stand-still cases, and impacts significantly the turbine aeroelastic stability. The employed dynamic stall model needs to be accurate and robust for a wide range of airfoils and range of angle of attack. The present studies are intended to demonstrate the performance of a recently implemented "IAG dynamic stall" model in a wind turbine design tool Bladed. The model is transformed from the indicial type of formulation into a state-space representation. The new model is validated against measurement data and other dynamic stall models in Bladed for various flow conditions and airfoils. It is demonstrated that the new model is able to reproduce the measured dynamic polar accurately without airfoil specific parameter calibration and has a superior performance compared to other models in Bladed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0281.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Wind Energy; Wind Turbine; Drone Inspection; Damage Detection; Deep Learning; Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)
Online: 28 January 2019 (15:50:04 CET)
Timely detection of surface damages on wind turbine blades is imperative for minimising downtime and avoiding possible catastrophic structural failures. With recent advances in drone technology, a large number of high-resolution images of wind turbines are routinely acquired and subsequently analysed by experts to identify imminent damages. Automated analysis of these inspection images with the help of machine learning algorithms can reduce the inspection cost, thereby reducing the overall maintenance cost arising from the manual labour involved. In this work, we develop a deep learning based automated damage suggestion system for subsequent analysis of drone inspection images. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach could achieve almost human level precision in terms of suggested damage location and types on wind turbine blades. We further demonstrate that for relatively small training sets advanced data augmentation during deep learning training can better generalise the trained model providing a significant gain in precision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: aerodynamics; BEM; CFD; simulation; wind turbine
Online: 12 October 2018 (08:05:56 CEST)
The present studies deliver the computational investigations of a 10 MW turbine with a diameter of 205.8 m developed within the framework of the AVATAR (Advanced Aerodynamic Tools for Large Rotors) project. The simulations were carried out using two methods with different fidelity levels, namely the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and blade element and momentum (BEM) approaches. For this purpose, a new BEM code namely B-GO was developed employing several correction terms and three different polar and spatial interpolation options. Several flow conditions were considered in the simulations, ranging from the design condition to the off-design condition where massive flow separation takes place, challenging the validity of the BEM approach. An excellent agreement is obtained between the BEM computations and the 3D CFD results for all blade regions, even when massive flow separation occurs on the blade inboard area. The results demonstrate that the selection of the polar data can influence the accuracy of the BEM results significantly, where the 3D polar datasets extracted from the CFD simulations are considered the best. The BEM prediction depends on the interpolation order and the blade segment discretization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: wind turbine; LPV; DOBC; multivariable
Online: 24 January 2018 (07:03:52 CET)
This paper is concerned with bump-less transfer of parametrized disturbance observer based controller (DOBC) with Individual Pitch Control (IPC) strategy for full load operation of wind turbine. Aerodynamic cyclic loads are reduced by tuning multivariable DOBC with the objective to reduce output power fluctuation, tower oscillation and drive-train torsion. Furthermore tower shadow and wind shear effect are also mitigated using parametrized controller. A scheduling mechanism between two DOBC is developed and tested on Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence ( FAST) code model of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)’s 5 MW wind turbine. The closed-loop system performance is assessed by comparing the simulation results of proposed controller with a fixed gain and Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) DOBC with Collective Pitch Control (CPC) for full load operation. It is tested with step changing wind to see the behavior of the system under step change with wind shear and tower shadow (cyclic load) effects. Also turbulent wind is applied to see the smooth transition of the controllers. It can be concluded from the results that the proposed parametrized control DOBC with IPC shows smooth transition from one controller to another by interpolation. Moreover fatigue of the gear and tower due to wind shear and tower shadow effects are reduced considerably by the proposed controller as compared to collective pitch control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0545.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: BEM; tidal energy; turbine array; linear methodology; wind energy
Online: 30 April 2020 (17:27:21 CEST)
Tidal stream energy, due to its high level of consistency and predictability, is one of the feasible and promising type of renewable energy for future development and investment. Applicability of Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method for modeling the interaction of turbines in tidal arrays has been proven in many studies. Apart from its well-known capabilities, yet there is scarcity of research using BEM for the modeling of tidal stream energy farms considering full scale rotors. In this paper, a real geographical site for developing a tidal farm in the southern coasts of Iran is selected. Then, a numerical methodology is validated and calibrated for the selected farm by analyzing array of turbines. A linear equation is proposed to calculate tidal power of marine hydrokinetic turbines. This methodology narrows down the wide range of turbine array configurations, reduces the cost of optimization and focuses on estimating best turbine arrangements in a limited number of positions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: wind turbine; wake; atmospheric stability; actuator disk; BEM
Online: 2 July 2019 (04:11:13 CEST)
Atmospheric stability affects wind turbine wakes significantly. High-fidelity approaches such as large eddy simulations (LES) with the actuator line (AL) model which predicts detailed wake structures, fail to be applied in wind farm engineering applications due to its expensive cost. In order to make wind farm simulations computationally affordable, this paper proposes a new actuator disk model (AD) based on the blade element method (BEM) and combined with Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS) to model turbine wakes under different atmospheric stability conditions. In the proposed model, the upstream reference velocity is firstly estimated from the disk averaged velocity based on the one-dimensional momentum theory, and then is used to evaluate the rotor speed to calculate blade element forces. Flow similarity functions based on field measurement are applied to limit wind shear under strongly stable conditions, and turbulence source terms are added to take the buoyant-driven effects into consideration. Results from the new AD model are compared with field measurements and results from the AD model based on the thrust coefficient, the BEM-AD model with classical similarity functions and a high-fidelity LES approach. The results show that the proposed method is better in simulating wakes under various atmospheric stability conditions than the other AD models and has a similar performance to the high-fidelity LES approach however in much lower computational cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1345.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: floating offshore wind turbine; numerical modelling; physical testing; scale models
Online: 10 October 2023 (03:21:49 CEST)
Design, analysis, manufacture, and deployment of offshore wind turbines mounted on a floating base is a novel industry that is attracting interest from both academia and industry. In an effort to comprehend the sophisticated aerodynamics and hydrodynamics of the floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs), numerical and physical modelling of these complex systems began to develop with their appearance. The strong coupling between the aerodynamics of the rotor-nacelle assembly (RNA) and the hydrodynamics of the floating platform makes modelling FOWTs a challenging task. However, the scaling mismatch between Froude scaling and Reynolds scaling made it more difficult to physically test scaled-down prototypes of FOWTs, whether in a wind tunnel or an ocean basin. In this regard, developing high-fidelity numerical modelling that is both cost-effective and accurate has been receiving increased attention as a potential replacement for or complement to physical testing. However, numerical engineering tools, which are frequently used in the offshore oil and gas industry, are known as mid-fidelity to low-fidelity tools and lack the degree of accuracy that is desirable for FOWTs. In recent years, a variety of numerical tools have been established or developed to uncover the complex nature of the dynamics of FOWTs. This study aims to provide a comprehensive survey of numerical tools available for simulating FOWTs, with a particular emphasis on horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs), assessing their capabilities and limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0082.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: wind energy; wind turbines; supervisory control and data acquisition; retrofitting; performance evaluation
Online: 6 June 2018 (10:17:12 CEST)
Wind turbine upgrades have been spreading in the recent years in the wind energy industry, with the aim of optimizing the efficiency of wind kinetic energy conversion. This kind of interventions has material and labor costs and it is therefore fundamental to estimate realistically the production improvement. Further, the retrofitting of wind turbines sited in harsh environments might exacerbate the stressing conditions to which wind turbines are subjected and consequently might affect the residue lifetime. This work deals with a case of retrofitting: the testing ground is a multi-megawatt wind turbine from a wind farm sited in a very complex terrain. The blades have been optimized by installing vortex generators and passive flow control devices. The complexity of this test case, dictated by the environment and by the features of the data set at disposal, inspires the formulation of a general method for estimating production upgrades, based on multivariate linear modeling of the power output of the upgraded wind turbine. The method is a distinctive part of the outcome of this work because it is generalizable to the study of whatever wind turbine upgrade and it is adaptable to the features of the data sets at disposal. In particular, applying this model to the test case of interest, it arises that the upgrade increases the annual energy production of the wind turbine of an amount of the order of the 2%. This quantity is of the same order of magnitude, albeit non-negligibly lower, than the estimate based on the assumption of ideal wind conditions. Therefore, it arises that complex wind conditions might affect the efficiency of wind turbine upgrades and it is therefore important to estimate their impact using data from wind turbines operating in the real environment of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: CFD; NACA airfoil; wind turbine; attack angle; wall pressure
Online: 1 April 2018 (11:46:52 CEST)
A numerical study of the flow over a NACA aerofoil is presented in this paper. The numerical simulations are achieved with the computer code CFX and the computational domain is created by the computer tool ANSYS ICEM CFD. The CFX code is based on the finite volume method to solve the equations of mass, momentum and energy. The purpose of this paper is to determine the pressure distribution, flow patterns and the forces acting on the airfoil. Effects of the attack angle and Reynolds number on the velocity and pressure distribution, on the lift and drag coefficients are also explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1617.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: renewable energy; wind turbine; emission reduction; techno-economic; permanent magnet alternator
Online: 22 June 2023 (12:08:22 CEST)
The utilization of wind energy has become increasingly popular in the United States and many European countries due to its abundant natural source and optimized design. While existing wind turbines are predominantly large-scale and not suitable for standalone or distributed power production, Lubbock County in West Texas offers a diverse range of renewable energy options to meet its energy needs. The region relies heavily on utility-scale wind energy sources to supply power to the Texas Grid, replacing conventional fossil fuel-based systems. Currently, standalone solar PV systems are the preferred choice for renewable energy generation. However, West Texas possesses an ample supply of wind energy that can be harnessed to establish a microgrid and provide standalone power to rural communities. By employing the latest technology and optimizing efficiency, even in low-scale generation, a 6 kW permanent magnet alternator-based distributed wind turbine has been designed. This paper focuses on analyzing the techno-economic aspects of implementing this wind turbine in a real-world scenario, taking into account wind attributes such as velocity and available power at the specific location.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Wind energy; Data sharing; Best practice; Machine learning; Model evaluation
Online: 14 March 2023 (02:34:33 CET)
The digital era offers many opportunities to the wind energy industry and research community. Digitalisation is one of the key drivers for reducing costs and risks over the whole wind energy project life cycle. One of the largest challenges in successfully implementing digitalisation is the lack of data sharing and collaboration between organisations in the sector. In order to overcome this challenge, a new collaboration method called WeDoWind was developed in recent work. The main innovation of this method is the way it creates tangible incentives to motivate and empower different types of people from all over the world to actually share data and knowledge in practice. In this present paper, the challenges related to comparing and evaluating different SCADA data based wind turbine fault detection models are investigated by carrying out a new case study, the "WinJi Gearbox Fault Detection Challenge", based on the WeDoWind Method. Six new solutions were submitted to the challenge, and a comparison and evaluation of the results show that, in general, some of the approaches (Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm for constructing health indicators, performance monitoring using Deep Neural Networks, Combined Ward Hierarchical Clustering and Novelty Detection with Local Outlier Factor and Time-to-failure prediction using Random Forest Regression) appear to have a high potential to reach the goals of the Challenge. However, there are a number of concrete things that would have to have been done by the Challenge providers and the Challenge moderators in order to ensure success. This includes enabling access to more details of the different failure types, access to multiple data sets from more wind turbines experiencing gearbox failure, provision of a model or rule relating fault detection times or a remaining useful lifetime to the estimated costs for repairs, replacements and inspections, provision of a clear strategy for training and test periods in advance, as well as provision of a pre-defined template or requirements for the results. These learning outcomes are used directly to define a set of best practice data sharing guidelines for wind turbine fault detection model evaluation. They can be used by the sector in order to improve model evaluation and data sharing in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1097.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Wind power; solar photovoltaics; hybrid systems; complementary generation; correlated resources; wind speed analysis; turbine simulation; evening wind patterns; solar irradiance; renewable energy integration; wind-solar system; Algeria
