ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0080.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: wind turbine; failure detection; SCADA data; feature extraction; mutual information; copula
Online: 17 January 2017 (11:21:58 CET)
More and more works are using machine learning techniques while adopting supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for wind turbine anomaly or failure detection. While parameter selection is important for modelling a wind turbine’s health condition, only a few papers have been published focusing on this issue and in those papers interconnections among sub-components in a wind turbine are used to address this problem. However, merely the interconnections for decision making sometimes is too general to provide a parameter list considering the differences of each SCADA dataset. In this paper, a method is proposed to provide more detailed suggestions on parameter selection based on mutual information. Moreover, after proving that Copula, a multivariate probability distribution for which the marginal probability distribution of each variable is uniform is capable of simplifying the estimation of mutual information, an empirical copula based mutual information estimation method (ECMI) is introduced for an application. After that, a real SCADA dataset is adopted to test the method, and the results show the effectiveness of the ECMI in providing parameter selection suggestions when physical knowledge is not accurate enough.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0269.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind energy; wind turbines; SCADA; retrofitting; performance evaluation
Online: 20 April 2018 (14:11:15 CEST)
Full-scale wind turbine technology has been widely developing in the recent years and condition monitoring techniques assist at the scope of making 100\% technical availability a realistic perspective. In this context, several retrofitting techniques are being used for further improving the efficiency of wind kinetic energy conversion. This kind of interventions is costly and, furthermore, the estimation of the energy enhancement is commonly provided under the hypothesis of ideal conditions, as for example absence of wakes between nearby turbines. A precise quantification of the energy gained by retrofitting is therefore precious in real conditions, that can be very different from ideal ones. In this work, three kinds of retrofitting are studied through the operational data of test case wind farms: improved start-up through pitch angle adjustment near the cut-in, aerodynamic blade retrofitting by means of vortex generators and passive flow control devices, extension of the power curve by raising cut-out and high wind speed cut-in. SCADA data are employed and reliable methods are formulated for estimating the energy improvement from each of the above retrofitting. Further, an insight is provided about wind turbine functioning under very stressing regimes, as for example high wind speeds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1182.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Offshore; windy site identifier; annual wind variability index; monthly wind variability index; wind speed; wind power density
Online: 19 September 2023 (05:49:29 CEST)
Growing population, industrialization, and power requirements are adversely affecting the environment by increased greenhouse gases, resulting from fossil fuel burning. Global greenhouse gas mitigation targets have led the nations to promote clean and self-renewable sources of energy to address the environmental issue. Offshore wind power resources are relatively more attractive due to high winds, less turbulence, minimal visualization effects, and no interaction of infrastructure. The present study aims at conducting offshore wind power resources assessment (OWPRA) at some locations in the Gulf of North Suez. For this purpose, the long-term hourly mean wind speed (WS) and wind direction above means sea level (AMSL) and temperature and pressure data near surface is used. The data is obtained from ERA5 (fifth generation reanalysis for the global climate weather) at chosen six (L1-L6) offshore locations. The data covers a period of 43 years, between 1979 and 2021. The WS and direction are provided at 100 m AMSL while temperature and pressure are available near water surface level. At L1 to L6 locations, the log-term mean WS and wind power density (WPD) values are found to be 7.55 m/s and 370 W/m2, 6.37 m/s and 225 W/m2, 6.91 m/s and 281 W/m2, 5.48 m/s and 142 W/m2, 4.30 m/s and 77 W/m2, and 5.03 and 115 W/m2 and at 100 m AMSL; respectively. The higher magnitudes of monthly and annual windy site identifier indices (MWSI and AWSI) of 18.68 and 57.41 and 12.70 and 42.94 at L1 and L3 sites and generally lower values of wind variability indices are indicative of favourable winds source, which is also supported by higher magnitudes of mean WS, WPD, annual energy yields, plant capacity factors, and wind duration at these sites. The cost of energy, for the worst and the best cases are estimated as 10.120 USD/kWh and 1.274 USD/kWh at L5 and L1 sites corresponding to wind turbines WT1 and WT4. Based on the analysis, sites L1, L3, and L2 are recommended for wind farm development in order of preference. The wind variability and windy site identifiers indices introduced, will help decision-makers in deciding the potential windy sites with more confidence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0417.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: wind power; wind turbine fatigue; active yaw control
Online: 24 January 2023 (02:52:15 CET)
This study investigates the power production and blade fatigue of a three-turbine array subjected to active yaw control (AYC) in full-wake and partial-wake configurations. A framework of two-way coupled large-eddy simulation (LES) and aeroelastic blade simulation is applied to simulate the atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) flow through the turbine array and the structural responses of the turbine blades. Mean power outputs and blade fatigue loads are extracted from the simulation results. By exploring the feasible AYC decision space, we find that (a) in the full-wake configuration, the local power-optimal AYC strategy with positive yaw angles endures less flapwise blade fatigue and more edgewise blade fatigue than the global power-optimal strategy; (b) in the partial-wake configuration, applying positive AYC in certain inflow wind directions achieves higher optimal power gains than that in the full-wake scenario and reduces the blade fatigue from the non-yawed benchmark. Through a theoretical analysis based on the blade element momentum theory, we reveal that the aforementioned differences in flapwise blade fatigue between the positively and negatively yawed turbine are due to the differences in the azimuthal distributions of the local relative velocity on blade sections, resulting from the combined effects of vertical wind shear and blade rotation. Furthermore, the difference in the blade force between the positively and negatively yawed front-row turbine induces different wake velocity and turbulence distributions, causing different fatigue loads on the downwind turbine exposed to the wake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: wind farm control; green hydrogen; electrolysis; battery lifetime; wind turbine control
Online: 27 April 2023 (03:24:59 CEST)
Green hydrogen is likely to play an important role in meeting the net zero targets of countries around the globe. Hence, producing green hydrogen cheaply and effectively is an important area of research. One potential option for green hydrogen production is to run electrolysers directly from offshore wind turbines, with no grid connection and hence no expensive cabling to shore. The removal of the grid presents an unusual integration challenge. The variable nature of wind turbines and farms results in a power output that can fluctuate more quickly than the electrolyser’s ability to respond without significantly stressing the electrolyser. Thus, the use of a battery, with the wind farm, becomes essential to even out some of the power variations that the electrolyser cannot deal with. In this work, a proof of concept of a wind farm control methodology designed to reduce variability in wind farm active power output is presented. Smoothing the power supplied by the wind farm to the battery reduces the size and number of battery charge cycles and helps to increase battery lifetime. Considering off-grid wind farms which exclusively power an electrolyser, this work quantifies the impact of the wind farm control method on battery lifetime for wind farms of 1, 4, 9 and 16 wind turbines. This is achieved using suitable wind farm, battery and electrolyser models. As an example, for the largest wind farm studied, consisting of 16 x 5 MW wind turbines, batteries with a lifetime of 15 years have approximately a 30 % reduction in required capacity (reduced from 14 MWh to 10 MWh) compared to operating without wind farm control. It is found that reducing the variability of the active power output of wind farms through the wind farm control methodology presented can have a significant impact on battery degradation and hence on battery lifetime. Hence, wind farm control can reduce the required battery capacity for a given lifetime or it can increase the lifetime of a given battery capacity. The work presented shows that wind farm control could play a critical role in reducing the levelised cost of green hydrogen produced from wind farms with no grid connection and paves the way for the design and testing of a full implementation of the wind farm control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0110.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: harmonic distortion; active power filter; resonance; damping; wind power plants
Online: 16 March 2017 (06:56:42 CET)
The interaction between the grid network and the offshore wind power plant (WPP) network can lead to the amplification of certain harmonics and potentially resonant conditions. Offshore WPP should limit the increment of harmonic voltage distortion at the point of connection to the grid network as well as within their internal network. The harmonic distortion should be limited within the planning level limits using harmonic compensation, which is usually achieved by using static filters. In this paper an active damping compensation strategy with a STATCOM using emulation of resistance at the harmonic frequencies of concern is analysed. Such a compensation is effective for the local bus, though the performance is not guaranteed at the remote bus. This paper investigates the challenges associated with remote harmonic compensation in the offshore WPP, which is connected to the onshore grid through long high-voltage cables and transformers. First, the harmonic distortion and the compensating effects of the filter are theoretically assessed. Afterwards, they are demonstrated using harmonic propagation studies and time domain simulations in PSCAD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0917.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Predictive models; Weather research and forecasting (WRF); Uncertainty; Wind forecasting; Ultra short term and Short term; Wind power generation
Online: 25 April 2023 (10:10:36 CEST)
The prediction of wind power output is part of the basic work of power grid dispatching and energy distribution. At present, the output power prediction is mainly obtained by fitting and regressing the historical data. The medium- and long-term power prediction results exhibit large deviations due to the uncertainty of wind power generation. In order to meet the demand for accessing large-scale wind power into the electricity grid and to further improve the accuracy of short-term wind power prediction, it is necessary to develop models for accurate and precise short-term wind power prediction based on advanced algorithms for studying the output power of a wind power generation system. This paper summarizes the contribution of the current advanced wind power forecasting technology and delineates the key advantages and disadvantages of various wind power forecasting models. These models have different forecasting capabilities, update the weights of each model in real time, improve the comprehensive forecasting capability of the model, and have good application prospects in wind power generation forecasting. Furthermore, the case studies and examples in the literature for accurately predicting ultra-short-term and short-term wind power generation with uncertainty and randomness are reviewed and analyzed. Finally, we present prospects for future studies that can serve as useful directions for other researchers planning to conduct similar experiments and investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Wind-offshore; Renewable Energy; Dynamic Model; Economic Evaluation; optimization methodologies
Online: 17 October 2023 (04:54:19 CEST)
Portugal, in line with the European Union, is aiming for carbon neutrality by 2050 (Net 1 Zero), which implies a transition to sustainable energy sources. Climate change is all too evident, extreme weather periods are occurring in a cyclical manner, with greater brevity to such an extent that the grid operator must deal with production scenarios where it can no longer rely on hydroelectric production given the recurring drought situation. This situation increases dependence on thermal production using natural gas and imports. This has significant economic implications. Portugal has exploited its onshore wind potential, reaching an installed capacity of 5.671 MW by 2022. However, the expansion of onshore wind energy is limited to reinforcing existing infrastructure. To overcome these challenges, it is necessary to expand the exploitation of offshore wind potential that is already underway. This article proposes the location of offshore wind production platforms along the Portuguese coast. This allows for an analysis of offshore production and its optimization according to the minimum cost per MWh in the face of extreme scenarios, i.e., in periods of extreme drought where hydroelectric production capacity is practically non-existent. The model is fed by using market price indications and the amount of energy needed for the following day. Using forecast data, the model adapts offshore wind production for the following day according to the minimization of the average market price. The results of the simulations allow us to conclude that despite the high cost of offshore technology (in deep waters), in extreme climate scenarios, it enables cost reduction and a clear decrease in imports.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0628.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: DFIG; SVM; VC; Wind Turbine (WT); parameters uncertainly
Online: 16 June 2021 (12:04:39 CEST)
This paper presents the super-twisting algorithm (STA) direct power control (DPC) scheme for the control of active and reactive powers of grid-connected DFIG. Simulations of 5 KW DFIG has been presented to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach in the presence of uncertainties with respect to vector control (VC). The proposed controller schemes with fixed gains are effective in reducing the ripple of active and reactive powers, effectively suppress sliding-mode chattering and the effe This paper presents a comparative study of two approaches for the direct power control (DPC) of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) based on wind energy conversion system (WECS). Vector Control (VC) and Sliding Mode Control (SMC). The simulation results of the DFIG of 5 KW in the presence of various uncertainties were carried out to evaluate the capability and robustness of the proposed control scheme. The (SMC) strategy is the most appropriate scheme with the best combination such as reducing high powers ripple, diminishing steady-state error in addition to the fact that the impact of machine parameter variations does not change the system performance. cts of parametric uncertainties not affecting system performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0046.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Electricity markets; Proactive maintenance; Wind energy systems.