Online: 18 September 2023 (13:34:26 CEST)
Combining wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) generation can provide complementary renewable power production, but depends on correlated resources. This study analyzed 10 years of wind data from Naama, Algeria to evaluate the potential for evening wind generation to offset the loss of solar at sunset. Average wind speeds showed a distinct increase during evening hours, coinciding with the decrease in solar irradiance. Wind turbine simulations using a 1.5 MW turbine and the wind data showed sufficient resources for profitable power production after sunset. Statistical analyses confirmed significantly higher wind speeds and simulated power output in evening vs daylight periods (p<0.05). The Pearson correlation coefficient between evening wind speeds and decreasing solar irradiance was 0.63, supporting a strong positive relationship. These findings indicate Naama has adequate wind resources to deploy economically viable wind power capacity that can complement existing solar infrastructure and provide renewable electricity after dark , .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0255.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Wind Turbine; Nonlinear Control; Parameter Variations; High–Order Sliding Mode
Online: 3 August 2023 (08:09:42 CEST)
In this paper, a robust nonlinear dynamic controller is designed for a wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator. The wind turbine is subject to variations in all the parameters appearing in its mathematical model. Furthermore, the wind velocity is considered unavailable for direct measurement. This situation is of particular interest in practical applications, where only the nominal parameter values are known, and accurate wind velocity measurement is challenging due to perturbations caused by the turbine itself, even with appropriate sensors. The problem addressed in this work involves tracking the reference angular velocity corresponding to the wind velocity. To achieve accurate tracking, appropriate compensation of the perturbation terms resulting from parameter uncertainties and wind estimation errors is required. To address this problem, an estimator of the wind velocity is utilized, along with high–order sliding mode parameter estimators, to ensure high–performance operation of the turbine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Grid-connected wind turbine; Differential speed regulation; Power control; Simulation
Online: 6 August 2018 (09:45:04 CEST)
The differential gear train and speed regulating motor constitute the variable ratio transmission for grid-connected wind turbine with differential speed regulation. The synchronous generator in the system can accessing the power grid without frequency converter. The transmission can realize the mode of variable speed constant frequency that the wind rotor speed is varying and the generator rotor speed is constant. The power control method is studied under the different wind speed which is lower or higher than rated wind speed with using the relational expression of utilization rate of wind energy Cp, pitch angle β and the tip speed ratio λ. The SIMULINK software is used to build the 1500 kW wind turbine model with differential speed regulation. Some different wind speed is made as input. The feasibility of power control method for grid-connected wind turbine with differential speed regulation is verified by the comparison between the simulation results and the theoretical value of the key parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0080.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: wind turbine; failure detection; SCADA data; feature extraction; mutual information; copula
Online: 17 January 2017 (11:21:58 CET)
More and more works are using machine learning techniques while adopting supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for wind turbine anomaly or failure detection. While parameter selection is important for modelling a wind turbine’s health condition, only a few papers have been published focusing on this issue and in those papers interconnections among sub-components in a wind turbine are used to address this problem. However, merely the interconnections for decision making sometimes is too general to provide a parameter list considering the differences of each SCADA dataset. In this paper, a method is proposed to provide more detailed suggestions on parameter selection based on mutual information. Moreover, after proving that Copula, a multivariate probability distribution for which the marginal probability distribution of each variable is uniform is capable of simplifying the estimation of mutual information, an empirical copula based mutual information estimation method (ECMI) is introduced for an application. After that, a real SCADA dataset is adopted to test the method, and the results show the effectiveness of the ECMI in providing parameter selection suggestions when physical knowledge is not accurate enough.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0315.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fuzzy systems; neural networks; fault diagnosis; data--driven approaces; robustness and reliability; wind turbine
Online: 13 May 2021 (17:39:44 CEST)
The fault diagnosis of safety critical systems such as wind turbine installations includes extremely challenging aspects that motivate the research issues considered in this paper. In fact, the prompt detection and the reliable diagnosis of faults in their earlier occurrence represent the key point especially for offshore installations. For these plants, operation and maintenance procedures in harsh environments would inevitably increase the cost of the energy production. Therefore, this work investigates fault diagnosis solutions that are considered in a viable way and used as advanced techniques for condition monitoring of dynamic processes. To this end, the work proposes the design of fault diagnosis strategies that exploit the estimation of the fault by means of data--driven approaches. This solution leads to the development of effective methods allowing the management of partially unknown information of the system dynamics, while coping with measurement errors, the model--reality mismatch and other disturbance effects. In mode detail, the proposed data--driven methodologies exploit fuzzy systems and neural networks in order to estimate the nonlinear dynamic relations between the input and output measurements of the considered process and the faults. To this end, the fuzzy and neural network structures are integrated with auto--regressive with exogenous input descriptions, thus making them able to approximate unknown nonlinear dynamic functions with arbitrary degree of accuracy. Once these models are estimated from the input and output data measurement acquired from the considered dynamic process, the capabilities of their fault diagnosis capabilities are validated by using a high--fidelity benchmark that simulates the healthy and the faulty behaviour of a wind turbine system. Moreover, at this stage the benchmark is also useful to analyse the robustness and the reliability characteristics of the developed tools in the presence of model--reality mismatch and modelling error effects featured by the wind turbine simulator. On the other hand, a hardware--in--the--loop tool is finally implemented for testing and comparing the performance of the developed fault diagnosis strategies in a more realistic environment and with respect to different fault diagnosis approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0211.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: BeamDyn; flywheel; HAWC2; load simulation; OpenFAST; variable blade inertia; wind turbine
Online: 4 July 2023 (11:09:27 CEST)
This paper presents a comparison of two methods to represent variable blade inertia in two codes for aero-servo-elastic simulations of wind turbines: the nonlinear aeroelastic multi-body model HAWC2 and the nonlinear geometrically exact beam model BeamDyn for OpenFAST. The main goal is to enable these tools to simulate the dynamic behavior of a wind turbine with variable blade inertia. However, in order to simulate the structural response of wind turbines with variable blade inertias, the source code of load simulation tools need to be modified. This is due to the fact that, currently, state-of-the-art load simulation tools for wind turbines are unable to simulate variable rotor blade inertias. The validity of the modified codes is proven based on a simple beam model. The validation shows very good agreement between the modified codes of HAWC2, BeamDyn and an analytical calculation. The add-on of variable blade inertias is applied to reduce the mechanical loads of a 5 megawatt reference wind turbine with an integrated hydraulic-pneumatic flywheel in its rotor blades.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0175.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: wind turbine; wake; atmospheric stability; MOST; turbulence models
Online: 16 August 2019 (07:52:44 CEST)
Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) overestimates wind shear in some atmospheric stable conditions, i.e. Richardson number $R_f<0.25$. The overestimated wind shear that leads to an under-predicted friction wind speed and a lower ambient turbulence intensity for a given hub-height reference wind speed and a given roughness length, could influence wake modeling of a wind turbine. This work investigates the side effects of the breakdown of MOST on wake modeling under stable conditions and makes some modifications to the flow similarity functions to eliminate these side effects. Based on a field measurement in a wind farm, we firstly show that MOST predicts a larger wind shear for the atmospheric stability parameter $\zeta>0.1$ and proposes new flow similarity functions without constraining $R_f$ to limit the overestimated wind shear by MOST. Next, different turbulence models based on MOST and a modified one based on the new similarity functions are investigated through numerical simulations. These turbulence models are combined with the actuator disk model (AD) and Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS) to model wind turbine wakes under stable conditions. As compared to measurements, numerical results show that turbulence models based on MOST result in larger wake deficits and slower wake recovery rate with a square root of the mean-squared-error (RSME) of wake deficit in the range of 0.07-0.18. This overestimated wake effect is improved by applying the new similarity functions and the RSME of wake deficit is averagely reduced by 0.05. Finally, we check the role of the under-predicted turbulence intensity playing in the larger wake deficit predicted by models based MOST. Additional numerical simulations using the modified turbulence model are carried out, in which the roughness length is reduced to impose a hub-height ambient turbulence intensity equivalent to the MOST case. Simulation results show that reducing turbulence intensity enhances wake effects, however, it cannot reproduce the large wake deficit predicted by models based on MOST, which suggests that the overestimated wake effect by MOST could be also related to the overestimated wind shear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0357.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Wind turbine system, wind energy conversion system, dynamic modeling, control designmodel, control system, operation management, switching behavior, nonlinear dynamics, modelreduction, comparative simulation
Online: 22 June 2018 (13:45:44 CEST)
Full-order state-space models represent the starting point for the development of advanced control methods for wind turbine systems (WTSs). Regarding existing control-oriented WTS models, two research gaps must be noted: (i) There exists no full-order WTS model in form of one overall ordinary differential equation that considers all dynamical effects which significantly influence the electrical power output; (ii) all existing reduced-order WTS models are subject to rather arbitrary simplifications and are not validated against a full-order model. Therefore, in this paper, two full-order nonlinear state-space models (of 11th and 9th-order in the (a, b, c)- and (d, q)-reference frame, resp.) for variable-speed variable-pitch permanent magnet synchronous generator WTSs are derived. The full-order models cover all relevant dynamical effects with significant impact on the system’s power output, including the switching behavior of the power electronic devices. Based on the full-order models, by a step-by-step model reduction procedure, two reduced-order WTS models are deduced: A non-switching (averaging) 7th-order WTS model and a non-switching 3rd-order WTS model. Comparative simulation results reveal that all models capture the dominant system dynamics properly. The full-order models allow for a detailed analysis covering the high frequency oscillations in the instantaneous power output due to the switching in the power converters. The reduced-order models provide a time-averaged instantaneous power output (which still correctly reflects the energy produced by the WTS) and come with a drastically reduced complexity making those models appropriate for large-scale power grid controller design.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0538.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Wind power; Fault current limiters, Doubly-fed induction generator; Fixed speed wind turbine; Series dynamic braking resistor
Online: 27 September 2018 (10:00:12 CEST)
The Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) has significant features in comparison with Fixed Speed Wind Turbine (FSWT), which has popularized its application in power system. Due to partial rated back-to-back converters in the DFIG, Fault Ride-Through (FRT) capability improvement is one of the great subjects regarding new grid code requirements. To enhance the FRT capability of the DFIG, many studies have been carried out. Fault current limiting devices as one of the techniques are utilized to limit the current level and protect switches of the back-to-back converter from over-current damage. In this paper, a review is done based on fault current limiting characteristic of the proposed fault current limiting devices Therefore, Fault Current Limiters (FCLs) and Series Dynamic Braking Resistors (SDBRs) are mainly taken into account. Operation of all configurations including their advantages and disadvantages is explained. Impedance type and the fault current limiting devices’ location are two important factors, which significantly affect the DFIG behaviour in the fault condition. These two factors are basically studied by the simulation and their effects on the key parameters of the DFIG are investigated. Finally, future works in respect to the FCL application in the FRT improvement of the DFIG have also been discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0772.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Sustainability; Urban energy systems; wind turbine; hydrokinetic turbine; blockage.