Online: 12 August 2017 (21:03:55 CEST)
The paper deals with the problem of choosing the best O&M strategy for wind power plants. Current maintenance theory considers just production opportunities and minimizes the maintenance costs, but with the liberalization of the electricity market also the electricity price has become an important variable to take into account in the O&M scheduling. Another important variables that is often neglected by the existing maintenance theory is the weather condition. This paper proposes a new strategy that takes into account the electricity price and weather conditions, improves the expected profit of the systems, and reduce the overall maintenance and logistic costs. The maintenance schedule is formalized as an optimization problem where the discounted cumulative profit of a wind generation portfolio in a fixed-time horizon (e.g. two years ahead), subject to the technologically-derived maintenance time constraints is optimized. Both the theoretical and computational aspects of the proposed O&M strategy are discussed. Results show that taking into account market and weather opportunities in the design of the maintenance strategy, it is possible to achieve a more complete scheduling for a given set of wind power plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0082.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: wind energy; wind turbines; supervisory control and data acquisition; retrofitting; performance evaluation
Online: 6 June 2018 (10:17:12 CEST)
Wind turbine upgrades have been spreading in the recent years in the wind energy industry, with the aim of optimizing the efficiency of wind kinetic energy conversion. This kind of interventions has material and labor costs and it is therefore fundamental to estimate realistically the production improvement. Further, the retrofitting of wind turbines sited in harsh environments might exacerbate the stressing conditions to which wind turbines are subjected and consequently might affect the residue lifetime. This work deals with a case of retrofitting: the testing ground is a multi-megawatt wind turbine from a wind farm sited in a very complex terrain. The blades have been optimized by installing vortex generators and passive flow control devices. The complexity of this test case, dictated by the environment and by the features of the data set at disposal, inspires the formulation of a general method for estimating production upgrades, based on multivariate linear modeling of the power output of the upgraded wind turbine. The method is a distinctive part of the outcome of this work because it is generalizable to the study of whatever wind turbine upgrade and it is adaptable to the features of the data sets at disposal. In particular, applying this model to the test case of interest, it arises that the upgrade increases the annual energy production of the wind turbine of an amount of the order of the 2%. This quantity is of the same order of magnitude, albeit non-negligibly lower, than the estimate based on the assumption of ideal wind conditions. Therefore, it arises that complex wind conditions might affect the efficiency of wind turbine upgrades and it is therefore important to estimate their impact using data from wind turbines operating in the real environment of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1097.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Wind power; solar photovoltaics; hybrid systems; complementary generation; correlated resources; wind speed analysis; turbine simulation; evening wind patterns; solar irradiance; renewable energy integration; wind-solar system; Algeria
Online: 18 September 2023 (13:34:26 CEST)
Combining wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) generation can provide complementary renewable power production, but depends on correlated resources. This study analyzed 10 years of wind data from Naama, Algeria to evaluate the potential for evening wind generation to offset the loss of solar at sunset. Average wind speeds showed a distinct increase during evening hours, coinciding with the decrease in solar irradiance. Wind turbine simulations using a 1.5 MW turbine and the wind data showed sufficient resources for profitable power production after sunset. Statistical analyses confirmed significantly higher wind speeds and simulated power output in evening vs daylight periods (p<0.05). The Pearson correlation coefficient between evening wind speeds and decreasing solar irradiance was 0.63, supporting a strong positive relationship. These findings indicate Naama has adequate wind resources to deploy economically viable wind power capacity that can complement existing solar infrastructure and provide renewable electricity after dark , .
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: wind power forecasting; short-term prediction; hybrid deep learning; wind farm; long short term memory; gated recurrent network and convolutional layers
Online: 22 September 2020 (03:45:59 CEST)
Accurate forecasting of wind power generation plays a key role in improving the operation and management of a power system network and thereby its reliability and security. However, predicting wind power is complex due to the existence of high non-linearity in wind speed that eventually relies on prevailing weather conditions. In this paper, a novel hybrid deep learning model is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy of very short-term wind power generation for the Bodangora Wind Farm located in New South Wales, Australia. The hybrid model consists of convolutional layers, gated recurrent unit (GRU) layers and a fully connected neural network. The convolutional layers have the ability to automatically learn complex features from raw data while the GRU layers are capable of directly learning multiple parallel sequences of input data. The data sets of five-minute intervals from the wind farm are used in case studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model against other advanced existing models, including long short-term memory (LSTM), GRU, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and support vector machine (SVM), which are tuned to optimise outcome. It is observed that the hybrid deep learning model exhibits superior performance over other forecasting models to improve the accuracy of wind power forecasting, numerically, up to 1.59 per cent in mean absolute error, 3.73 per cent in root mean square error and 8.13 per cent in mean absolute percentage error.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1650.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Tension cable-supported power transmission structure; Wind-induced vibration; Nonlinear finite element; Wind-induced fatigue damage
Online: 25 September 2023 (09:32:35 CEST)
The tension cable-supported power transmission structure (TC-PTS) is a new type of power transmission structure suitable for mountainous terrain, which is sensitive to wind load. In this regard, a nonlinear finite element analysis model of wind-induced vibration is proposed for the TC-PTS, and the wind-induced vibration response of the structure is analyzed. Firstly, the tangent stiffness matrix of the three-dimensional truss element for the supporting suspension cable and transmission line, considering the geometric nonlinearity of structures, is derived through the relationship between the element elastic energy and its displacement. Subsequently, the element mass matrix and damping matrix of the supporting suspension cable and transmission line, as well as the element nodal load vector obtained from wind load equivalence are given. Then, based on the nonlinear finite element theory, the nonlinear dynamic equation of wind-induced vibration is established for the TC-PTS and solved by Newmark-β method combined with Newton-Raphson iterative method. Furthermore, the rain-flow counting method and Miner's linear fatigue cumulative damage theory were used for wind induced fatigue damage assessment. Finally, a two-span TC-PTS is selected as an example, and the wind-induced nonlinear vibration and fatigue damage assessment are analyzed through the proposed model. The results show that the proposed model has high computational accuracy and efficiency. With the increase of wind speed and wind direction angle, the maximum lateral displacement and tension of the supporting suspension cable and transmission line increase, and their degree of increase shows a nonlinear trend. In terms of the wind-induced fatigue analysis results of TC-PTS, the fatigue damage at the end of the supporting-conductor suspension cable is greater than the fatigue damage at its midpoint. Compared to the fatigue damage at the midpoint of the conductor, the fatigue damage at the end of the conductor is less affected by wind direction angle, and both are more significantly affected by the wind speed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0619.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: nonequilibrium; thermodynamics; energy processes; wind energy conversion system (WECS); vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT); permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG); cascade connection
Online: 8 June 2023 (10:05:18 CEST)
In this paper, the linear nonequilibrium thermodynamic approach is used to analyze energy processes in the wind energy conversion system (WECS), with a directly connected vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) and vector controlled permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). Both elements are considered as linear universal energy converters (EC) linearized at the points of the given range of common to VAWT and PMSG angular velocity. The dependences on the angular velocity of the coupling coefficients between the ECs input and output and the dimensionless parameters of their operating modes were received. This allows for choosing the optimal points of ECs operation according to the specified criteria and obtaining indicators of their maximum efficiency. To assess the quality of the cascade connection of two ECs, the appropriate coefficient was introduced, the dimensionless parameters and characteristics of the equivalent EC were obtained, and the conditions of its maximum efficiency were determined. Analysis of the VAWT-PMSG connection quality showed reserves for improving WECS efficiency. The impact of VAWT and PMSG variable parameters on the quality of this connection is studied, and further research directions are shown. The proposed thermodynamic approach allows an effective search for solutions for the efficiency improvement of various systems with energy transfer and transformation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Grid-connected wind turbine; Differential speed regulation; Power control; Simulation
Online: 6 August 2018 (09:45:04 CEST)
The differential gear train and speed regulating motor constitute the variable ratio transmission for grid-connected wind turbine with differential speed regulation. The synchronous generator in the system can accessing the power grid without frequency converter. The transmission can realize the mode of variable speed constant frequency that the wind rotor speed is varying and the generator rotor speed is constant. The power control method is studied under the different wind speed which is lower or higher than rated wind speed with using the relational expression of utilization rate of wind energy Cp, pitch angle β and the tip speed ratio λ. The SIMULINK software is used to build the 1500 kW wind turbine model with differential speed regulation. Some different wind speed is made as input. The feasibility of power control method for grid-connected wind turbine with differential speed regulation is verified by the comparison between the simulation results and the theoretical value of the key parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Airborne wind energy, crosswind kite, induction factor, actuator disc, lift mode, drag mode, pumping kite, on-board generation
Online: 5 February 2018 (13:50:33 CET)
This paper generalizes the actuator disc theory to the application of crosswind kite power systems. For simplicity, it is assumed that the kite sweeps an annulus in the air, perpendicular to the wind direction (i.e. straight downwind configuration with tether parallel to the wind). It is further assumed that the wind flow has a uniform distribution. Expressions for power harvested by the kite is obtained, where the effect of the kite on slowing down the wind (i.e. the induction factor) is taken into account. It is shown that although the induction factor may be small for a crosswind kite (of the order of a few percentage points), neglecting it in calculations may result in noticeable overestimation of the amount of power harvestable by a crosswind kite system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0056.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Airborne wind energy; crosswind kite; induction factor; wake model; aerodynamic performance; CFD; analytical model
Online: 3 March 2022 (07:50:24 CET)
This paper presents some results from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a multi-megawatt crosswind kite spinning on a circular path in a straight downwind configuration. The unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations closed by the k−ω SST turbulence model are solved in the three-dimensional space using ANSYS Fluent. The flow behaviour is examined at the rotation plane, and the overall (or global) induction factor is obtained by getting the weighted average of induction factors on multiple annuli over the swept area. The wake flow behaviour is also discussed in some details using velocity and pressure contour plots. In addition to the CFD model, an analytical model for calculating the average flow velocity and radii of the annular wake downstream of the kite is developed. The model is formulated based on the widely-used Jensen’s model (Technical Report Risø-M; No. 2411, 1983), which was developed for conventional wind turbines, and thus has a simple form. Expressions for the dimensionless wake flow velocity and wake radii are obtained by assuming self-similarity of flow velocity and linear wake expansion. Comparisons are made between numerical results from the analytical model and those from the CFD simulation. The level of agreement was found to be reasonably good. Such computational and analytical models are indispensable for kite farm layout design and optimization, where aerodynamic interactions between kites should be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0095.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: co2 emission reduction; wind power industry; ebm; efficiency evaluation
Online: 8 November 2019 (10:42:29 CET)
In 2015, the new installed capacity of global renewable energy power generation exceeded the newly installed capacity of conventional energy power generation, marking a structural change in the construction of the global power system. With the continuous improvement of wind energy utilization technology, the global wind power industry has developed rapidly in recent years. The world's available wind energy is 20 billion kilowatts and has become one of the most economical green power. In China, wind power has become the third largest source of electricity, with the installed capacity increasing from 3.1% in 2010 to 9.2% in 2017. In 2017, China's new installed capacity was 19,660 MW, accounting for 37.45% of the world's new installed capacity. This paper evaluates and compares the efficiency of wind power industry in the four regions of eastern, central, western and northeastern China through EBM models based on radial and non-radial factors. This paper discusses the contribution of China's wind power industry to CO2 emission reduction from the relationship between installed capacity efficiency and CO2 emission reduction efficiency. The conclusions show that the overall efficiency score and ranking of wind power in 2013-2017 is the best in the eastern region, followed by the northeast region and the western and central regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0413.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: geothermal energy; life cycle analysis; solar photovoltaic energy; wind energy
Online: 28 February 2020 (01:34:44 CET)
A Life Cycle Analysis was performed considering three existing power plants of comparable size operating with different sources of renewable energy: geothermal, solar and wind. Primary data were used for building the life cycle inventories. The geothermal power plant includes emissions treatment for removal of hydrogen sulfide and mercury. The scenario about the substitution of natural emissions from geothermal energy, with specific reference to the greenhouse effect, is also investigated performing a sensitivity analysis. The results are characterized employing a wide portfolio of environmental indicators employing the Recipe 2016 and the ILCD 2011 Midpoint+ methods; normalization and weighting are also applied using the Recipe 2016 method at endpoint level. The results demonstrate a good eco-profile of geothermal power plant with respect to other renewable energy systems and allow for a critical analysis to support potential improvements of the environmental performances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2082.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: wind turbine system; doubly fed induction generator; low-voltage ride-through; active crowbars
Online: 31 August 2023 (03:00:40 CEST)
A significant electromotive force is induced in the rotor circuit of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) due to its high vulnerability to grid faults. Therefore, the system performance must be increased with appropriate control actions that can successfully offset such abnormalities in order to provide consistent and stable operations during grid disturbances. In this regard, this paper presents a solution based on a combination of an energy storage-based crowbar and a rotor-side crowbar that makes the effective transient current and voltage suppression for wind-driven DFIG possible. The core of the solution is its ability to restrict the transient rotor and stator overcurrents and DC-link overvoltages within their prescribed limits, aiming to protect the DFIG and power converters, and consequently, improve the system’ ability to ride-through faults. Further, the capacity of an energy storage device for transient suppression is estimated. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed approach is effective in achieving transient control objectives precisely and maintaining a stable grid connection during the faults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1490.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Algorithm design; Combinatorial optimization; Preventive maintenance; Virtual maintenance; Linear programming; Wind turbine; Weibull distribution; Renewal-reward theorem
Online: 21 June 2023 (07:15:49 CEST)
Wind power is one of the most important sources of renewable energy available today. A large part of the wind energy cost is due to the cost of maintaining wind power equipment. When a wind turbine component fails to function, it might need to be replaced under the less than ideal circumstances. This is known as corrective maintenance. To minimize unnecessary costs, a more active maintenance policy based on the life expectancy of the key components is preferred. Optimal scheduling of preventive maintenance activities requires advanced mathematical modeling. In this paper, an optimal preventive maintenance algorithm is designed using the renewal-reward theorem. In the multi-component setting, our approach involves a new idea of virtual maintenance which allows us to treat each replacement event as a renewal event even if some components are not replaced by new ones. The proposed optimization algorithm is applied to a four-component model of a wind turbine and the optimal maintenance plans are computed for various initial conditions. The modeling results showed clearly the benefit of PM planning compared to pure CM strategy (about 30% lower maintenance cost).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0404.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: self-organizing maps; weather patterns; synoptic circulation; multi-model ensemble; wind power
Online: 20 September 2018 (08:17:46 CEST)
This study shows the application of self-organizing maps (SOMs) to probabilistic forecasts of wind power generation and ramps in Japan. SOMs are applied to atmospheric variables obtained from atmospheric reanalysis over the region, thus deriving classified weather patterns (WPs). Probabilistic relationships are established between the synoptic-scale atmospheric variables over East Japan and the generation of regionally integrated wind power in East Japan. Medium-range probabilistic wind power predictions are derived by SOM, as analog ensembles based on the WPs of the multi-center ensemble forecasts. As this analog approach handles stochastic uncertainties effectively, probabilistic wind power forecasts are rapidly generated from a very large number of forecast ensembles. The use of a multi-model ensemble provides better results than a one-forecast model. The hybrid ensemble forecasts further improve the probabilistic predictability skill of wind power generation, as compared with non-hybrid methods. It is expected that long-term wind forecasts will provide better guidance to transmission grid operators. The advantage of this method is that it can include an interpretative analysis of meteorological factors for variations in renewable energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0138.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: distributed system; power density; renewable energy; sustainability; utility scale; wind resource
Online: 11 April 2018 (06:07:49 CEST)
The physical and economic sustainability of using Built Environment Wind Turbine (BEWT) systems depends on the wind resource potential of the candidate site. Therefore, it is crucial to carry out a wind resource assessment prior to deployment of the BEWT. The assessment results can be used as a referral tool for predicting the performance and lifespan of the BEWT in the given built environment. To date, there is limited research output on BEWTs in South Africa with available literature showing a bias towards utility-scale or conventional ground based wind energy systems. This study aimed to assess wind power generation potential of BEWT systems in Fort Beaufort using the Weibull distribution function. The results show that Fort Beaufort wind patterns can be classified as fairly good and that BEWTs can best be deployed at 15m for a fairer power output as roof height wind speeds require BEWT of very low cut-in speed of at most1.2ms−1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0158.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Airborne wind energy; Direct interconnection technique; Load sharing control; Active power; Reactive power exchange; Non-reversing pumping mode
Online: 7 November 2018 (09:56:23 CET)
In this paper, an offshore airborne wind energy (AWE) farm consisting of three non-reversing pumping mode AWE systems is modelled and simulated. The AWE systems employ permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG). A direct interconnection technique is developed and implemented for AWE systems. This method is a new approach invented for interconnecting offshore wind turbines with the least number of required offshore-based power electronic converters. The direct interconnection technique can be beneficial in improving the economy and reliability of marine airborne wind energy systems. The performance and interactions of the directly interconnected generators inside the energy farm internal power grid are investigated. The results of the study conducted in this paper, show the directly interconnected AWE systems can exhibit a poor load balance and significant reactive power exchange which must be addressed. Power control strategies for controlling the active and reactive power of the AWE farm are designed, implemented, and promising results are discussed in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0043.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: North Sea region; offshore grid; offshore hydrogen; offshore wind; system integration; IESA-NS
Online: 5 May 2022 (15:45:35 CEST)
The North Sea Offshore Grid concept has been envisioned as a promising alternative to: 1) ease the integration of offshore wind and onshore energy systems, and 2) increase the cross-border capacity between the North Sea region countries at low cost. In this paper we explore the techno-economic benefits of the North Sea Offshore Grid using two case studies: a power-based offshore grid, where only investments in power assets are allowed (i.e. offshore wind, HVDC/HVAC interconnectors); and a power-and-hydrogen offshore grid, where investments in offshore hydrogen assets are also permitted (i.e. offshore electrolysers, new hydrogen pipelines and retrofitted natural gas pipelines). We compare these scenario results with a business as usual scenario, in which offshore wind is connected radially to the shore and no offshore grid is deployed. All scenarios are run with the IESA-NS model, without any specific technology ban and under open optimization. This paper also presents a novel methodology, combining Geographic Information Systems and Energy System Models, to cluster offshore spatial data and define meaningful offshore regions and offshore hub locations. This novel methodology is applied to the North Sea region to define nine offshore clusters taking into account offshore spatial claims, and identifying suitable areas for single-use and multi-use of space for renewable energy purposes. The scenario results show that the deployment of an offshore grid provides relevant cost savings, ranging from 1% to 4.1% of relative cost decrease (2.3 bn € to 8.7 bn €) in the power-based, and ranging from 2.8% to 7% of relative cost decrease (6 bn € to 14.9 bn €) in the power-and-hydrogen based. In the most extreme scenario (H2) an offshore grid permits to integrate 283 GW of HVDC connected offshore wind and 196 GW of HVDC meshed interconnectors. Even in the most conservative scenario (P1) the offshore grid integrates 59 GW of HVDC connected offshore wind capacity and 92 GW of HVDC meshed interconnectors. When allowed, the deployment of offshore electrolysis is considerable, ranging from 61 GW to 96 GW, with capacity factors of around 30%. Finally, we also find that, when imported hydrogen is available at 2 €/kg (including production and transport costs), large investments in an offshore grid are not optimal anymore. In contrast, at import costs over 4 €/kg imported hydrogen is not competitive.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0199.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Adama Ⅰ Wind Farm; SRF; Feed forward control; Voltage Sag; DVR; MATLAB-Simulink