Online: 31 March 2021 (14:48:06 CEST)
Smart cities will have a strong impact on the future of renewable energies as terms like sustainability and energy saving will be more common. In this sense, both of wind and hydrokinetic compact-size turbines, can play an important role in urban communities by providing energy to nearby consumption points in an environmentally suitable way. This work presents the experimental evaluation for a vertical-axis turbine Darrieus type, operating in an open-field wind tunnel and a confined water channel. Power and characteristic curves have been obtained for all test conditions, also the effect of turbine blockage has been evaluated under blockage values ranging from 6.8% to 35%. The peak power coefficient for the confined flow condition reached a value of 0.31 which is 1.5 times higher than the peak one for the experimental open field condition at the same Reynolds number and a blockage of 20%. Finally, two blockage correction equations have been applied to the water channel tests, which gave values quite similar to the results obtained from the wind tunnel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0265.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: fault diagnosis; analytical redundancy; fuzzy prototypes; neural networks; diagnostic residuals; fault reconstruction; wind turbine simulator
Online: 24 December 2018 (03:59:45 CET)
The fault diagnosis of wind turbine systems represent a challenging issue, especially for offshore installations, thus justifying the research topics developed in this work. Therefore, this paper addresses the problem of the fault diagnosis of wind turbines, and it present viable solutions of fault detection and isolation techniques. The design of the so--called fault indicator consists of its estimate, which involves data--driven methods, as they result effective tools for managing partial analytical knowledge of the system dynamics, together with noise and disturbance effects. In particular, the suggested data--driven strategies exploit fuzzy systems and neural networks that are employed to determine nonlinear links between measurements and faults. The selected architectures are based on nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input prototypes, as they approximate the dynamic evolution of the system along time. The designed fault diagnosis schemes are verified via a high--fidelity simulator, which describes the normal and the faulty behaviour of an offshore wind turbine plant. Finally, by taking into account the presence of uncertainty and disturbance implemented in the wind turbine simulator, the robustness and the reliability features of the proposed methods are also assessed. This aspect is fundamental when the proposed fault diagnosis methods have to be applied to offshore installations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Wind turbine simulator; data-driven and model-based approaches; fuzzy identification; on-line estimation; robustness and reliability
Online: 19 September 2017 (15:47:14 CEST)
Wind turbine plants are complex dynamic and uncertain processes driven by stochastic inputs and disturbances, as well as different loads represented by gyroscopic, centrifugal, and gravitational forces. Moreover, as their aerodynamic models are nonlinear, both modelling and control become challenging problems. On one hand, high-fidelity simulators should contain different parameters and variables in order to accurately describe the main dynamic system behaviour. Therefore, the development of modelling and control for wind turbine systems should consider these complexity aspects. On the other hand, these control solutions have to include the main wind turbine dynamic characteristics without becoming too complicated. The main point of this paper is thus to provide two practical examples of development of robust control strategies when applied to a simulated wind turbine plant. Experiments with the wind turbine simulator and the Monte–Carlo tools represent the instruments for assessing the robustness and reliability aspects of the developed control methodologies when the model-reality mismatch and measurement errors are also considered. Advantages and drawbacks of these regulation methods are also highlighted with respect to different control strategies via proper performance metrics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1349.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: variable speed wind turbine; DFIG; Conventional MPC; Nonlinear MPC; Lyapunov function
Online: 21 November 2023 (15:15:08 CET)
Doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) find extensive application in variable-speed wind power plants, providing notable advantages such as cost-effectiveness, operational flexibility across varying speeds, and enhanced power quality. This research focuses on the control of DFIGs employed in variable-speed wind turbine configurations. A suitable mathematical model is chosen for representative systems following a comprehensive review of contemporary research. Subsequent analysis reveals the instability of the open-loop time response of the system. To address this instability, the initial approach involves the implementation of the conventional Model Predictive Controller (MPC). However, the outcomes indicate that this controller falls short of delivering satisfactory performance despite the enhanced stability. In the subsequent phase, efforts are made to mitigate the impact of wind input variability by utilizing the Kalman filter, given its effectiveness in handling high variability. Following this, a novel methodology is introduced, which combines nonlinear MPC with the Lyapunov function. This method is based on the nonlinear model of the system. By using the Lyapunov function in the nonlinear MPC structure, the stability of the designed controller is guaranteed. The simulation results conducted using MATLAB software show that the output variables of the modeled DFIG system achieve stability within a reasonable timeframe applying the input.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0476.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Battery Energy Storage System; Crowbar; Fault Ride Through Capability; Vector control; Wind turbine
Online: 21 July 2021 (09:51:48 CEST)
Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) has a stator winding directly coupled with grid. Whereas, rotor winding is connected via a fault-prone back to back power converters. DFIG is known to be vulnerable to the grid faults. In early times, when a fault occurred, these generators were required to disconnect from the grid to secure the generator and power converters. However, due to the increased penetration of wind turbines into the power system, grid operators demanded that the wind turbines remain connected to the grid, as disconnecting them would further disrupt the grid. When a fault at the grid terminal occur, a high stator current is induced which further result in high rotor current. This current will trigger the DC-link voltage to rise. This high currents and DC-link voltage will cause harm to the converters. Thus, in this paper work, the crowbar protection system is employed for protecting the converters against excess energy. Furthermore, the analysis of DFIG is rendered by integrating the crowbar protection with the Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) for a much effective outcome in enhancing machine to drive the fault. MATLAB-Simulink software is used for modeling and simulation. All system parameters are obtained from ADAMA-II Wind Farm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0296.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Savonius wind turbine; Porous deflector; Porosity; Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); Self-starting
Online: 17 August 2022 (03:54:51 CEST)
The present study explores the effect of using two porous deflectors on the performance of the Savonius wind turbine compared to only one porous deflector. The numerical simulation is performed to solve the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations using the SST k-
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0087.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Axial wind turbine; Computational fluid dynamics; Aerodynamics; Sand particle
Online: 4 September 2023 (04:31:40 CEST)
An axial wind turbine's performance is analyzed numerically using geometrical and operational parameters. The performance of an axial wind turbine is simulated using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and compared with experimental data, which confirms the validity of the assumptions and method used. A study of the effects of air in clean and sand particlesy conditions is then conducted. A study was also conducted on mechanical power and the impact of the blade tip on the extension of the vortex. It has been found that different sand particle sizes have a significant impact on wind performance numerically from 0.1 to 0.9, and the results indicate that mechanical power and thrust increase as wind velocity increases, but larger sand particle sizes reduce power, thrust, and torque as wind velocity increases. The turbulence intensity causes the pressure distribution on the walls to be irregular, thereby increasing mechanical power and propulsion force. Moreover, as the wind velocity increases, the tip speed ratio increases and the vortexes are subsequently extended.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: n/a; wind turbine; tidal turbine; betz limit; Betz's law; HAWT; VAWT; potential energy; kinetic energy
Online: 27 August 2021 (11:15:35 CEST)
The Betz limit sets a theoretical upper limit for the power production by turbines expressed as a maximum power coefficient of 16/27. Betz’s theory is accurate and it is based on the calculation of kinetic energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1490.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Algorithm design; Combinatorial optimization; Preventive maintenance; Virtual maintenance; Linear programming; Wind turbine; Weibull distribution; Renewal-reward theorem
Online: 21 June 2023 (07:15:49 CEST)
Wind power is one of the most important sources of renewable energy available today. A large part of the wind energy cost is due to the cost of maintaining wind power equipment. When a wind turbine component fails to function, it might need to be replaced under the less than ideal circumstances. This is known as corrective maintenance. To minimize unnecessary costs, a more active maintenance policy based on the life expectancy of the key components is preferred. Optimal scheduling of preventive maintenance activities requires advanced mathematical modeling. In this paper, an optimal preventive maintenance algorithm is designed using the renewal-reward theorem. In the multi-component setting, our approach involves a new idea of virtual maintenance which allows us to treat each replacement event as a renewal event even if some components are not replaced by new ones. The proposed optimization algorithm is applied to a four-component model of a wind turbine and the optimal maintenance plans are computed for various initial conditions. The modeling results showed clearly the benefit of PM planning compared to pure CM strategy (about 30% lower maintenance cost).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0225.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: boundary layer transition; wind turbine; thermography; aerodynamic glove
Online: 19 April 2019 (11:58:41 CEST)
Knowledge about laminar-turbulent transition on operating multi-megawatt wind turbine blades needs sophisticated equipment like hot-films or microphone arrays. Contrarily thermographic pictures can easily be taken from the ground and temperature differences indicate different states of the boundary layer. The accuracy however, still is an open question, so that an aerodynamic glove known from experimental research on aero-planes was used to classify the boundary-layer state of a 2 megawatt wind turbine blade operating in the orthern part of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. State-of-the-art equipment for measurering static surface pressure was used for monitoring the lift distribution. To distinguish laminar and turbulent parts of the boundary layer (suction side only) 48 microphones were applied together with ground-based thermographic cameras from two teams. Additionally, an optical camera mounted on the hub was used to survey vibrations. During start-up (from 0 to 9 rpm) extended, but irregularly shaped regions of a laminar boundary layer were observed which had the same extension measured both with microphones and Thermography. When an approximately constant rotor rotation (9 rpm corresponding to approximately 6 m/s wind-speed) was achieved, a flow transition was visible at the expected position of 40 % chord length on the rotor blade, which was fouled with dense turbulent wedges and an almost complete turbulent state on the glove was detected. In all observations, quantitative determination of the flow transition positions from thermography and microphones agree well within their accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0054.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Active Front-End converter; back-to-back converter; PMSG; THD; Type-4 wind turbine; wind energy system; Opal-RT Technologies®
Online: 4 September 2018 (05:02:15 CEST)
In this paper, the active front-end (AFE) converter topology for the total harmonic distortion (THD) reduction in a wind energy system (WES) is used. A higher THD results in serious pulsations in the wind turbine (WT) output power and in several power losses at the WES. The AFE converter topology improves capability, efficiency and reliability in the energy conversion devices; by modifying a conventional back-to-back converter, from using a single voltage source converter (VSC) to use pVSC connected in parallel the AFE converter is generated. The THD reduction is done by applying a different phase shift angle at the carrier of digital sinusoidal pulse width modulation (DSPWM) switching signals of each VSC. To verify the functionality of the proposed methodology, the WES simulation in Matlab-Simulink® is analyzed, and the experimental laboratory tests using the concept of rapid control prototyping and the real-time simulator Opal-RT® Technologies is achieved. The obtained results show a type-4 WT with total output power of 6MVA, generating a THD reduction up to 5.5 times at the WES.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: anderson-vertical-axis-wind-turbine; actual-power; aerodynamic-power; blockage-factor; power-coefficient; tip-speed-ratio
Online: 11 October 2019 (11:10:59 CEST)
The basic equation for estimating the aerodynamic power captured by an Anderson Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (AVAWT) is a solution of the Navier-Stokes(N-S) equations for a baroclinic, inviscid flow. In a nutshell, the pressure difference across the AVAWT is derived from Bernoulli’s equation; an upshot of the integration of the N-S momentum equation for a baroclinic inviscid flow, Euler’s momentum equation. The resulting expression for the pressure difference across the AVAWT rotor is plotted as a function of freestream speed. Experimentally determined airstream speeds at the AVAWT inlet and outlet, coupled with corresponding freestream speeds are used in estimating the aerodynamic power captured. The aerodynamic power is subsequently used in calculating the aerodynamic power coefficient of the AVAWT. The actual power coefficient is calculated from the power generated by the AVAWT at various free stream speeds and plotted as a function of the latter. Experimental results show that, at all free stream speeds and tip speed ratios, the aerodynamic power coefficient is higher than the actual power coefficient of the AVAWT. Consequently, the power generated by the AVAWT prototype is lower than the aerodynamic power captured, given the same inflow wind condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0572.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: wind turbine system; hydroelectric plant simulator; model--based control; data--driven approach; self--tuning control; robustness and reliability
Online: 24 October 2018 (11:26:20 CEST)
The interest on the use of renewable energy resources is increasing, especially towards wind and hydro powers, which should be efficiently converted into electric energy via suitable technology tools. To this aim, self--tuning control techniques represent viable strategies that can be employed for this purpose, due to the features of these nonlinear dynamic processes working over a wide range of operating conditions, driven by stochastic inputs, excitations and disturbances. Some of the considered methods were already verified on wind turbine systems, and important advantages may thus derive from the appropriate implementation of the same control schemes for hydroelectric plants. This represents the key point of the work, which provides some guidelines on the design and the application of these control strategies to these energy conversion systems. In fact, it seems that investigations related with both wind and hydraulic energies present a reduced number of common aspects, thus leading to little exchange and share of possible common points. This consideration is particularly valid with reference to the more established wind area when compared to hydroelectric systems. In this way, this work recalls the models of wind turbine and hydroelectric system, and investigates the application of different control solutions. The scope is to analyse common points in the control objectives and the achievable results from the application of different solutions. Another important point of this investigation regards the analysis of the exploited benchmark models, their control objectives, and the development of the control solutions. The working conditions of these energy conversion systems will be also taken into account in order to highlight the reliability and robustness characteristics of the developed control strategies, especially interesting for remote and relatively inaccessible location of many installations.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Computational fluid dynamic; Long short term memory; Vortex bladeless wind turbine; Prediction; Correlation matrix.