Online: 10 August 2022 (09:46:15 CEST)
Rising sensitivity of the loads with respect to power quality has grown-up the consideration of power system study and power quality enhancement systems. The fluctuation of voltage outside the normal working range due to faults may lead to unsuitable interruption of wind turbines. This thesis present 1.5MW grid connected Adama Ⅰ Wind Farm in Ethiopia with the objectives to capture the optimal power from the wind and ensure voltage source for sensitive load. This paper deals with the effective voltage sag mitigation and Harmonic distortion effectively met IEEE 519-1992 standard under all Phase to ground fault compensation by using Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), to regulate the terminal voltage of the wind farm and safe operation of sensitive load. The DVR utilizes a feed forward control-based algorithm to generate PWM. The simulation results are going to be carried out by MATLAB-Simulink to verify the operation and effectiveness of DVR during balanced voltage sag and swell conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1067.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: wind Energy; wind turbine; wind shear; wind power density
Online: 17 October 2023 (11:54:28 CEST)
This study examines the wind shear coefficient (WSC) values at three coastal wind sites located in the southern region of Balochistan, Pakistan: Pasni, Ormara, and Jiwani. These WSC values were obtained using 10-minute measured wind speed data at heights of 20, 40, and 60 meters above ground level (AGL). Since wind measurements are typically recorded at lower heights due to cost and resource constraints, extrapolation techniques were employed to estimate wind speeds at higher altitudes. However, using a constant WSC value for extrapolation may lead to significant errors between extrapolated and actual wind speed measurements, impacting the energy output of wind turbines. To evaluate the effect of WSC on energy yield, the study employed power curves and frequency distributions for 2MW and 1.5MW wind turbines. Additionally, wind power density was calculated using air density derived from measured air temperature and surface pressure data, covering two years period from November 2016 to August 2018. The overall mean WSC values were found to be 0.076 at Pasni, 0.094 at Jiwani, and 0.053 at Ormara. The study further investigated the seasonal, monthly, and diurnal variations of WSC. For assessing wind resources at a height of 60m, the study utilized Wind Roses, wind power density, and Weibull parameters. Comparing the actual WSC values presented in this paper with those obtained using the 1/7 power law and measured data at 60m AGL, the energy yield from the wind turbines showed reduced output and capacity factor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0100.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: wind turbine; adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS); dynamical downscaling; regional climate change model; renewable energy; machine learning
Online: 11 January 2020 (10:15:40 CET)
Climate change impacts and adaptations is subject to ongoing issues that attract the attention of many researchers. Insight into the wind power potential in an area and its probable variation due to climate change impacts can provide useful information for energy policymakers and strategists for sustainable development and management of the energy. In this study, spatial variation of wind power density at the turbine hub-height and its variability under future climatic scenarios are taken under consideration. An ANFIS based post-processing technique was employed to match the power outputs of the regional climate model with those obtained from the reference data. The near-surface wind data obtained from a regional climate model are employed to investigate climate change impacts on the wind power resources in the Caspian Sea. Subsequent to converting near-surface wind speed to turbine hub-height speed and computation of wind power density, the results have been investigated to reveal mean annual power, seasonal, and monthly variability for a 20-year period in the present (1981-2000) and in the future (2081-2100). The results of this study revealed that climate change does not affect the wind climate over the study area, remarkably. However, a small decrease was projected for future simulation revealing a slightly decrease in mean annual wind power in the future compared to historical simulations. Moreover, the results demonstrated strong variation in wind power in terms of temporal and spatial distribution when winter and summer have the highest values of power. The findings of this study indicated that the middle and northern parts of the Caspian Sea are placed with the highest values of wind power. However, the results of the post-processing technique using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model showed that the real potential of the wind power in the area is lower than those of projected from the regional climate model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0373.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: active power loss; total generation cost; emission index; optimal power flow; equilibrium optimizer; solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system; wind integrated IEEE 30-bus system; hybrid wind and solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system
Online: 17 September 2020 (05:15:42 CEST)
Over the last decades, the energy market around the world has reshaped due to accommodating the high penetration of renewable energy resources. Although renewable energy sources have brought various benefits, including low operation cost of wind and solar PV power plants, and reducing the environmental risks associated with the conventional power resources, they have imposed a wide range of difficulties in power system planning and operation. Naturally, classical optimal power flow (OPF) is a nonlinear problem. Integrating renewable energy resources with conventional thermal power generators escalates the difficulty of the OPF problem due to the uncertain and intermittent nature of these resources. To address the complexity associated with the process of the integration of renewable energy resources into the classical electric power systems, two probability distribution functions (Weibull and lognormal) are used to forecast the voltaic power output of wind and solar photovoltaic, respectively. Optimal power flow, including renewable energy, is formulated as a single-objective and multi-objective problem in which many objective functions are considered, such as minimizing the fuel cost, emission, real power loss, and voltage deviation. Real power generation, bus voltage, load tap changers ratios, and shunt compensators values are optimized under various power systems’ constraints. This paper aims to solve the OPF problem and examines the effect of renewable energy resources on the above-mentioned objective functions. A combined model of wind integrated IEEE 30-bus system, solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system, and hybrid wind and solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system are performed using the equilibrium optimizer technique (EO) and other five heuristic search methods. A comparison of simulation and statistical results of EO with other optimization techniques showed that EO is more effective and superior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0844.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Regional integrated energy system; Fine energy storage model; Condition Value at Risk; Demand response mechanism; Wind power consumption
Online: 13 November 2023 (16:50:59 CET)
To address the problems of wind abandonment in the regional integrated energy system (RIES), which occurs when cogeneration unit operates in a heat-determined electricity operation mode, and the low efficiency of the energy storage system in a low-temperature environment, we propose an optimal scheduling method for RIES based on fine energy storage and wind power dissipation. First, a fine energy storage model is established on the source side and the conditional value at risk(CvaR) theory is used to quantify the uncertainty of wind power; then a combined heat and power demand response mechanism is introduced on the load side to reduce the peak-to-valley difference between heat and power loads, and to promote the consumption of wind power. Finally, with the objective of minimizing the total cost of RIES optimal dispatch, the example is solved on the MATLAB platform. The simulation results show that compared with the traditional model, the proposed model is not only more adaptable to the low-temperature environment, but also can effectively improve the system economy and wind power consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0344.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: active power loss; total generation cost; emission index; optimal power flow; equilibrium optimizer; 21 solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system; wind integrated IEEE 30-bus system; hybrid wind and solar PV 22 integrated IEEE 30-bus system
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:50:46 CEST)
Over the last decades, the energy market around the world has reshaped due to accommodating the high penetration of renewable energy resources. Although renewable energy sources have brought various benefits, including low operation cost of wind and solar PV power plants, and reducing the environmental risks associated with the conventional power resources, they have imposed a wide range of difficulties in power system planning and operation. Naturally, classical optimal power flow (OPF) is a nonlinear problem. Integrating renewable energy resources with conventional thermal power generators escalates the difficulty of the OPF problem due to the uncertain and intermittent nature of these resources. To address the complexity associated with the process of the integration of renewable energy resources into the classical electric power systems, two probability distribution functions (Weibull and lognormal) are used to forecast the voltaic power output of wind and solar photovoltaic, respectively. Optimal power flow, including renewable energy, is formulated as a single-objective and multi-objective problem in which many objective functions are considered, such as minimizing the fuel cost, emission, real power loss, and voltage deviation. Real power generation, bus 13 voltage, load tap changers ratios, and shunt compensators values are optimized under various power systems’ 14 constraints. This paper aims to solve the OPF problem and examines the effect of renewable energy resources 15 on the above-mentioned objective functions. A combined model of wind integrated IEEE 30-bus system, solar 16 PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system, and hybrid wind and solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system are performed 17 using the equilibrium optimizer technique (EO) and other five heuristic search methods. A comparison of 18 simulation and statistical results of EO with other optimization techniques showed that EO is more effective 19 and superior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0384.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: renewable energy sources; wind uncertainty; effective budget of uncertainty; second-order conic relaxation; AC power flow equations
Online: 30 March 2022 (03:26:12 CEST)