Online: 9 June 2021 (07:38:21 CEST)
Energy harvesting from wind turbines has been explored by researchers for more than a century from conventional turbines up to the latest bladeless turbines. Amongst these bladeless turbines, vortex bladeless wind turbine (VBT) harvests energy from oscillation of a turbine body. Due to the novelty of this science and the widespread researches around the world, one of the most important issues is to optimize and predict produced power. To enhance the produced output electrical power of VBT, the fluid-solid interactions (FSI) were analyzed to collect a dataset for predicting procedure. Long short-term memory (LSTM) method has been used to predict the produced power of VBT from the collected data. The reason of choosing LSTM from various artificial neural network methods is that the parameters of VBT study are all time- dependent and the LSTM is one of the most accruable algorithms for predicting time series data. In order to find the relationship between the parameter and the variables used in this research, a correlation matrix was presented. According to the value of 0.3 for the root mean square error (RMSE), a comparative analysis between the simulation results and its prediction shows that the LSTM method is very accurate for these types of research. Furthermore, the LSTM method has significantly reduced the computation time so that the prediction time of desired values has been reduced from an average of 2 and a half hours to two minutes. Also, one of the most important achievements of this study is to suggest a mathematical relation of VBT output power which helps to extend it in a different size of VBT with a high range of parameter variations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0095.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: fatigue; design fatigue factor; offshore wind turbine foundation; corrosion fatigue; target reliability
Online: 4 September 2020 (11:00:22 CEST)
The concept of Design Fatigue Factors (DFFs) was introduced for providing desired level of safety in structural fatigue design, often associated with damage calculated from S-N curves. Calculation of fatigue damage from S-N curves can be affected by multiple factors, e.g. types of weld class, corrosion condition, loading conditions, stress concentration on different geometries etc. Each of them can be subject to different level of uncertainties. This study intends to recalibrate the DFFs from a detailed reliability analysis by investigating the probabilistic models derived from the database of S-N curves that has been most frequently used in offshore wind industry. The results of such study indicate that the DFFs can be reduced substantially for the corrosive environmental fatigue models from current standards to the same level of target reliability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1853.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Savonius wind turbine; rotational speed; overlap ratio; power coefficients; torque coefficients; tip speed ratio
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:52:15 CEST)
A Savonius wind turbine is one of the simplest vertical-axis turbines. Several researchers have been attracted to it because of its simple structure, low noise, appropriate torque, and independence from wind direction. SR3345 and SR5050 blade profiles will be investigated for their effects on the performance of Savonius wind turbines. First, the fabricated wind turbine is placed in front of an open circuit wind tunnel with a velocity of 6 m/s. Furthermore, governing relationships are used to calculate power and torque coefficients as well as tip speed. In this study, the power and torque coefficients of the turbine are compared with the two profiles considered based on overlap ratios between 0 and 0.3. Despite its increased stability, the central shaft reduced the power coefficient of the turbine. For blade SR3345, the best performance occurs at tip speed ratios of less than 1, while for blade SR5050, the best performance occurs at higher tip speed ratios. Both blades SR3345 and SR5050 achieve the highest power coefficients at overlap ratios of 0 and 0.18 when a central shaft is present.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0196.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: renewable energy systems; land eligibility; Onshore wind energy; technical potential; economic potential; simulation
Online: 17 December 2018 (11:12:51 CET)
Considering the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, onshore wind energy is certain to play a major role in future energy systems. This topic has received significant attention from the research community, producing many estimations of Europe's onshore wind potential for capacity and generation. Despite this focus, previous estimates have relied on distribution assumptions and simulation schemes that summarily under predict both the amount of available future wind capacity as well as its performance. Foremost in this regard is the common use of contemporary, or at least near-future, turbine designs which are not fitting for a far-future context. To fulfill this role, an improved, transparent, and fully reproducible work flow is presented for determining European onshore wind potential. Within a scenario of turbine cost and design in 2050, 13.5 TWof capacity is found to be available, allowing for 34.4 PWh of generation. By sorting the explicitly-placed potential generation locations by their expected generation cost, national relations between turbine cost and performance versus a desired capacity are exposed. In this way, it is shown that all countries possess some potential for onshore wind energy generation below 4 €ct kWh-1. and, furthermore, that it is unlikely for these costs to exceed 6 €ct kWh-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0136.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine; CST parameterization; NSGA-II; airfoil; optimization; multiple streamtube model
Online: 13 August 2016 (09:15:42 CEST)
Optimizing the NACA0015 airfoil which is widely applied in small-scale vertical axis wind turbine to make it has a better aerodynamic performance. In the optimization process, using CST parameterization method to perturb the airfoil geometry, the thickness and camber of the airfoil are selected as the constraint, and the value of the maximum tangential force coefficient is chosen as the objective function, the genetic algorithm based on non-dominated sorting (NSGA-II)is selected as an optimization method, calculates the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil by applying the approach of combining XFOIL program and Viterna-Corrigan post-stall mode ,and establishes the optimizing process by the optimization software modefrontier for NACA0015 airfoil’s muti-point optimization, validate the airfoil’s performance with CFD finally. The result illustrates that, by comparing with the NACA0015 airfoil, the optimized airfoil’s lift to drag ratio is improved over a wide range of attack angles, the stall performance is more gentle. The maximum lift coefficient, the maximum lift-drag ratio and the maximum tangential force coefficient are increased by 7.5%,9 and 8.87%, respectively. The optimized airfoil has a wide variable condition performance, more suitable for the operating conditions of a vertical axis wind turbine. Finally, predict the rotor efficiency with optimized airfoil and NACA0015 airfoil for different tip speed ratios and different solidities with multiple streamtube model, the result shows the rotor with optimized airfoil has a higher efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0138.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: distributed system; power density; renewable energy; sustainability; utility scale; wind resource
Online: 11 April 2018 (06:07:49 CEST)
The physical and economic sustainability of using Built Environment Wind Turbine (BEWT) systems depends on the wind resource potential of the candidate site. Therefore, it is crucial to carry out a wind resource assessment prior to deployment of the BEWT. The assessment results can be used as a referral tool for predicting the performance and lifespan of the BEWT in the given built environment. To date, there is limited research output on BEWTs in South Africa with available literature showing a bias towards utility-scale or conventional ground based wind energy systems. This study aimed to assess wind power generation potential of BEWT systems in Fort Beaufort using the Weibull distribution function. The results show that Fort Beaufort wind patterns can be classified as fairly good and that BEWTs can best be deployed at 15m for a fairer power output as roof height wind speeds require BEWT of very low cut-in speed of at most1.2ms−1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0717.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: wind turbine; inertia; mass distribution; density distribution; stiffness constant; values in p.u.
Online: 9 August 2023 (08:45:31 CEST)
In studies of dynamic stability and power quality, it is necessary to know the mechanical parameters that determine the transient response of a wind turbine. The exact value of these parameters is not as decisive as the power curve can be, but an estimate that is far from reality can distort or even invalidate the simulation results. Despite its importance, this information, especially the inertia, but also the stiffness and damping constant of the drive-train, is hardly available for the turbine model under investigation. In this work, the different bibliographical sources that provide values of blade inertia in kg·m2 will be reviewed, and above all, those that provide a distribution of masses along the span of the blade. With this, different reliable relations will be obtained that allow calculating the inertia of the turbine rotor, based on the mass and length of the blade. When the center of gravity is also available, a very correlated expression is provided to obtain the inertia. The even rarer references to the stiffness and damping constant of the drive-train will also be reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Offshore wind energy, future turbine design, floating foundation, fixed-bottom foundation, levelized cost of electricity
Online: 13 February 2019 (15:43:22 CET)
Renewable energy sources will play a central role in the sustainable energy systems of the future. Scenario analyses of such hypothesized energy systems require sound knowledge of the techno-economic potential of renewable energy technologies. Although there have been various studies concerning the potential of offshore wind energy, higher spatial resolution, as well as the future design concepts of offshore wind turbines, has not yet been addressed in sufficient detail. Here, we aim to overcome this gap by applying a high spatial resolution to the three main aspects of offshore wind potential analysis, namely ocean suitability, the simulation of wind turbines and cost estimation. A set of constraints is determined that reveal the available areas for turbine placement across Europe’s maritime boundaries. Then, turbine designs specific to each location are selected by identifying turbines with the cheapest levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), restricted to capacities, hub heights and rotor diameters of between 3-20 MW, 80-200 m and 80-280 m, respectively. Ocean eligibility and turbine design are then combined to distribute turbines across the available areas. Finally, LCOE trends are calculated from the individual turbine costs, as well as the corresponding capacity factor obtained by hourly simulation with wind speeds from 1980 to 2017. The results of cost-optimal turbine design reveal that the overall potential for offshore wind energy across Europe will constitute nearly 8.6 TW and 40.0 PWh at roughly 7 €ct kWh-1 average LCOE by 2050. Averaged design parameters at national level are provided in an appendix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1937.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Savonius wind turbine; modified NSGA-II; Artificial neural network; Multi-objective optimization
Online: 29 August 2023 (09:30:55 CEST)
This study will lead to the development of a numerical data set that will assist in the design of Savonius wind turbines. A major objective of this study is to develop a better design for Savonius turbine blades in order to increase their torque coefficients, rotational speeds, and pressure coefficients. As part of the experimental design methodology, a full dataset was generated by simulating three-dimensional scale models utilizing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations that were validated by wind tunnel data. This process is multi-objective optimization for optimizing turbine performance. The twist angle, aspect ratio, and overlap ratio are all important factors in determining the optimal torque and power coefficients. The group method of data handling (GMDH) algorithm was utilized to model objective functions based on input-output data. The Pareto fronts were plotted using polynomial models obtained from the evolutionary Pareto-based optimization approach (modified NSGA-II), and the optimal commercial points were determined using TOPSIS. A comparison of three- and two-objective optimization data revealed that two-objective optimization data lie within the boundaries of a three-objective optimization problem. The torque coefficient, rotational speed, and power coefficient are all improved by 13.74%, 0.071%, and 5.32%, respectively, using multi-objective optimization. As a result of the multi-objective optimization of the turbine, some significant characteristics of objective functions were discovered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0267.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: wind turbine system; hydroelectric plant simulator; model--based control; data–driven approach; self–tuning control; robustness and reliability
Online: 26 January 2019 (10:08:46 CET)
The interest on the use of renewable energy resources is increasing, especially towards wind and hydro powers, which should be efficiently converted into electric energy via suitable technology tools. To this aim, data--driven control techniques represent viable strategies that can be employed for this purpose, due to the features of these nonlinear dynamic processes working over a wide range of operating conditions, driven by stochastic inputs, excitations and disturbances. Some of the considered methods, such as fuzzy and adaptive self--tuning controllers, were already verified on wind turbine systems, and similar advantages may thus derive from their appropriate implementation and application to hydroelectric plants. These issues represent the key features of the work, which provides some guidelines on the design and the application of these control strategies to these energy conversion systems. The working conditions of these systems will be also taken into account in order to highlight the reliability and robustness characteristics of the developed control strategies, especially interesting for remote and relatively inaccessible location of many installations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0241.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Adaptive Constrained Control; Barrier Lyapunov Function; Fault-Tolerant Control; Nussbaum-type function; power regulation; wind turbine benchmark
Online: 17 March 2022 (03:01:31 CET)
Motivated for improving the efficiency and reliability of wind turbine energy conversion, this paper presents an advanced control design that enhances the power regulation efficiency and re-liability. The constrained behaviour of the wind turbine is taken into account, by using the barrier Lyapunov function in the analysis of the Lyapunov direct method. This, consequently, guarantees that the generated power remains within the desired bounds to satisfy the grid power demand. Moreover, a Nussbaum-type function is utilized in the control scheme, to cope with the unpre-dictable wind speed. This eliminates the need for accurate wind speed measurement or estimation. Furthermore, via properly designed adaptive laws, a robust actuator fault-tolerant capability is integrated into the scheme, handling the model uncertainty. Numerical simulations are performed on a high-fidelity wind turbine benchmark model, under different fault scenarios, to verify the effectiveness of the developed design. Also, a Monte-Carlo analysis is exploited for the evaluation of the reliability and robustness characteristics against the model-reality mismatch, measurement errors and disturbance effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0297.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: doubly fed induction generator; variable speed wind turbine; power control; sliding mode control (SMC); sliding mode control (SMC) with exponential reaching law (ERL)
Online: 23 April 2018 (12:50:34 CEST)
The main objective of this paper is to continue the development of activities of basic and applied research related to wind energy and to develop methods of optimal control to improve the performance and production of electrical energy from wind. A new control technique of Double fed induction generator for wind turbine is undertaken through a robust approach tagged nonlinear sliding mode control (SMC) with exponential reaching law control (ERL). The SMC with ERL proves to be capable of reducing the system chattering phenomenon as well as accelerating the approaching process. A nonlinear case numerical simulation test is employed to verify the superior performance of the ERL method over traditional power rate reaching strategy. Results obtained in Matlab/Simulink environment show that the SMC with ERL is more robust, prove excellent performance for the control unit by improving power quality and stability of wind turbine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0949.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind turbine; gearbox; calculation parameters; tooth width; weight; modulus; allowable stress at surface pressure; allowable stress at bending