Integrating large-scale wind energy in modern power systems is demanding more efficient mathematical models to properly address classical assumptions in power system problems. In particular, there are two main assumptions in power system problems with wind integration that have not been adequately studied yet; First, non-linear AC power flow equations have been linearized in most of the literature. Such simplifications can lead to inaccurate power flow calculations that may result in other technical issues. Second, wind power uncertainties are inevitable and have been mostly modelled using the traditional uncertainty modelling approaches, that may not be suitable for large-scale wind power integration. In this paper, we address both challenges: we present a tight second-order conic relaxation (SOCR) for optimal power flow (OPF) problem, and simultaneously, implement the new effective budget of uncertainty approach for uncertainty modelling that determines the maximum wind power admissibility first and then addresses the uncertainty in the model. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that proposes an effective robust second-order conic programming (ERSOCP) model that simultaneously addresses the issues of power flow linearization and wind power uncertainty with the new paradigm on the budget of uncertainty approach. Our numerical results show the merit of the proposed model against traditional linearized power flow equations as well as traditional uncertainty modelling approaches.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: 3D Doppler Wind Lidar; planetary boundary layer; vertical wind; wind speed; wind direction
Online: 29 April 2021 (10:33:39 CEST)
The accuracy of wind field simulation and prediction is one of the most significant parameters in the field of atmospheric science and wind energy. Limited by the observation data, there are few researches on wind energy development. A 3D Doppler wind lidar (DWL) providing the high-vertical-resolution wind data over the urban complex underlying surface in February 2018 was employed to evaluated the accuracy of vertical wind field simulation systematically for the first time. 11 PBL schemes of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) were employed in simulation. The model results were evaluated in groups separated by weather (sunny days, haze days and windy days), observation height layers, and various observation wind speeds. The test results presented that the vertical layer altitude of the observation point position was the most important factor. The simulation is fairly well at a height of 1000-2000m, as most of the relative mean bias of wind speed and wind direction are less than 20% and 6% respectively. Below 1000 m, the wind speed and direction biases are about 30%-150% m.s-1 and 6%-30% respectively. Moreover, when the observed wind speed was lower than 5 m.s-1, the bias were usually large, and the wind speed relative mean bias is up to 50-300%. In addition, the accuracy of simulated wind profile is better in 10-15m.s-1 than other speed ranges, and is better up 1000m than below 1000m in the boundary layer. We see that the WRF boundary layer schemes have different applicability to different weather conditions. The WRF boundary layer schemes have significant differences in wind field simulation with larger error under the complex topography. A PBL scheme is not likely to maintain its advantages in the long term under different conditions including altitude and weather conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1621.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: wind energy; wind turbine blades; wind turbine towers; manufacturing
Online: 27 September 2023 (02:37:20 CEST)
In Zambia, three feasibility studies have been conducted to assess the potential of wind energy for power generation. However, these studies did not investigate the capability of local support industries to manufacture wind turbine blades and towers. This study aimed to investigate and profile the capability of Zambian industries to manufacture wind turbine blades and towers. The study used a mixed-method approach to collect data; this utilized qualitative and quantitative approaches. The population of Zambian industries was collected from the Zambia Association of Manufacturers based on the registered members. This data was used to define the population for the study; the population was arranged into three strata whose characteristics are homogeneous within the stratum. Due to the low population, the study was conducted on the whole population. The qualitative data was collected from each stratum using a quantitative data collection tool developed for each stratum and analyzed. The study considered the capability of manufacturing companies based on wind potential results for Class III and Class IV, which exist in some sites. The results have revealed that on an as-is basis, no company in Zambia can manufacture WT blades and towers unless there is a complete overhaul of some companies or total investment in new infrastructure and equipment. The findings are useful for stakeholders involved in developing the wind power sector in Zambia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0103.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Converter-driven stability; hybrid renewable energy source (HRES) system; modal resonance; full converter-based wind power generation (FCWG); full converter-based photovoltaic generation (FCPV)
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:14:24 CEST)
Various renewable energy sources such as wind power and photovoltaic (PV) have been increasingly integrated into the power system through power electronic converters in recent years. However, power electronic converter-driven stability issues under specific circumstances, for instance, modal resonances might deteriorate the dynamic performance of the power systems or even threaten the overall stability. In this paper, the integration impact of a hybrid renewable energy source (HRES) system on modal interaction and converter-driven stability is investigated in an IEEE 16-machine 68-bus power system. Firstly, an HRES system is introduced, which consists of full converter-based wind power generation (FCWG) and full converter-based photovoltaic generation (FCPV). The equivalent dynamic models of FCWG and FCPV are then established, followed by the linearized state-space modeling. On this basis, converter-driven stability analyses are performed to reveal the modal resonance mechanisms of the interconnected power systems and the modal interaction phenomenon. Additionally, time-domain simulations are conducted to verify effectiveness of dynamic models and support the converter-driven stability analysis results. To avoid detrimental modal resonances, an optimization strategy is further proposed by retuning the controller parameters of the HRES system. The overall results demonstrate the modal interaction effect between external AC power system and the HRES system and its various impacts on converter-driven stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0949.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind turbine; gearbox; calculation parameters; tooth width; weight; modulus; allowable stress at surface pressure; allowable stress at bending
Online: 14 September 2023 (07:11:18 CEST)
As wind turbine power requirements have evolved from the order of kilowatts (kW) to the order of several megawatts (MW), wind turbine components have been subjected to more demanding and critical operating conditions. The wind turbine must cope with higher wind loads due to larger blade sizes, which are also time-varying and ultimately higher power levels. One of the challenges in the manufacture of high-power wind turbines lies in the gearbox and consists of achieving ever greater power density without compromising efficiency, i.e., greater load capacity with lower weight (and production cost) and reduced power losses. In this paper we will analyze the influence that certain design parameters have on the size and weight of the gearbox components and therefore of the gearbox itself. For this purpose, the theoretical model of the gearbox will be planned and the influence of calculation parameters on the gearbox design will be analyzed. The influence of material, modulus and tooth width on the size and weight of the gearbox will be observed. Critical stresses are also calculated. The goal is to prepare the theoretical basis for an optimization process that will result in a gearbox as compact as possible without compromising the service life of the components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0069.v1
Online: 13 December 2016 (10:01:29 CET)
Taiwan developing offshore wind power to promote green energy and self-electricity production. In this study, a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) was set up at Chang-Hua development zone one on the sea and 10km away from the seashore. At Lidar location, WRF (3.33km & 2km grid lengths) model and WAsP were used to simulate the wind speed at various elevations. Three days mean wind speed of simulated results were compared with Lidar data. From the four wind data sets, developed five different comparisons to find an error% and R-Squared values. Comparison between WAsP and Floating Lidar was shown good consistency. Lukang meteorological station 10 years wind observations at 5m height were used for wind farm energy predictions. The yearly variation of energy predictions of traditional and TGC wind farm layouts are compared under purely neutral and stable condition. The one-year cycle average surface heat flux over the Taiwan Strait is negative (-72.5 (W/m2) and 157.13 STD), which represents stable condition. At stable condition TGC (92.39%) and 600(92.44%), wind farms were shown higher efficiency. The Fuhai met mast wind data was used to estimate roughness length and power law exponent. The average roughness lengths are very small and unstable atmosphere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0002.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: wind prediction; wind estimation; UAS; wind shear; gust; multi-platform integration
Online: 18 January 2017 (09:44:54 CET)
This paper presents a system for identification of wind features, such as gusts and wind shear. These are of particular interest in the context of energy-efficient navigation of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The proposed system generates real-time wind vector estimates and a novel algorithm to generate wind field predictions. Estimations are based on the integration of an off-the-shelf navigation system and airspeed readings in a so-called direct approach. Wind predictions use atmospheric models to characterize the wind field with different statistical analyses. During the prediction stage, the system is able to incorporate, in a big-data approach, wind measurements from previous flights in order to enhance the approximations. Wind estimates are classified and fitted into a Weibull probability density function. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is utilized to determine the shaping and scale parameters of the distribution, which are employed to determine the most probable wind speed at a certain position. The system uses this information to characterize a wind shear or a discrete gust and also utilizes a Gaussian Process regression to characterize continuous gusts. The knowledge of the wind features is crucial for computing energy-efficient trajectories with low cost and payload. Therefore, the system provides a solution that does not require any additional sensors. The system architecture presents a modular decentralized approach, in which the main parts of the system are separated in modules and the exchange of information is managed by a communication handler to enhance upgradeability and maintainability. Validation is done providing preliminary results of both simulations and Software-In-The-Loop testing. Telemetry data collected from real flights, performed in the Seville Metropolitan Area in Andalusia (Spain), was used for testing. Results show that wind estimation and predictions can be calculated at 1 Hz and a wind map can be updated at 0.4 Hz. Predictions show a convergence time with a 95% confidence interval of approximately 30 s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: wind power; wind energy; coastal regions; statistical distributions; wind turbine capacity factor
Online: 6 April 2020 (15:29:16 CEST)
Wind power output is highly dependent on the wind speed at the selected site, therefore wind-speed distribution modeling is the most important step in the assessment of wind energy potential. This study aims at accurate evaluation of onshore wind energy potential in seven coastal cities in the south of Iran. Six Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) were examined over representative stations. It has been deduced that the Weibull function, which was the most used PDF in similar studies, was only applicable to one station. Here, Gamma offered the best fit for three stations and for the other ones, Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) performed better. Considering the ranking of six examined PDFs and the simplicity of Gamma, it was identified as the effective function in the southern coasts of Iran bearing in mind the geographic distribution of stations. Besides, six turbine power curve functions were contributed to investigate the capacity factor. That was very important, as using only one function could cause under- or over-estimation. Then, stations were classified based on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory system. Last but not least, examining a range of wind turbines enabled scholars to extend this study into the practice and prioritize development of stations considering budget limits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0283.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind tunnel; enlarge design; Buckingham π theorem; torque-diameter correlation; estimated power; field size; 3-D blade; stall delay
Online: 16 August 2018 (12:47:10 CEST)
A preliminary study of a wind turbine design is carried out using a wind tunnel to obtain its aerodynamic characteristics. Utilization of data from the study to develop large-scale wind turbines requires further study. This paper aims to discuss the use of wind turbine data obtained from the wind tunnel measurements to estimate the characteristics of wind turbines that have field size. The torque of two small-scale turbines was measured inside the wind tunnel. The first small-scale turbine has a radius of 0.14 m and the second small turbine has a radius of 0.19 m. Torque measurement results from both turbines were analyzed using Buckingham π theorem to obtain a correlation between torsion and diameter variations. The obtained correlation equation is used to estimate the field measurement of turbine power with a radius of 1.2 m. The resulting correlation equation can be used to estimate the power generated by the turbine by the size of the field well in the operating area of the tip speed ratio of the turbine design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Key Words: PV-Wind-Hydro Hybrid Power System, Dynamic Modeling, Load Profile, Grid Extension, smart micro grid, fuzzy logic controller, and mat lab/Simulink
Online: 2 October 2018 (14:03:38 CEST)
ABSTRACT Ethiopia is a developing country, where majority of the population lives in rural areas without access to electricity. 83% of the total population of the country use traditional biomass energy as a basic source of energy. In contrast, the country is endowed with sufficient renewable energy resources which can be used as a standalone electric energy supply system for electrifying remote areas of the country. These resources are mainly micro hydropower and wind which can be used individually or the best combination of one another. The application of hybrid renewable energy system has become an important alternative solution for rural electrification program. The Modeling and control of a hybrid PV-Wind-Hydro DG system is also addressed. Dynamic models for the major system components, namely, wind energy conversion system, PV energy conversion system, hydro, inverter, and overall fuzzy logic controller units are developed. Then, a simulation model for the proposed hybrid power system has been developed using MATLAB /Simulink environment. This is done by creating subsystem sets of the major dynamic component models and then assembling into a single aggregate model. The overall power management strategy for coordinating and/or controlling the different energy sources is also presented in the thesis work. Generally there are 800 households with total electric demand of 71.6KW.To satisfy this demand 52%, 35% and 13% is to be contributed from wind/hydro/solar respectively. To use the power economically fuzzy logic controller is used. The controller monitors the demand and the available sources and then switches to the appropriate power supply according to the written rules. Simulations have been carried out to verify the system dynamic performance using a practical load profile and weather data. The result shows that the overall power management strategy is effective and the load demand is balanced. To complete this work, a grid extension from the closest substation has been compared with hybrid system. Cost of the grid extension is estimated based on the data obtained from EEP office. This is done in order to compare the cost of the designed hybrid power system against the cost of grid extension. The result shows that breakeven grid extension distance to be 23.9km which indicates that grid extension is preferable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0315.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: wind farm layout optimization problem; wind farm land-use; wind turbine wakes; wind turbine aerodynamics; tip speed ratio control
Online: 14 July 2020 (13:57:14 CEST)
The use of wind energy has been developing fast over the last years. The global cumulative wind power capacity increased by 10.5% in 2019, most of which comes from onshore wind farms. One of the consequences of this continuous increase is the use of land for onshore wind farms. There are already cases worldwide where lack of well-established plans and strategies have caused delays in projects. The need for efficiently using land for wind farms will be mandatory in the short term. In this work, we present a numerical analysis to evaluate wind farm land-use. By defining the ratio between mechanical output power over an area as a parameter called land-use ratio, this work focused on comparing several cases of aligned and staggered layouts. Mechanical output power was estimated using a validated code based on Blade Element Momentum code, and the wake velocities and wake interaction effects were estimated using a validated wind turbine CFD model. In terms of output power, staggered designs are more efficient than aligned designs. However, the results showed that even though staggered designs produced higher output power, aligned farms with tight lateral spacing could be as efficient as staggered ones in terms of land-use but using fewer turbines. In summary, tightly aligned designs should be a tendency in the future towards efficient use of land in wind farms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1152.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: renewable energy; wind power; wind park; investment plan; Retscreen
Online: 18 September 2023 (09:41:52 CEST)
Considering that traditional energy sources such as fossil fuel are about to deplete during the following decades, governments try to turn to renewable energy. It is commonly known that Greece has a natural advantage of abundant solar energy and wind power due to its geographical location and characteristics.The main focus of this study is to examine how wind energy potential across the Aegean Sea and continental Greece can provide a promising field for investments in Greece, considering the economic crisis, current trends and future perspectives.We firstly focus on current legislation framework considering that laws associated with such types of investment in Greece are very complex and rapidly changing. Furthermore, a case study for a hypothetical investment plan concerning a wind park located in an Aegean island will be presented. RetScreen which is a software made by the Canadian government, will be used as a decision support tool for analyzing the potential investment scenario and a financial report will follow with estimation of the overall cost, depreciation, upcoming benefits, and payback period of the investment.Data analysis concludes that wind parks still prove to be an economically viable investment, although incentives considering the guaranteed price per kwh and faster investment times must be provided by the government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1423.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Wind and current mission concept; Doppler scatterometer; wind work
Online: 19 May 2023 (10:05:19 CEST)
The kinetic energy transfer between the atmosphere and oceans, called wind work, affects ocean dynamics including near-inertial oscillations and internal gravity waves, mesoscale eddies, and large-scale zonal jets. For the most part, recent numerical estimates of global wind work amplitude are almost 5 times larger than those reported 10 years ago. This large increase is explained by the impact of the broad range of spatial and temporal scales covered by winds and currents, the smallest of which have only recently been uncovered by increasingly high resolution modeling efforts. However, existing satellite observations do not fully sample this broad range of scales. The present study assesses the capabilities of ODYSEA, a conceptual satellite mission to estimate the amplitude of wind work in the global ocean. To this end, we use an ODYSEA measurement simulator fed by the outputs of a km-scale coupled ocean-atmosphere model to estimate wind work globally. Results indicate that compared with numerical truth estimates, the ODYSEA instrument performs well globally, except for latitudes north of 40∘N during summer due to unresolved storm evolution. This performance is explained by the wide-swath properties of ODYSEA (a 1,700 km wide swath with 5 km posting for winds and surface currents), its twice-a-day (daily) coverage at mid-latitudes (low latitudes), and the insensitivity of the wind work to uncorrelated errors in estimated wind and current.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0488.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: aerodynamics; dynamic stall; engineering model; wind energy; wind turbine
Online: 28 March 2023 (12:43:07 CEST)
Considering the dynamic stall effects in engineering calculations is essential for correcting the aerodynamic loads acting on wind turbines, both during power production and stand-still cases, and impacts significantly the turbine aeroelastic stability. The employed dynamic stall model needs to be accurate and robust for a wide range of airfoils and range of angle of attack. The present studies are intended to demonstrate the performance of a recently implemented "IAG dynamic stall" model in a wind turbine design tool Bladed. The model is transformed from the indicial type of formulation into a state-space representation. The new model is validated against measurement data and other dynamic stall models in Bladed for various flow conditions and airfoils. It is demonstrated that the new model is able to reproduce the measured dynamic polar accurately without airfoil specific parameter calibration and has a superior performance compared to other models in Bladed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Holland-B Parameter; Philippine typhoons; Regional wind; Wind hazard
Online: 2 September 2022 (10:39:46 CEST)
For the Philippines, a country exposed to multiple natural hazards like severe wind, sustainable development includes resiliency. Severe wind hazard is brought by tropical cyclones in the Western Pacific, known as typhoons, that frequent the Philippines. Therefore, adequately evaluating the wind hazard and its impact is crucial for sustainable building design. Acknowledging the impacts of climate change on said hazards would require adaptation to its consequences which necessitate a deeper understanding on the changing behavior of typhoons in recent years. For this study, detailed wind information from the Japan Meteorological Agency from 1977-2021, the Holland-B parameter, and the radius of maximum wind speed for each typhoon, are determined for simulation of the regional cyclonic wind field. The analysis of the Holland-B parameters, which represent the steepness of the pressure gradient and tropical cyclone convection, suggest that the Holland-B parameters have been increasing since 2011. The regional wind fields caused by the typhoons also suggest an increasing trend in severe wind hazard. Seasonality for the location of severe wind hazard is also observed, with the Southern Philippines experiencing an increase (decrease) during the Northeast (Southwest) Monsoon season, and the Northern Philippines experiencing an increase (decrease) during the Southwest (Northeast) Monsoon season.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0356.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Wind turbine; Renewable energy; Wind energy; Machine learning; Gearbox
Online: 18 January 2021 (15:12:17 CET)
Wind energy is becoming an essential source of power for countries which have the aim to reduce greenhouse gases emission and mitigate the effects of global warming. The Wind Turbines (WTs) installed around the globe is increasing significantly every year. The dramatic increase in wind power has encountered quite a few challenges, among which the major issues are availability and reliability. The unexpected failure in WTs Gearbox (GB) ultimately increases the Operation and Maintenance (O&M) cost. The identification of faults in the earlier stages before it turns to catastrophic damage to other components of WT is crucial. This research deals with the prediction of WT failures by using a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. The main aim is to forecast the temperature of the WTs GB to predict the impending overheating of the GB at an early stage. The earlier prediction will help to optimize the maintenance period and to save maintenance expenses and, even more important, generate warnings in due time to avoid major damages or even technical disasters. In the proposed method we compared six different machine learning (ML) models based on error and accuracy of prediction. The bagging regressor is the best ML model, which results in the mean square error of 0.33 and R of 99.8 on training data. The bagging regressor is then used to predict the fault in the WT GB, which detected the anomalous behavior of WT GB 59 days earlier than the actual failure. This model also detects the extremely unusual behavior of the GB 9 days earlier than a complete failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Vertical Axis Wind Turbine; Wind Energy; Helical Blade; CFD