Online: 14 September 2023 (07:11:18 CEST)
As wind turbine power requirements have evolved from the order of kilowatts (kW) to the order of several megawatts (MW), wind turbine components have been subjected to more demanding and critical operating conditions. The wind turbine must cope with higher wind loads due to larger blade sizes, which are also time-varying and ultimately higher power levels. One of the challenges in the manufacture of high-power wind turbines lies in the gearbox and consists of achieving ever greater power density without compromising efficiency, i.e., greater load capacity with lower weight (and production cost) and reduced power losses. In this paper we will analyze the influence that certain design parameters have on the size and weight of the gearbox components and therefore of the gearbox itself. For this purpose, the theoretical model of the gearbox will be planned and the influence of calculation parameters on the gearbox design will be analyzed. The influence of material, modulus and tooth width on the size and weight of the gearbox will be observed. Critical stresses are also calculated. The goal is to prepare the theoretical basis for an optimization process that will result in a gearbox as compact as possible without compromising the service life of the components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0283.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind tunnel; enlarge design; Buckingham π theorem; torque-diameter correlation; estimated power; field size; 3-D blade; stall delay
Online: 16 August 2018 (12:47:10 CEST)
A preliminary study of a wind turbine design is carried out using a wind tunnel to obtain its aerodynamic characteristics. Utilization of data from the study to develop large-scale wind turbines requires further study. This paper aims to discuss the use of wind turbine data obtained from the wind tunnel measurements to estimate the characteristics of wind turbines that have field size. The torque of two small-scale turbines was measured inside the wind tunnel. The first small-scale turbine has a radius of 0.14 m and the second small turbine has a radius of 0.19 m. Torque measurement results from both turbines were analyzed using Buckingham π theorem to obtain a correlation between torsion and diameter variations. The obtained correlation equation is used to estimate the field measurement of turbine power with a radius of 1.2 m. The resulting correlation equation can be used to estimate the power generated by the turbine by the size of the field well in the operating area of the tip speed ratio of the turbine design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0356.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Aero-elastic analysis; Direct-drive wind turbine; Powertrain loading; Shaft behaviour; Rotor optimisation; Environmental Impact
Online: 7 November 2023 (07:03:34 CET)
The study presents an efficient computational investigation on the behaviour of the direct-drive system integrated into the offshore 5MW NREL wind turbine model under demanding aerodynamic loading conditions with the aim of optimising and developing more sustainable key structural components. The research was based on computational simulation packages to verify the use of real-world wind data, the loading conditions on the blade structures through aero-elastic simulation studies, as well as analyse the behaviour of the drive system. Through the application of validated aerodynamic loading conditions, resulting normal forces on the blades structure were obtained and applied to a dedicated simplified model that was also previously validated, to estimate the transferred loads into the powertrain. The adopted methodology allowed for the identification of shaft misalignment induced air-gap eccentricity. The impact of shaft deflections on resulting magnetomotive force was considered by making use of the Maxwell stress distribution expression. By taking into account the resulting loading cases on the generator structure, as well as the inherent typical loads generated by the electrical machine, a procedure including structural parametric and topology optimisation was developed and performed, achieving a rotor mass reduction between 8.5 and 9.6% if compared with the original model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1067.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: wind Energy; wind turbine; wind shear; wind power density
Online: 17 October 2023 (11:54:28 CEST)
This study examines the wind shear coefficient (WSC) values at three coastal wind sites located in the southern region of Balochistan, Pakistan: Pasni, Ormara, and Jiwani. These WSC values were obtained using 10-minute measured wind speed data at heights of 20, 40, and 60 meters above ground level (AGL). Since wind measurements are typically recorded at lower heights due to cost and resource constraints, extrapolation techniques were employed to estimate wind speeds at higher altitudes. However, using a constant WSC value for extrapolation may lead to significant errors between extrapolated and actual wind speed measurements, impacting the energy output of wind turbines. To evaluate the effect of WSC on energy yield, the study employed power curves and frequency distributions for 2MW and 1.5MW wind turbines. Additionally, wind power density was calculated using air density derived from measured air temperature and surface pressure data, covering two years period from November 2016 to August 2018. The overall mean WSC values were found to be 0.076 at Pasni, 0.094 at Jiwani, and 0.053 at Ormara. The study further investigated the seasonal, monthly, and diurnal variations of WSC. For assessing wind resources at a height of 60m, the study utilized Wind Roses, wind power density, and Weibull parameters. Comparing the actual WSC values presented in this paper with those obtained using the 1/7 power law and measured data at 60m AGL, the energy yield from the wind turbines showed reduced output and capacity factor.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: 3D Doppler Wind Lidar; planetary boundary layer; vertical wind; wind speed; wind direction
Online: 29 April 2021 (10:33:39 CEST)
The accuracy of wind field simulation and prediction is one of the most significant parameters in the field of atmospheric science and wind energy. Limited by the observation data, there are few researches on wind energy development. A 3D Doppler wind lidar (DWL) providing the high-vertical-resolution wind data over the urban complex underlying surface in February 2018 was employed to evaluated the accuracy of vertical wind field simulation systematically for the first time. 11 PBL schemes of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) were employed in simulation. The model results were evaluated in groups separated by weather (sunny days, haze days and windy days), observation height layers, and various observation wind speeds. The test results presented that the vertical layer altitude of the observation point position was the most important factor. The simulation is fairly well at a height of 1000-2000m, as most of the relative mean bias of wind speed and wind direction are less than 20% and 6% respectively. Below 1000 m, the wind speed and direction biases are about 30%-150% m.s-1 and 6%-30% respectively. Moreover, when the observed wind speed was lower than 5 m.s-1, the bias were usually large, and the wind speed relative mean bias is up to 50-300%. In addition, the accuracy of simulated wind profile is better in 10-15m.s-1 than other speed ranges, and is better up 1000m than below 1000m in the boundary layer. We see that the WRF boundary layer schemes have different applicability to different weather conditions. The WRF boundary layer schemes have significant differences in wind field simulation with larger error under the complex topography. A PBL scheme is not likely to maintain its advantages in the long term under different conditions including altitude and weather conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0069.v1
Online: 13 December 2016 (10:01:29 CET)
Taiwan developing offshore wind power to promote green energy and self-electricity production. In this study, a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) was set up at Chang-Hua development zone one on the sea and 10km away from the seashore. At Lidar location, WRF (3.33km & 2km grid lengths) model and WAsP were used to simulate the wind speed at various elevations. Three days mean wind speed of simulated results were compared with Lidar data. From the four wind data sets, developed five different comparisons to find an error% and R-Squared values. Comparison between WAsP and Floating Lidar was shown good consistency. Lukang meteorological station 10 years wind observations at 5m height were used for wind farm energy predictions. The yearly variation of energy predictions of traditional and TGC wind farm layouts are compared under purely neutral and stable condition. The one-year cycle average surface heat flux over the Taiwan Strait is negative (-72.5 (W/m2) and 157.13 STD), which represents stable condition. At stable condition TGC (92.39%) and 600(92.44%), wind farms were shown higher efficiency. The Fuhai met mast wind data was used to estimate roughness length and power law exponent. The average roughness lengths are very small and unstable atmosphere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0002.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: wind prediction; wind estimation; UAS; wind shear; gust; multi-platform integration
Online: 18 January 2017 (09:44:54 CET)
This paper presents a system for identification of wind features, such as gusts and wind shear. These are of particular interest in the context of energy-efficient navigation of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The proposed system generates real-time wind vector estimates and a novel algorithm to generate wind field predictions. Estimations are based on the integration of an off-the-shelf navigation system and airspeed readings in a so-called direct approach. Wind predictions use atmospheric models to characterize the wind field with different statistical analyses. During the prediction stage, the system is able to incorporate, in a big-data approach, wind measurements from previous flights in order to enhance the approximations. Wind estimates are classified and fitted into a Weibull probability density function. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is utilized to determine the shaping and scale parameters of the distribution, which are employed to determine the most probable wind speed at a certain position. The system uses this information to characterize a wind shear or a discrete gust and also utilizes a Gaussian Process regression to characterize continuous gusts. The knowledge of the wind features is crucial for computing energy-efficient trajectories with low cost and payload. Therefore, the system provides a solution that does not require any additional sensors. The system architecture presents a modular decentralized approach, in which the main parts of the system are separated in modules and the exchange of information is managed by a communication handler to enhance upgradeability and maintainability. Validation is done providing preliminary results of both simulations and Software-In-The-Loop testing. Telemetry data collected from real flights, performed in the Seville Metropolitan Area in Andalusia (Spain), was used for testing. Results show that wind estimation and predictions can be calculated at 1 Hz and a wind map can be updated at 0.4 Hz. Predictions show a convergence time with a 95% confidence interval of approximately 30 s.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1962.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Floating wind turbine systems; Semisubmersible platforms; Coupled hydro-aero-structural dynamics; Numerical methods; Physical methods; Computational fluid dynamics; Finite element analysis; Nonlinear time-domain models; Linear frequency-domain models; Wave basin tests; Hybrid tests; Field tests
Online: 30 November 2023 (08:21:37 CET)
Recently, more wind turbine systems are being installed in deep waters far from the coast. Several concepts of floating wind turbine systems (FWTSs) are developed, among which the semisubmersible platform, due to its applicability in different water depths, good hydrodynamic performance, and facility in the installation process, constitutes the most explored technology compared to the others. However, a significant obstacle to the industrialization of this technology is a design of a cost-effective FWTS, which can be achieved by optimizing the geometry, size and weight of the floating platform, along with the mooring system. This is only possible by selecting a method capable of accurately analyzing the FWTS coupled hydro-aero-structural dynamics at each design stage. Accordingly, this paper aims at providing a detailed overview of the most common coupled numerical and physical methods, including their basic assumptions, formulations, limitations, and costs, used for analyzing the dynamics of FWTSs, mainly those supported by a semisubmersible, to assist the choice of the most suitable method at each design phase of FWTSs. Finally, the article discusses possible future research to address challenges in modeling FWTSs dynamics that persist to date.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1182.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Offshore; windy site identifier; annual wind variability index; monthly wind variability index; wind speed; wind power density
Online: 19 September 2023 (05:49:29 CEST)
Growing population, industrialization, and power requirements are adversely affecting the environment by increased greenhouse gases, resulting from fossil fuel burning. Global greenhouse gas mitigation targets have led the nations to promote clean and self-renewable sources of energy to address the environmental issue. Offshore wind power resources are relatively more attractive due to high winds, less turbulence, minimal visualization effects, and no interaction of infrastructure. The present study aims at conducting offshore wind power resources assessment (OWPRA) at some locations in the Gulf of North Suez. For this purpose, the long-term hourly mean wind speed (WS) and wind direction above means sea level (AMSL) and temperature and pressure data near surface is used. The data is obtained from ERA5 (fifth generation reanalysis for the global climate weather) at chosen six (L1-L6) offshore locations. The data covers a period of 43 years, between 1979 and 2021. The WS and direction are provided at 100 m AMSL while temperature and pressure are available near water surface level. At L1 to L6 locations, the log-term mean WS and wind power density (WPD) values are found to be 7.55 m/s and 370 W/m2, 6.37 m/s and 225 W/m2, 6.91 m/s and 281 W/m2, 5.48 m/s and 142 W/m2, 4.30 m/s and 77 W/m2, and 5.03 and 115 W/m2 and at 100 m AMSL; respectively. The higher magnitudes of monthly and annual windy site identifier indices (MWSI and AWSI) of 18.68 and 57.41 and 12.70 and 42.94 at L1 and L3 sites and generally lower values of wind variability indices are indicative of favourable winds source, which is also supported by higher magnitudes of mean WS, WPD, annual energy yields, plant capacity factors, and wind duration at these sites. The cost of energy, for the worst and the best cases are estimated as 10.120 USD/kWh and 1.274 USD/kWh at L5 and L1 sites corresponding to wind turbines WT1 and WT4. Based on the analysis, sites L1, L3, and L2 are recommended for wind farm development in order of preference. The wind variability and windy site identifiers indices introduced, will help decision-makers in deciding the potential windy sites with more confidence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: wind power; wind energy; coastal regions; statistical distributions; wind turbine capacity factor
Online: 6 April 2020 (15:29:16 CEST)
Wind power output is highly dependent on the wind speed at the selected site, therefore wind-speed distribution modeling is the most important step in the assessment of wind energy potential. This study aims at accurate evaluation of onshore wind energy potential in seven coastal cities in the south of Iran. Six Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) were examined over representative stations. It has been deduced that the Weibull function, which was the most used PDF in similar studies, was only applicable to one station. Here, Gamma offered the best fit for three stations and for the other ones, Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) performed better. Considering the ranking of six examined PDFs and the simplicity of Gamma, it was identified as the effective function in the southern coasts of Iran bearing in mind the geographic distribution of stations. Besides, six turbine power curve functions were contributed to investigate the capacity factor. That was very important, as using only one function could cause under- or over-estimation. Then, stations were classified based on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory system. Last but not least, examining a range of wind turbines enabled scholars to extend this study into the practice and prioritize development of stations considering budget limits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0315.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: wind farm layout optimization problem; wind farm land-use; wind turbine wakes; wind turbine aerodynamics; tip speed ratio control
Online: 14 July 2020 (13:57:14 CEST)
The use of wind energy has been developing fast over the last years. The global cumulative wind power capacity increased by 10.5% in 2019, most of which comes from onshore wind farms. One of the consequences of this continuous increase is the use of land for onshore wind farms. There are already cases worldwide where lack of well-established plans and strategies have caused delays in projects. The need for efficiently using land for wind farms will be mandatory in the short term. In this work, we present a numerical analysis to evaluate wind farm land-use. By defining the ratio between mechanical output power over an area as a parameter called land-use ratio, this work focused on comparing several cases of aligned and staggered layouts. Mechanical output power was estimated using a validated code based on Blade Element Momentum code, and the wake velocities and wake interaction effects were estimated using a validated wind turbine CFD model. In terms of output power, staggered designs are more efficient than aligned designs. However, the results showed that even though staggered designs produced higher output power, aligned farms with tight lateral spacing could be as efficient as staggered ones in terms of land-use but using fewer turbines. In summary, tightly aligned designs should be a tendency in the future towards efficient use of land in wind farms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1152.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: renewable energy; wind power; wind park; investment plan; Retscreen
Online: 18 September 2023 (09:41:52 CEST)
Considering that traditional energy sources such as fossil fuel are about to deplete during the following decades, governments try to turn to renewable energy. It is commonly known that Greece has a natural advantage of abundant solar energy and wind power due to its geographical location and characteristics.The main focus of this study is to examine how wind energy potential across the Aegean Sea and continental Greece can provide a promising field for investments in Greece, considering the economic crisis, current trends and future perspectives.We firstly focus on current legislation framework considering that laws associated with such types of investment in Greece are very complex and rapidly changing. Furthermore, a case study for a hypothetical investment plan concerning a wind park located in an Aegean island will be presented. RetScreen which is a software made by the Canadian government, will be used as a decision support tool for analyzing the potential investment scenario and a financial report will follow with estimation of the overall cost, depreciation, upcoming benefits, and payback period of the investment.Data analysis concludes that wind parks still prove to be an economically viable investment, although incentives considering the guaranteed price per kwh and faster investment times must be provided by the government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1423.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Wind and current mission concept; Doppler scatterometer; wind work
Online: 19 May 2023 (10:05:19 CEST)
The kinetic energy transfer between the atmosphere and oceans, called wind work, affects ocean dynamics including near-inertial oscillations and internal gravity waves, mesoscale eddies, and large-scale zonal jets. For the most part, recent numerical estimates of global wind work amplitude are almost 5 times larger than those reported 10 years ago. This large increase is explained by the impact of the broad range of spatial and temporal scales covered by winds and currents, the smallest of which have only recently been uncovered by increasingly high resolution modeling efforts. However, existing satellite observations do not fully sample this broad range of scales. The present study assesses the capabilities of ODYSEA, a conceptual satellite mission to estimate the amplitude of wind work in the global ocean. To this end, we use an ODYSEA measurement simulator fed by the outputs of a km-scale coupled ocean-atmosphere model to estimate wind work globally. Results indicate that compared with numerical truth estimates, the ODYSEA instrument performs well globally, except for latitudes north of 40∘N during summer due to unresolved storm evolution. This performance is explained by the wide-swath properties of ODYSEA (a 1,700 km wide swath with 5 km posting for winds and surface currents), its twice-a-day (daily) coverage at mid-latitudes (low latitudes), and the insensitivity of the wind work to uncorrelated errors in estimated wind and current.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Holland-B Parameter; Philippine typhoons; Regional wind; Wind hazard
Online: 2 September 2022 (10:39:46 CEST)
For the Philippines, a country exposed to multiple natural hazards like severe wind, sustainable development includes resiliency. Severe wind hazard is brought by tropical cyclones in the Western Pacific, known as typhoons, that frequent the Philippines. Therefore, adequately evaluating the wind hazard and its impact is crucial for sustainable building design. Acknowledging the impacts of climate change on said hazards would require adaptation to its consequences which necessitate a deeper understanding on the changing behavior of typhoons in recent years. For this study, detailed wind information from the Japan Meteorological Agency from 1977-2021, the Holland-B parameter, and the radius of maximum wind speed for each typhoon, are determined for simulation of the regional cyclonic wind field. The analysis of the Holland-B parameters, which represent the steepness of the pressure gradient and tropical cyclone convection, suggest that the Holland-B parameters have been increasing since 2011. The regional wind fields caused by the typhoons also suggest an increasing trend in severe wind hazard. Seasonality for the location of severe wind hazard is also observed, with the Southern Philippines experiencing an increase (decrease) during the Northeast (Southwest) Monsoon season, and the Northern Philippines experiencing an increase (decrease) during the Southwest (Northeast) Monsoon season.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0256.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: wind speed; wind power; scale factor and shape factor
Online: 12 October 2018 (05:13:33 CEST)
The research sought to investigate the long term characteristics of wind in the Kisii region (elevation 1710m above sea level, 0.68oS, 34.79o E). Wind speeds were analyzed and characterized on short term (per month for a year) and then simulated for long term (ten years) measured hourly series data of daily wind speeds at a height of 10m. The analysis included daily wind data which was grouped into discrete data and then calculated to represent; the mean wind speed, diurnal variations, daily variations as well as the monthly variations. The wind speed frequency distribution at the height 10 m was found to be 2.9ms-1 with a standard deviation of 1.5. Based on the two month’s data that was extracted from the AcuRite 01024 Wireless Weather Stations with 5-in-1 Weather Sensor experiments set at three sites in the region, averages of wind speeds at hub heights of 10m and 13m were calculated and found to be 1.7m/s, 2.0m/s for Ikobe station, 2.4m/s, 2.8m/s for Kisii University stations, and 1.3m/s, 1.6m/s for Nyamecheo station respectively. Then extrapolation was done to determine average wind speeds at heights (20m, 30m, 50m, and 70m) which were found to be 85.55W/m2, 181.75W/m2, 470.4W/m2 and 879.9W/m2 respectively. The wind speed data was used statistically to model a Weibull probability density function and used to determine the power density for Kisii region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0602.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Reliability; FMEA; wind turbines; climatic conditions; wind turbine type
Online: 30 July 2018 (22:51:32 CEST)
The wind industry is looking for ways to accurately predict the reliability and availability of newly installed wind turbines. Failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) is a technique utilized for determining the critical subsystems of wind turbines. There are several studies which applied FMECA for wind turbines in the literature, but no studies so far have considered different weather conditions or climatic regions. Furthermore, various design types of wind turbines have been analyzed applying FMECA but no study so far has applied FMECA to compare the reliability of geared and direct-drive wind turbines. We propose to fill these gaps by using Koppen-Geiger climatic regions and two different turbine models of direct-drive and geared-drive concepts. A case study is applied on German wind farms utilizing the WMEP database which contains wind turbine failure data from 1989 to 2008. This proposed methodology increases the accuracy of reliability and availability predictions and compares different wind turbine design types and eliminates underestimation of impacts of different weather conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0328.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: CFD; LES; Complex terrai; actual wind speed; wind energy
Online: 24 May 2018 (05:14:27 CEST)
This paper proposes a procedure for predicting the actual wind speed for flow over complex terrain with CFD. It converts a time-series of wind speed data acquired from field observations into a time-series of actual scalar wind speed by using non-dimensional wind speed parameters which are determined beforehand with the use of CFD output. The accuracy and reproducibility of the prediction procedure were examined by simulating the flow with CFD with the use of high resolution (5 m) surface elevation data for the Noma Wind Park in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The errors of the predicted average monthly wind speeds relative to the observed values were less than approximately 20%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0575.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: large eddy simulation; integral length scale; wind assessment; wind measurement
Online: 8 June 2023 (08:47:38 CEST)
When undertaking wind assessment around buildings using large eddy simulation (LES), the implementation of the integral length scale at the inlet for inflow generation is controversial, as real atmospheric length scales require huge computational domains. While length scales significantly influence inflow generation in the domain, their effect on the downstream flow field has not yet, been investigated. In this paper, we validate the effectiveness and accuracy of implementing a reduced turbulence integral length scale for inflow generation in LES results at the rooftop of low-rise buildings and develop a technique to estimate the real local length scales using simulation results. We measure the wind locally and calculate the turbulence length scales from the energy spectrum of the wind data and simulation data. According to these results, there is an excellent agreement between the length scale from simulation and measurement when they are scaled with their corresponding freestream/inlet value. These results indicate that a reduced integral length scale can be safely used for LES to provide a reliable prediction of the energy spectrum as well as the length scales around complex geometries. The simulation results were confidently employed to obtain the best location for a wind turbine installation on low-rise buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0396.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: wind lidar; Doppler lidar; bistatic; metrology; traceability; wind energy; meteorology
Online: 19 July 2021 (08:45:02 CEST)
The high-resolution bistatic lidar developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) aims to overcome the limitations of conventional monostatic lidar technology which is widely used for wind velocity measurements in wind energy and meteorology applications. Due to the large measurement volume of a combined optical transmitter and receiver tilting in multiple directions, monostatic lidar generally has poor spatial and temporal resolution. It also exhibits large measurement uncertainty when operated in inhomogeneous flow, for instance, over complex terrain. In contrast, PTB’s bistatic lidar uses three dedicated receivers arranged around a central transmitter, resulting in an exceptionally small measurement volume. The coherent detection and modulation schemes used allow the detection of backscattered, Doppler shifted light down to the scale of single aerosols, realising the simultaneous measurement of all three wind velocity components. This paper outlines design details and the theory of operation of PTB’s bistatic lidar and provides an overview of selected comparative measurements. The results of these measurements have shown that the measurement uncertainty of PTB’s bistatic lidar is well within the measurement uncertainty of traditional cup anemometers, while being fully independent of its site and traceable to the SI units. This allows its use as a transfer standard for the calibration of other remote sensing devices. Overall, PTB’s bistatic lidar shows great potential to universally improve the capability and accuracy of wind velocity measurements, such as for the investigation of highly dynamic flow processes upstream and in the wake of wind turbines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1578.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: forecasting; prevision; wind speed; wind power; renewable energy; Scopus base; Bibliometrix
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:27:24 CEST)
The most important step for the installation of a wind farm is to know the wind regime in the region, since an error in estimating this wind speed causes an error proportional to the cube of power, resulting in financial losses for investors. Therefore, knowing the methods used for predicting wind speed becomes important and the knowledge of how research and studies in this area are going helps map the subject and outline strategies for developing research in strategic areas. For this purpose, the Scopus database was used considering some keywords, such as ("forecast" OR "prevision") AND "wind" AND ("turbine" OR "power" OR "energy" or "velocity" or "speed"), considering the period since 2019, and analyzing the data of the documents found using the Bibliometrix package. With the results found, it was possible to map researchers, institutions that are developing work in this area, in addition to the most cited articles, among other aspects analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: wind farm control; green hydrogen; electrolysis; battery lifetime; wind turbine control
Online: 27 April 2023 (03:24:59 CEST)
Green hydrogen is likely to play an important role in meeting the net zero targets of countries around the globe. Hence, producing green hydrogen cheaply and effectively is an important area of research. One potential option for green hydrogen production is to run electrolysers directly from offshore wind turbines, with no grid connection and hence no expensive cabling to shore. The removal of the grid presents an unusual integration challenge. The variable nature of wind turbines and farms results in a power output that can fluctuate more quickly than the electrolyser’s ability to respond without significantly stressing the electrolyser. Thus, the use of a battery, with the wind farm, becomes essential to even out some of the power variations that the electrolyser cannot deal with. In this work, a proof of concept of a wind farm control methodology designed to reduce variability in wind farm active power output is presented. Smoothing the power supplied by the wind farm to the battery reduces the size and number of battery charge cycles and helps to increase battery lifetime. Considering off-grid wind farms which exclusively power an electrolyser, this work quantifies the impact of the wind farm control method on battery lifetime for wind farms of 1, 4, 9 and 16 wind turbines. This is achieved using suitable wind farm, battery and electrolyser models. As an example, for the largest wind farm studied, consisting of 16 x 5 MW wind turbines, batteries with a lifetime of 15 years have approximately a 30 % reduction in required capacity (reduced from 14 MWh to 10 MWh) compared to operating without wind farm control. It is found that reducing the variability of the active power output of wind farms through the wind farm control methodology presented can have a significant impact on battery degradation and hence on battery lifetime. Hence, wind farm control can reduce the required battery capacity for a given lifetime or it can increase the lifetime of a given battery capacity. The work presented shows that wind farm control could play a critical role in reducing the levelised cost of green hydrogen produced from wind farms with no grid connection and paves the way for the design and testing of a full implementation of the wind farm control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0527.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind energy; vertical axis wind turbine; computational fluid dynamics; dynamic interaction; closely spaced arrangements; phase synchronization; wind farm; dryland
Online: 22 March 2021 (12:05:53 CET)
To investigate the optimum layouts of small vertical axis wind turbines, a two-dimensional analysis of dynamic fluid body interaction is performed via computational fluid dynamics for a rotor pair in various configurations. The rotational speed of each turbine rotor (diameter: D = 50 mm) varies based on the equation of motion. First, the dependence of rotor performance on the gap distance (gap) between two rotors is investigated. For parallel layouts, counter-down (CD) layouts with blades moving downwind in the gap region yield a higher mean power than counter-up (CU) layouts with blades moving upwind in the gap region. CD layouts with gap/D = 0.5–1.0 yield a maximum average power that is 23% higher than that of an isolated single rotor. Assuming isotropic bidirectional wind speed, co-rotating (CO) layouts with the same rotational direction are superior to the combination of CD and CU layouts regardless of the gap distance. For tandem layouts, the inverse-rotating configuration (IR) shows an earlier wake recovery than the CO configuration. For 16-wind-direction layouts, both the IR and CO configurations indicate similar power distribution at gap/D = 2.0. For the first time, this study demonstrates the phase synchronization of two rotors via numerical simulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1966.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: wind speed forecasting; deep learning; LSTM; GRU; wind energy; CEEMDAN; EMD; VMD