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:00:17 CET)
The global energy crisis has lead researchers explore other sources of energy like wind, resulting in a wide acceptance of wind turbines. Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) more suitable for small scale application in urban conditions than their horizontal-axis counterparts. A Helical bladed VAWT would reduce the ripple effect when compared to Straight bladed VAWT. The effect of the blade helix angle on the aerodynamic performance of VAWT using 3D numerical simulations is studied. Turbulence modelled using 4-Equation transition SST k-w model. Three different helix angles of 60, 90 and 120 of a 3 bladed VAWT operating across different tip speed ratios were studied. The 60 helical bladed VAWT was found to perform better than all other helical bladed and straight bladed VAWT. Standard deviation of the moment coefficient generated by a blade plotted against 360 of azimuth rotation revealed that the ripple effect on the shaft produced by cyclic loading of the straight blade is considerably reduced upon introduction of helix angle, with 120 helical blade giving lowest standard deviation. The analysis has been done for the percentage of power generated by each quartile of flow and the contribution of each section of the blade. A comparative study was also conducted between different helical bladed VAWT and straight bladed VAWT. Flow feature analysis also revealed the reasons behind secondary peaks and the performance improvement when tip speed ratio increases. Wake structure analysis and flow contours were also studied for a better understanding of the flow field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0256.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: wind speed; wind power; scale factor and shape factor
Online: 12 October 2018 (05:13:33 CEST)
The research sought to investigate the long term characteristics of wind in the Kisii region (elevation 1710m above sea level, 0.68oS, 34.79o E). Wind speeds were analyzed and characterized on short term (per month for a year) and then simulated for long term (ten years) measured hourly series data of daily wind speeds at a height of 10m. The analysis included daily wind data which was grouped into discrete data and then calculated to represent; the mean wind speed, diurnal variations, daily variations as well as the monthly variations. The wind speed frequency distribution at the height 10 m was found to be 2.9ms-1 with a standard deviation of 1.5. Based on the two month’s data that was extracted from the AcuRite 01024 Wireless Weather Stations with 5-in-1 Weather Sensor experiments set at three sites in the region, averages of wind speeds at hub heights of 10m and 13m were calculated and found to be 1.7m/s, 2.0m/s for Ikobe station, 2.4m/s, 2.8m/s for Kisii University stations, and 1.3m/s, 1.6m/s for Nyamecheo station respectively. Then extrapolation was done to determine average wind speeds at heights (20m, 30m, 50m, and 70m) which were found to be 85.55W/m2, 181.75W/m2, 470.4W/m2 and 879.9W/m2 respectively. The wind speed data was used statistically to model a Weibull probability density function and used to determine the power density for Kisii region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0602.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Reliability; FMEA; wind turbines; climatic conditions; wind turbine type
Online: 30 July 2018 (22:51:32 CEST)
The wind industry is looking for ways to accurately predict the reliability and availability of newly installed wind turbines. Failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) is a technique utilized for determining the critical subsystems of wind turbines. There are several studies which applied FMECA for wind turbines in the literature, but no studies so far have considered different weather conditions or climatic regions. Furthermore, various design types of wind turbines have been analyzed applying FMECA but no study so far has applied FMECA to compare the reliability of geared and direct-drive wind turbines. We propose to fill these gaps by using Koppen-Geiger climatic regions and two different turbine models of direct-drive and geared-drive concepts. A case study is applied on German wind farms utilizing the WMEP database which contains wind turbine failure data from 1989 to 2008. This proposed methodology increases the accuracy of reliability and availability predictions and compares different wind turbine design types and eliminates underestimation of impacts of different weather conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0328.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: CFD; LES; Complex terrai; actual wind speed; wind energy
Online: 24 May 2018 (05:14:27 CEST)
This paper proposes a procedure for predicting the actual wind speed for flow over complex terrain with CFD. It converts a time-series of wind speed data acquired from field observations into a time-series of actual scalar wind speed by using non-dimensional wind speed parameters which are determined beforehand with the use of CFD output. The accuracy and reproducibility of the prediction procedure were examined by simulating the flow with CFD with the use of high resolution (5 m) surface elevation data for the Noma Wind Park in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The errors of the predicted average monthly wind speeds relative to the observed values were less than approximately 20%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0575.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: large eddy simulation; integral length scale; wind assessment; wind measurement
Online: 8 June 2023 (08:47:38 CEST)
When undertaking wind assessment around buildings using large eddy simulation (LES), the implementation of the integral length scale at the inlet for inflow generation is controversial, as real atmospheric length scales require huge computational domains. While length scales significantly influence inflow generation in the domain, their effect on the downstream flow field has not yet, been investigated. In this paper, we validate the effectiveness and accuracy of implementing a reduced turbulence integral length scale for inflow generation in LES results at the rooftop of low-rise buildings and develop a technique to estimate the real local length scales using simulation results. We measure the wind locally and calculate the turbulence length scales from the energy spectrum of the wind data and simulation data. According to these results, there is an excellent agreement between the length scale from simulation and measurement when they are scaled with their corresponding freestream/inlet value. These results indicate that a reduced integral length scale can be safely used for LES to provide a reliable prediction of the energy spectrum as well as the length scales around complex geometries. The simulation results were confidently employed to obtain the best location for a wind turbine installation on low-rise buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0396.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: wind lidar; Doppler lidar; bistatic; metrology; traceability; wind energy; meteorology
Online: 19 July 2021 (08:45:02 CEST)
The high-resolution bistatic lidar developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) aims to overcome the limitations of conventional monostatic lidar technology which is widely used for wind velocity measurements in wind energy and meteorology applications. Due to the large measurement volume of a combined optical transmitter and receiver tilting in multiple directions, monostatic lidar generally has poor spatial and temporal resolution. It also exhibits large measurement uncertainty when operated in inhomogeneous flow, for instance, over complex terrain. In contrast, PTB’s bistatic lidar uses three dedicated receivers arranged around a central transmitter, resulting in an exceptionally small measurement volume. The coherent detection and modulation schemes used allow the detection of backscattered, Doppler shifted light down to the scale of single aerosols, realising the simultaneous measurement of all three wind velocity components. This paper outlines design details and the theory of operation of PTB’s bistatic lidar and provides an overview of selected comparative measurements. The results of these measurements have shown that the measurement uncertainty of PTB’s bistatic lidar is well within the measurement uncertainty of traditional cup anemometers, while being fully independent of its site and traceable to the SI units. This allows its use as a transfer standard for the calibration of other remote sensing devices. Overall, PTB’s bistatic lidar shows great potential to universally improve the capability and accuracy of wind velocity measurements, such as for the investigation of highly dynamic flow processes upstream and in the wake of wind turbines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1578.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: forecasting; prevision; wind speed; wind power; renewable energy; Scopus base; Bibliometrix
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:27:24 CEST)
The most important step for the installation of a wind farm is to know the wind regime in the region, since an error in estimating this wind speed causes an error proportional to the cube of power, resulting in financial losses for investors. Therefore, knowing the methods used for predicting wind speed becomes important and the knowledge of how research and studies in this area are going helps map the subject and outline strategies for developing research in strategic areas. For this purpose, the Scopus database was used considering some keywords, such as ("forecast" OR "prevision") AND "wind" AND ("turbine" OR "power" OR "energy" or "velocity" or "speed"), considering the period since 2019, and analyzing the data of the documents found using the Bibliometrix package. With the results found, it was possible to map researchers, institutions that are developing work in this area, in addition to the most cited articles, among other aspects analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0484.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: CFD; unsteady BEM; floating offshore wind turbine; scaled wind turbine rotor
Online: 29 August 2018 (06:43:56 CEST)
Aerodynamic performance of a floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) is significantly influenced by platform surging motions. Accurate prediction of the unsteady aerodynamic loads is imperative for determining the fatigue life, ultimate loads on key components such as FOWT rotor blades, gearbox and power converter. The current study examines the predictions of numerical codes by comparing with unsteady experimental results of a scaled floating wind turbine rotor. The influence of platform surge amplitude together with the tip speed ratio on the unsteady aerodynamic loading has been simulated through unsteady CFD. It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamic loads of FOWT are highly sensitive to the changes in frequency and amplitude of the platform motion. Also, the surging motion significantly influences the windmill operating state due to strong flow interaction between the rotating blades and generated blade-tip vortices. Almost in all frequencies and amplitudes, CFD, LR-BEM and LR-uBEM predictions of mean thrust shows a good correlation with experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0527.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind energy; vertical axis wind turbine; computational fluid dynamics; dynamic interaction; closely spaced arrangements; phase synchronization; wind farm; dryland
Online: 22 March 2021 (12:05:53 CET)