Online: 28 September 2023 (11:41:50 CEST)
Advancements in technology, policies, and cost reductions have led to rapid growth in wind power production. One of the major challenges in wind energy production is the instability of wind power generation due to weather changes. Efficient power grid management requires accurate power output forecasting. New wind energy forecasting methods based on deep learning are better than traditional methods, like numerical weather prediction, statistical models, and machine learning models. This is more true for short-term prediction. Since there is a relationship between methods, climates, and forecasting complexity, forecasting methods do not always perform the same depending on the climate and terrain of the data source. This paper proposes a novel model that combines the variational mode decomposition method with a long short-term memory model, developed for next-hour wind speed prediction in a hot desert climate, such as the climate in Saudi Arabia. We compared the proposed model performance to two other hybrid models, six deep learning models, and four machine learning models using different feature sets. Also, we tested the proposed model on data from different climates, Caracas and Toronto. The proposed model showed a forecast skill between 61% to 74% based on mean absolute error, 64% to 72% based on root mean square error, and 59% to 68% based on mean absolute percentage error for locations in Saudi Arabia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0201.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: wind damage; wind disturbance; Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; machine learning; random forest
Online: 17 February 2022 (05:06:55 CET)
Management approaches inspired by the variability of natural disturbances are expected to produce forests in the future that will be significantly more resilient and better adapted to local environmental conditions. Due to climate change, windstorms are becoming increasingly common resulting in the destruction not only of extensive forest areas but, quite often, of small-sized and scattered forest lands that can ultimately become home to insects and disease dissemination sites. In the present study, an attempt is made to identify and record areas in the northeastern forests of Greece covered by mixed stands of conifers and broadleaves that experienced massive windthrow following local storms. Based on tree-level data, local topographic features, forest characteristics and the mechanical properties of green wood, a reliable model, to be used for the prediction of similar disturbances in the future, has been created after a thorough comparative study of the most well-known intelligent machine learning algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0078.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: free wake vortex method, horizontal-axis wind turbine, floating wind energy, aerodynamics
Online: 6 August 2019 (12:48:36 CEST)
A modified free-wake vortex ring model is proposed to compute the dynamics of a floating horizontal-axis wind turbine. The model is divided into two parts. The near wake model uses a blade bound vortex model and trailed vortex model, which is developed based on vortex filament method. By contrast, the far wake model is based on the vortex ring method. The proposed model is a good compromise between accuracy and computational cost, for example when compared with more complex vortex methods. The present model is used to assess the influence of floating platform motions on the performance of a horizontal-axis wind turbine rotor. The results are validated on the 5MW NREL rotor and compared with other aerodynamic models for the same rotor subjected to different platform motions. It was found that the results from the proposed method are more reliable than the results from BEM theory especially at small angles of attack in the region of low wind speeds, on the one hand, and high wind speeds with blade pitch motions, on the other hand. And also the proposed method is less time consuming and has similar accuracy when comparing with more advanced vortex based methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0927.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Wind-LIDAR; multiple-level winds; diurnal cycle; atmospheric boundary layer; maximum wind speed
Online: 13 July 2023 (11:15:12 CEST)
The wind observations for multiple levels (40–200 m) have been conducted for a long time (2016–2020) on Jeju Island of South Korea. This study aims at understanding the vertical and temporal characteristics of lower atmosphere. Jeju Island is a region located at mid-latitude and is affected by seasonal monsoon wind. The maximum wind speed appears in the lower layer during day time and is delayed in the upper layer during latter time in diurnal cycle. In summer season, the surface layer increases up to 160 m during day time via dominant solar radiation effect, which is higher than those for other seasons. However, the maximum wind speed in winter season appears irregularly among altitudes, and the surface layer is ~100 m, which is lower than that in summer season. It can be attributed to the increase in the mean wind speed in diurnal cycle caused by the strong northwestern wind for winter season. These results imply that the relationship between near-surface and higher altitudes is primarily affected by solar radiation and seasonal monsoon winds. These results are expected to contribute to site selection criteria for wind farms and to the assessment concerning planetary boundary layer modeling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0529.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Ekman currents; ocean surface currents; wind stress forcing; transfer function; wind-driven response
Online: 20 November 2020 (09:32:45 CET)
The unsteady Ekman problem involves finding the response of the near-surface currents to wind stress forcing under linearized dynamics. Its solution can be conveniently framed in the frequency domain in terms of a quantity that is known as the transfer function, the Fourier transform of the impulse response function. In this paper, a theoretical investigation of a fairly general transfer function form is undertaken with the goal of paving the way for future observational studies. Building on earlier work, we consider in detail the transfer function arising from a linearly-varying profile of the vertical eddy viscosity, subject to a no-slip lower boundary condition at a finite depth. The linearized horizontal momentum equations are shown to transform to a modified Bessel’s equation for the transfer function. Two self-similarities, or rescalings that each effectively eliminate one independent variable, are identified, enabling the dependence of the transfer function on its parameters to be more readily assessed. A systematic investigation of asymptotic behaviors of the transfer function is then undertaken, yielding expressions appropriate for eighteen different regimes, and unifying the results from numerous earlier studies. A solution to a numerical overflow problem that arises in the computation of the transfer function is also found. All numerical code associated with this paper is distributed freely for use by the community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1511.v1
Online: 24 July 2023 (02:12:27 CEST)
To increase the power density of the electromechanical drive train of wind turbines, journal bearings can be used as planetary gear bearings instead of rolling bearings. This technological change presents new challenges. For example, wind turbine drive systems are subject to dynamic and low-speed operating conditions which can lead to an accelerated abrasive wear of the journal bearings. In addition, oil supply failure or peak loads due to wind gusts and grid and power converter faults could potentially result in catastrophic failure due to adhesive wear in a very short time. Such operating characteristics are, therefore, critical regarding the journal bearing wear lifetime and must be considered in the design. The successful implementation of journal bearings in wind turbines depends on a reliable estimation of adhesive and abrasive wear. In this paper, five different models for the wear calculation of journal bearings are evaluated regarding their suitability of wear calculation of planetary gear bearings in wind turbines. For this purpose, the following evaluation criteria were defined: parameter uncertainty, parametrization effort, in particular number of parameters, parameterization method and load case dependency of parameters and calculation effort. In order to be able to evaluate the wear models, the wear models are numerically implemented and the wear of a test journal bearing is exemplarily calculated under load conditions, which are comparable to load conditions in a wind turbine. Relevant influences from the wind turbine system such as lubricant, material and manufacturing dependent surface influences like roughness and hardness are considered. The wear models are evaluated with respect to their fulfillment of the defined criteria. The resulting evaluation allows the selection of a wear model that can be used to calculate the wear of planetary gear journal bearings in wind turbines, considering the available input variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0252.v1
Online: 18 October 2022 (05:54:22 CEST)
Wind energy is one of the most attractive renewable energy sources because of its low operating, maintenance, and production costs as well as its low environmental impact. The goal of this study is to discover the best locations in Bangladesh where wind farms can be built and operated efficiently. This study applied the GIS and AHP methodologies to examine the eight important parameters upon which the suitability of locations is highly dependent. This analysis finds that Bangladesh has large regions appropriate for wind farm installation, with 3718.76 km2 and 16631.14 km2 classified as "very high" and "high" suitability, respectively. It was also observed that wind speed, land slope, and elevation each had a height-weighted criterion of 32 %, 27 %, and 12 %, respectively, when picking suitable locations. However, the viability of this study in identifying suitable sites has been evaluated based on ROC and AUC techniques and found satisfactory as per AUC value. The knowledge gained from this study will help the sustainable and renewable energy development authority (SREDA), Bangladesh to expedite the renewable energy investment process and will ensure the great certainty. The findings of this research can be considered as baseline information in the wind energy sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1323.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: AFDRS; dynamic wind; rugged terrain; downslope wind; terrain forced channelling; buttongrass moorland; wildfire; fire intensity
Online: 19 July 2023 (10:10:26 CEST)
Background: We studied Riveaux Road Fire, which was ignited by multiple lightning strikes in January 2019 and burnt more than 637.19 km2 in southern Tasmania, Australia. Aims: We focused on fire weather, such as identification of dynamic wind and vegetation type, in a valley of the study area. Methods: We employed two methods: numerical weather model vertical sounding (NWMVS) and the use of a fire simulator, to quantify and examine the contribution of dynamic winds to fire behaviour. The NWMVSs allow rapid diagnosis of changes in wind, temperature, dew point temperature and cloud coverage. Prototype 2 is a fire simulator based on the specification of Australian Fire Danger Rating System (AFDRS). Key results: We found fires to be guided by terrain-forced channelling primarily and by downslope wind conditionally in the valleys. In addition, the fire intensity periodically changed with the magnitude of surface wind, in buttongrass moorland, in which the fire often smoulders, during the fire period according to the satellite image. Conclusions and Implications: Therefore, there should be caution for not only terrain and dynamic wind but also vegetation type during fire spread in rugged terrain.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0165.v1
Subject: Atmospheric Science And Meteorology, Environmental And Earth Sciences Keywords: tropical cyclone; track; intensity; wind; rainfall
Online: 4 December 2023 (11:35:44 CET)
Hong Kong was under the direct hit of Severe Typhoon Koinu (2314) on 8 and 9 October 2023, necessitating the issuance of the Increasing Gale or Storm Signal, No. 9. Koinu was a very challenging case for TC forecasting and warning services due to its compact size and erratic movement over the northern part of the South China Sea. This paper reviews the difficulties and challenges on the forecasting aspect of the severe typhoon. The predicted tropical cyclone track and intensity from both conventional models and emerging artificial intelligence models are examined, as well as local wind and rainfall forecast. Experience in this case study showed that while deterministic global models only performed moderately and were not able to adequately support early warning, a regional model and AI models could more effectively support decision making for operational tropical cyclone warning service.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1634.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: tropical cyclone; track; intensity; wind structure
Online: 25 September 2023 (09:32:43 CEST)
Hong Kong was under strike from Super Typhoon Saola (2309), necessitating the issuance of the highest tropical cyclone warning signal. Saola skirted past the south-southwest of Hong Kong, bringing hurricane force winds and significant storm surge. Saola had its closest approach to Hong Kong on 1 September 2023, posing a unique challenge in forecasting and early warning for the commencement date of the new school term, where higher impact to traffic and public safety was anticipated. This paper covers the challenges on the forecasting aspect of the super typhoon. The predicted tropical cyclone track, intensity and wind structure are reviewed. Experience in this case showed that while there was not a perfect numerical weather prediction model in terms of the forecast track, intensity and wind structure of Saola, multi-model approach provided very use-ful and crucial information for operational weather warning services.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1156.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: U_SPACE; drone flight; wind field reconstruction
Online: 16 August 2023 (08:15:44 CEST)
In the present work, the main methodologies used to reconstruct wind fields in the U-SPACE have been analyzed. The SESAR U-SPACE program aims to develop an Unmanned Traffic Management system with a progressive introduction of procedures and services designed to support a secure access to the air space for a large number of drones. The Italian Aerospace Research Center (CIRA) is carrying out the EDUS project focused on the development and validation of operating platform demonstrators serving the micro-scale weather forecasts and the collection of information necessary for the definition of the flight plan of the drones in urban contexts. For this reason, the state of art methodologies that can be used to estimate winds at low altitudes in urban areas starting from available observational data have been reviewed in the present paper. Some of these techniques were originally developed for reconstruction at high altitudes, but successively adapted to treat different heights. A common approach to all techniques is to approximate the probabilistic distribution of wind speed over time with some parametric models, apply spatial interpolation to the parameters and then read the predicted value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0300.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: regulatory economics; smart grids; wind farms
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:24:23 CEST)
An economic and business history approach is used to show the rise and relative failure of the Spanish wind industry during the period between 2004-2015, when Spain became the fourth country after China, the US and Germany in installed capacity of renewable energies and, in relative terms, the second country after Denmark. This study is unique in that it provides an integrated vision of the reasons for the relative fall of Spain in the world ranking of wind energy producers. The methodology of the economic analysis of industrial policies makes it possible to explain the fall in the relative importance of Spain in the international panorama of wind farms. There were no reasons related to technological obsolescence or inability of the CECRE managing renewable energies to explain the fall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0098.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: wind power; urban areas; power management
Online: 8 July 2019 (03:37:09 CEST)
On 2013 the Villonaco wind farm (16.5 MW), the first wind farm in continental Ecuador near the city of Loja, began operations. The power generated is delivered to the National Interconnected System (SNI), which services the city. This research confronts two sets of real data, the electricity use of the urban area of Loja, and the power generated by the Villonaco Wind Farm. Electricity use follows clearly defined daily and weekly cycles, and wind power has a seasonal behaviour. The study shows that wind power integration cannot be a long-term stable power source regardless power or generation surplus. Another essential finding is that time series can be used as a statistical source to determine the need for short- (seconds) and long- (days, weeks) term energy storage. Strategies to further the energy autonomy of the urban area through the expansion of the wind farm by a factor of 2 are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0501.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: wind speed; ANN model; hybrid model
Online: 26 July 2018 (04:22:14 CEST)
The predictability of wind information in a given location is essential for the evaluation of a wind power project. Predicting wind speed accurately improves the planning of wind power generation, reducing costs and improving the use of resources. This paper seeks to predict the mean hourly wind speed in anemometric towers (at a height of 50 meters) at two locations: a coastal region and one with complex terrain characteristics. To this end, the Holt-Winters (HW), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Hybrid time-series models were used. Observational data evaluated by the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications-Version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis at the same height of the towers. The results show that the hybrid model had a better performance in relation to the others, including when compared to the evaluation with MERRA-2. For example, in terms of statistical residuals, RMSE and MAE were 0.91 and 0.62 m/s, respectively. As such, the hybrid models are a good method to forecast wind speed data for wind generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1650.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Tension cable-supported power transmission structure; Wind-induced vibration; Nonlinear finite element; Wind-induced fatigue damage
Online: 25 September 2023 (09:32:35 CEST)
The tension cable-supported power transmission structure (TC-PTS) is a new type of power transmission structure suitable for mountainous terrain, which is sensitive to wind load. In this regard, a nonlinear finite element analysis model of wind-induced vibration is proposed for the TC-PTS, and the wind-induced vibration response of the structure is analyzed. Firstly, the tangent stiffness matrix of the three-dimensional truss element for the supporting suspension cable and transmission line, considering the geometric nonlinearity of structures, is derived through the relationship between the element elastic energy and its displacement. Subsequently, the element mass matrix and damping matrix of the supporting suspension cable and transmission line, as well as the element nodal load vector obtained from wind load equivalence are given. Then, based on the nonlinear finite element theory, the nonlinear dynamic equation of wind-induced vibration is established for the TC-PTS and solved by Newmark-β method combined with Newton-Raphson iterative method. Furthermore, the rain-flow counting method and Miner's linear fatigue cumulative damage theory were used for wind induced fatigue damage assessment. Finally, a two-span TC-PTS is selected as an example, and the wind-induced nonlinear vibration and fatigue damage assessment are analyzed through the proposed model. The results show that the proposed model has high computational accuracy and efficiency. With the increase of wind speed and wind direction angle, the maximum lateral displacement and tension of the supporting suspension cable and transmission line increase, and their degree of increase shows a nonlinear trend. In terms of the wind-induced fatigue analysis results of TC-PTS, the fatigue damage at the end of the supporting-conductor suspension cable is greater than the fatigue damage at its midpoint. Compared to the fatigue damage at the midpoint of the conductor, the fatigue damage at the end of the conductor is less affected by wind direction angle, and both are more significantly affected by the wind speed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0643.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Floating Wind; FOWT; Hull design; Wave load; Bracing; Structural Analysis; Manufacturing; Offshore Wind; Renewable Energy; Optimization
Online: 10 July 2023 (15:57:21 CEST)
Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (FOWT) is an innovative technology with little industry guidance for its hull design. Various FOWT floaters with different hull shapes claim to support the same turbines. Structural integrity and material expense analyses of different pontoon shapes were conducted, and it was found that some configurations, such as those with every two columns connected by both pontoon and bracing, have advantages over others. However, it is important to note that the choice of pontoon shape should be based on the wave loading conditions the floater will be exposed to. While a T-shaped pontoon provides a cost-effective solution under certain wave loading scenarios, it may not be the best option for all conditions. Specifically, ring pontoon designs with full bracing were found to be necessary for withstanding certain wave loads. Therefore, it is important to consider different Dominant Load Parameters (DLP) and ensure that a FOWT floater can withstand all applicable DLPs. An uneven hexahedral column shape, which combines the best attributes of square and round shapes, is proposed as a better alternative to cylindrical columns. It offers ease of manufacture and reasonably low drag. Bracing is found to be necessary for withstanding the wind turbine’s incurred moment and forces. The conclusion is that platform design should prioritize manufacturing costs and strength over maximizing hydrodynamic performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1787.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: wind farm; wind turbine; inverter; Low Voltage Ride Through characteristic; standard disturbance; voltage dip; relay protection
Online: 26 June 2023 (10:21:23 CEST)
In the context of energy decarbonization, wind farms with type IV wind turbines from various manufacturers are being massively put into operation. These wind turbines comply with the requirements of the grid codes of the countries where they are designed and/or manufactured, but do not factor in the specific features of the distribution networks of other countries to which they are connected. The study at issue involves a comparative analysis of the requirements of grid codes of different countries for the stable operation of wind turbines under standard disturbances. The Low Voltage Ride Through (LVRT) characteristic implemented in type IV wind turbine inverters makes it possible to prevent wind turbine shutdowns in case of short-term voltage dips of a given depth and duration. The calculations of transient processes indicate that wind turbines may not meet the requirements of the grid code of a particular country for their stable operation. As a result, standard disturbances will block the reactive current injection and the wind turbine will be switched off. This is often caused by the relay protection devices with a time delay of 1-2 s, which are used in distribution networks and implement the functions of long-range redundancy. Excessive shutdowns of wind turbines lead to emergency rise in the load for the generating units of conventional power plants, aggravating the post-accident conditions and disconnecting consumers of electricity. The paper presents a method for checking the LVRT characteristic settings for compliance with the technical requirements for wind turbines. To prevent wind turbine outages, one should either change the configuration of the LVRT characteristic, or upgrade the relay protection devices in the distribution network adjacent to the wind farm, or implement group or individual technical solutions at the wind farm. The performance of the proposed technical solutions is confirmed by the calculations of transient processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Wind power; Wind turbines; Aerodynamics; Differential Geometry; Airfoils; Blade Element Momentum Theory; BEMT; BEM; HAWT; Wagner rotor
Online: 12 August 2022 (07:53:19 CEST)
Purpose – Extend the Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT) such that rotors with pronounced cone and axis angle (tilt or yaw) can be calculated. Derive an equation for the speed ratio (lambda) as a function of Tip Speed Ratio (TSR), radius, blade, cone and axis angle. This converts the BEMT into an Unsteady BEMT or UBEMT. Present the Wagner rotor as one such rotor geometry. --- Methodology – Literature review and calculations. --- Findings – The UBEMT can be used to calculate highly unconventional rotor geometries. --- Research Limitations – Although the aerodynamic coefficients used in the UBEMT are from measurements in steady flow conditions, they can be used with success. --- Practical Implications – Also conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) with noticeable cone and axis angle should be calculated with the UBEMT. The accuracy of power calculations of these HAWTs can be slightly improved. --- Originality – Analytic equations for rotors with cone and axis angle have barely been discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0046.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: comparative study; full-scale measurement; wind tunnel model test; multiple-fan actively controlled wind tunnel; research scheme
Online: 9 October 2017 (06:38:40 CEST)
Full-scale/model test comparison studies to validate the traditional ABL wind tunnel simulation technique are reviewed. According to the literature review, notable discrepancies between full-scale measurement results and model test results were observed by most performed comparison studies, but the causes of the observed discrepancies were not revealed in a scientific way by those studies. In this regard, a new research scheme for future full-scale/model test comparison studies is proposed in this article, which utilizes the multiple-fan actively controlled wind tunnel simulation technique. With the new research scheme, future full-scale/model test comparison studies are expected to reasonably disclose the main problems with the traditional ABL wind tunnel simulation technique, and the technique can be improved correspondingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0108.v1
Subject: Other, Environmental And Earth Sciences Keywords: wind generation; portfolio theory; optimization; factor analysis
Online: 4 December 2023 (03:04:28 CET)
This paper undertakes an in-depth exploration of a primary strategy aimed at mitigating the volumetric risk in wind power generation within Greece, which originates from the variability of wind speeds. The proposed strategy hinges on portfolio theory, serving as the foundation for creating diverse generation portfolios, thus facilitating the strategic distribution of available capacity across space. Optimization techniques and quadratic programming are harnessed to derive the minimum variance portfolio along with alternative optimal allocation plans. In parallel, Factor Analysis techniques are deployed to discern prevalent sources of variability that exert influence on wind generation dynamics within Greece. Our assessment encompasses an appraisal of the diversification efficacy inherent in an array of distinct portfolios. This analysis is conducted through the application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) techniques. Furthermore, we expound upon key spatiotemporal attributes characterizing the Greek landscape, elucidating their potential contributions to the site-selection process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0713.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: typhoon; LIDAR; wind profiler; dropsonde; ocean radar
Online: 9 August 2023 (07:10:12 CEST)
Extensive surface and upper air measurements of a typhoon over the northern part of the South China Sea, namely, Typhoon Talim in July 2023, are documented and analyzed in this paper. A number of features have been observed from the upper air measurements. First, the log law and the power law are found to be appropriate in fitting the wind profiles of the typhoon in the first 1000 m or so above the sea surface. A low level jet is observed in the lower troposphere from the observations of the radar wind profilers. The paper is also novel from the perspectives that the vertical wind profile from a Doppler LIDAR on an offshore platform over the northern part of the South China sea, and that ocean radar data are used to analyze the surface wind observations of a typhoon in the region. The results of this paper would be useful in understanding the structure of tropical cyclones, e.g. in wind engineering applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0425.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Wind energy; voltage profile; distribution network; simulation
Online: 6 June 2023 (09:35:15 CEST)
Currently, there are different types of technology for the production of electricity that use various energy sources, this causes the establishment of generation centers that provide from a small amount to tens of megawatts of electrical energy. These centers are built to supply electricity to nearby loads through networks integrated into a large electrical system or in isolation with their electrical system. The technological evolution, the different energy sources, and the generation centers close to the consumers entail what has been called a distributed generation (DG), the DG carries with it aspects that need to be analyzed. In this paper, the impact of wind generation on the medium voltage energy distribution network is studied, it was determined that the addition to the distribution network of power by wind turbines less than the transmission center does not produce an impact on the network. Simulated results obtained using SIMULINK and DIgSILENT are presented and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0243.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: ensemble; wind forecast; dynamical downscaling; breeding; blending
Online: 14 February 2023 (09:36:21 CET)
This work compared the performance of three methods for constructing a regional ensemble prediction system (EPS) for wind speed forecasts: dynamical downscaling, breeding of growth modes (BGM), and blending method. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to downscale the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) EPS. In addition, as the BGM method needs observation data for generating scaling factors, an alternative method for generating scaling factors was proposed to eliminate dependence on observation data. One-month tests between October 1st and October 30th, 2020, were implemented to evaluate the performance of three methods in the Gansu province of China. The results demonstrate that the blending method outperforms the other two methods. Furthermore, the difference in performance is evident mainly in early forecast lead time and becomes negligible as forecast time increases.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0584.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Wind statistics assessment; Weibull distribution; Rayleigh distribution.
Online: 31 January 2023 (11:30:30 CET)
SStatistical characteristics of the wind speed in Samaria region of Israel have been analyzed by processing 11 years of wind data provided by the Israeli Meteorological Service, recorded at 10 m height above the ground. The cumulative mean wind speed at measurement height was shown to be 4.53 m/s with standard deviation of 2.32 m/s. Prevailing wind direction is shown to be char-acterized by cumulative mean azimuth of 226° with standard deviation of 79.76°. The results were extrapolated to 70-meter height in order to estimate wind characteristics at hub height of a me-dium-scale wind turbine. Moreover, Weibull distribution parameters were calculated annually, monthly and seasonally, demonstrating a good match with histogram-based statistical repre-sentations. Shape parameter of the Weibull distribution was shown to reside within a narrow range of 1.93 to 2.15, allowing us to assume a Rayleigh distribution, thus simplifying wind tur-bines energy yield calculations. The novelty of the current paper is related to gathering wind statistics for a certain area (Samaria) we are not aware of any published statistics regarding wind velocity and direction in this area. The data may be interesting for potential regional wind energy development in which the obtained Weibull distribution can be used in calculations of expected power generation of particular turbines with known power dependence on velocity. We also point out that the fact that realistic wind velocity statistics is well described by an analytic formula (Weibull distribution) is not trivial, and in fact the fit may have been poor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0003.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Scatterometer; wind stress; surface currents; Indian Ocean
Online: 31 December 2021 (14:50:47 CET)
This study examines the effect of surface currents on the bulk algorithm calculation of wind stress estimated using the scatterometer data during 2007-2020 in the Indian Ocean. In the study region as a whole the wind stress decreased by 5.4% by including currents into the wind stress equation. The most significant reduction in the wind stress is found along the most energetic regions with strong currents such as Somali Current, Equatorial Jets and Aghulhas retroflection. A highest reduction of 11.5% is observed along the equator where the Equatorial Jets prevail. A sensitivity analysis has been carried out for the study region and for different seasons to assess the relative impact of winds and currents in the estimation of wind stress by changing the winds while keeping the currents constants and vice versa. The inclusion of currents decreased the wind stress and this decrease is prominent when the currents are stronger. This study showed that equatorial Indian Ocean is the most sensitive region where the current can impact on wind stress estimation. The results showed that uncertainties in the wind stress estimations are quite large at regional levels and hence better representation of wind stress incorporating ocean currents should be considered in the ocean/climatic models for accurate air-sea interaction studies.