To investigate the optimum layouts of small vertical axis wind turbines, a two-dimensional analysis of dynamic fluid body interaction is performed via computational fluid dynamics for a rotor pair in various configurations. The rotational speed of each turbine rotor (diameter: D = 50 mm) varies based on the equation of motion. First, the dependence of rotor performance on the gap distance (gap) between two rotors is investigated. For parallel layouts, counter-down (CD) layouts with blades moving downwind in the gap region yield a higher mean power than counter-up (CU) layouts with blades moving upwind in the gap region. CD layouts with gap/D = 0.5–1.0 yield a maximum average power that is 23% higher than that of an isolated single rotor. Assuming isotropic bidirectional wind speed, co-rotating (CO) layouts with the same rotational direction are superior to the combination of CD and CU layouts regardless of the gap distance. For tandem layouts, the inverse-rotating configuration (IR) shows an earlier wake recovery than the CO configuration. For 16-wind-direction layouts, both the IR and CO configurations indicate similar power distribution at gap/D = 2.0. For the first time, this study demonstrates the phase synchronization of two rotors via numerical simulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1966.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: wind speed forecasting; deep learning; LSTM; GRU; wind energy; CEEMDAN; EMD; VMD
Online: 28 September 2023 (11:41:50 CEST)
Advancements in technology, policies, and cost reductions have led to rapid growth in wind power production. One of the major challenges in wind energy production is the instability of wind power generation due to weather changes. Efficient power grid management requires accurate power output forecasting. New wind energy forecasting methods based on deep learning are better than traditional methods, like numerical weather prediction, statistical models, and machine learning models. This is more true for short-term prediction. Since there is a relationship between methods, climates, and forecasting complexity, forecasting methods do not always perform the same depending on the climate and terrain of the data source. This paper proposes a novel model that combines the variational mode decomposition method with a long short-term memory model, developed for next-hour wind speed prediction in a hot desert climate, such as the climate in Saudi Arabia. We compared the proposed model performance to two other hybrid models, six deep learning models, and four machine learning models using different feature sets. Also, we tested the proposed model on data from different climates, Caracas and Toronto. The proposed model showed a forecast skill between 61% to 74% based on mean absolute error, 64% to 72% based on root mean square error, and 59% to 68% based on mean absolute percentage error for locations in Saudi Arabia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0201.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: wind damage; wind disturbance; Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; machine learning; random forest
Online: 17 February 2022 (05:06:55 CET)
Management approaches inspired by the variability of natural disturbances are expected to produce forests in the future that will be significantly more resilient and better adapted to local environmental conditions. Due to climate change, windstorms are becoming increasingly common resulting in the destruction not only of extensive forest areas but, quite often, of small-sized and scattered forest lands that can ultimately become home to insects and disease dissemination sites. In the present study, an attempt is made to identify and record areas in the northeastern forests of Greece covered by mixed stands of conifers and broadleaves that experienced massive windthrow following local storms. Based on tree-level data, local topographic features, forest characteristics and the mechanical properties of green wood, a reliable model, to be used for the prediction of similar disturbances in the future, has been created after a thorough comparative study of the most well-known intelligent machine learning algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0078.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: free wake vortex method, horizontal-axis wind turbine, floating wind energy, aerodynamics
Online: 6 August 2019 (12:48:36 CEST)
A modified free-wake vortex ring model is proposed to compute the dynamics of a floating horizontal-axis wind turbine. The model is divided into two parts. The near wake model uses a blade bound vortex model and trailed vortex model, which is developed based on vortex filament method. By contrast, the far wake model is based on the vortex ring method. The proposed model is a good compromise between accuracy and computational cost, for example when compared with more complex vortex methods. The present model is used to assess the influence of floating platform motions on the performance of a horizontal-axis wind turbine rotor. The results are validated on the 5MW NREL rotor and compared with other aerodynamic models for the same rotor subjected to different platform motions. It was found that the results from the proposed method are more reliable than the results from BEM theory especially at small angles of attack in the region of low wind speeds, on the one hand, and high wind speeds with blade pitch motions, on the other hand. And also the proposed method is less time consuming and has similar accuracy when comparing with more advanced vortex based methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0927.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Wind-LIDAR; multiple-level winds; diurnal cycle; atmospheric boundary layer; maximum wind speed
Online: 13 July 2023 (11:15:12 CEST)
The wind observations for multiple levels (40–200 m) have been conducted for a long time (2016–2020) on Jeju Island of South Korea. This study aims at understanding the vertical and temporal characteristics of lower atmosphere. Jeju Island is a region located at mid-latitude and is affected by seasonal monsoon wind. The maximum wind speed appears in the lower layer during day time and is delayed in the upper layer during latter time in diurnal cycle. In summer season, the surface layer increases up to 160 m during day time via dominant solar radiation effect, which is higher than those for other seasons. However, the maximum wind speed in winter season appears irregularly among altitudes, and the surface layer is ~100 m, which is lower than that in summer season. It can be attributed to the increase in the mean wind speed in diurnal cycle caused by the strong northwestern wind for winter season. These results imply that the relationship between near-surface and higher altitudes is primarily affected by solar radiation and seasonal monsoon winds. These results are expected to contribute to site selection criteria for wind farms and to the assessment concerning planetary boundary layer modeling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0529.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Ekman currents; ocean surface currents; wind stress forcing; transfer function; wind-driven response
Online: 20 November 2020 (09:32:45 CET)
The unsteady Ekman problem involves finding the response of the near-surface currents to wind stress forcing under linearized dynamics. Its solution can be conveniently framed in the frequency domain in terms of a quantity that is known as the transfer function, the Fourier transform of the impulse response function. In this paper, a theoretical investigation of a fairly general transfer function form is undertaken with the goal of paving the way for future observational studies. Building on earlier work, we consider in detail the transfer function arising from a linearly-varying profile of the vertical eddy viscosity, subject to a no-slip lower boundary condition at a finite depth. The linearized horizontal momentum equations are shown to transform to a modified Bessel’s equation for the transfer function. Two self-similarities, or rescalings that each effectively eliminate one independent variable, are identified, enabling the dependence of the transfer function on its parameters to be more readily assessed. A systematic investigation of asymptotic behaviors of the transfer function is then undertaken, yielding expressions appropriate for eighteen different regimes, and unifying the results from numerous earlier studies. A solution to a numerical overflow problem that arises in the computation of the transfer function is also found. All numerical code associated with this paper is distributed freely for use by the community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1511.v1
Online: 24 July 2023 (02:12:27 CEST)
To increase the power density of the electromechanical drive train of wind turbines, journal bearings can be used as planetary gear bearings instead of rolling bearings. This technological change presents new challenges. For example, wind turbine drive systems are subject to dynamic and low-speed operating conditions which can lead to an accelerated abrasive wear of the journal bearings. In addition, oil supply failure or peak loads due to wind gusts and grid and power converter faults could potentially result in catastrophic failure due to adhesive wear in a very short time. Such operating characteristics are, therefore, critical regarding the journal bearing wear lifetime and must be considered in the design. The successful implementation of journal bearings in wind turbines depends on a reliable estimation of adhesive and abrasive wear. In this paper, five different models for the wear calculation of journal bearings are evaluated regarding their suitability of wear calculation of planetary gear bearings in wind turbines. For this purpose, the following evaluation criteria were defined: parameter uncertainty, parametrization effort, in particular number of parameters, parameterization method and load case dependency of parameters and calculation effort. In order to be able to evaluate the wear models, the wear models are numerically implemented and the wear of a test journal bearing is exemplarily calculated under load conditions, which are comparable to load conditions in a wind turbine. Relevant influences from the wind turbine system such as lubricant, material and manufacturing dependent surface influences like roughness and hardness are considered. The wear models are evaluated with respect to their fulfillment of the defined criteria. The resulting evaluation allows the selection of a wear model that can be used to calculate the wear of planetary gear journal bearings in wind turbines, considering the available input variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0252.v1
Online: 18 October 2022 (05:54:22 CEST)
Wind energy is one of the most attractive renewable energy sources because of its low operating, maintenance, and production costs as well as its low environmental impact. The goal of this study is to discover the best locations in Bangladesh where wind farms can be built and operated efficiently. This study applied the GIS and AHP methodologies to examine the eight important parameters upon which the suitability of locations is highly dependent. This analysis finds that Bangladesh has large regions appropriate for wind farm installation, with 3718.76 km2 and 16631.14 km2 classified as "very high" and "high" suitability, respectively. It was also observed that wind speed, land slope, and elevation each had a height-weighted criterion of 32 %, 27 %, and 12 %, respectively, when picking suitable locations. However, the viability of this study in identifying suitable sites has been evaluated based on ROC and AUC techniques and found satisfactory as per AUC value. The knowledge gained from this study will help the sustainable and renewable energy development authority (SREDA), Bangladesh to expedite the renewable energy investment process and will ensure the great certainty. The findings of this research can be considered as baseline information in the wind energy sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: wind turbine; LPV; DOBC; multivariable
Online: 24 January 2018 (07:03:52 CET)
This paper is concerned with bump-less transfer of parametrized disturbance observer based controller (DOBC) with Individual Pitch Control (IPC) strategy for full load operation of wind turbine. Aerodynamic cyclic loads are reduced by tuning multivariable DOBC with the objective to reduce output power fluctuation, tower oscillation and drive-train torsion. Furthermore tower shadow and wind shear effect are also mitigated using parametrized controller. A scheduling mechanism between two DOBC is developed and tested on Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence ( FAST) code model of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)’s 5 MW wind turbine. The closed-loop system performance is assessed by comparing the simulation results of proposed controller with a fixed gain and Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) DOBC with Collective Pitch Control (CPC) for full load operation. It is tested with step changing wind to see the behavior of the system under step change with wind shear and tower shadow (cyclic load) effects. Also turbulent wind is applied to see the smooth transition of the controllers. It can be concluded from the results that the proposed parametrized control DOBC with IPC shows smooth transition from one controller to another by interpolation. Moreover fatigue of the gear and tower due to wind shear and tower shadow effects are reduced considerably by the proposed controller as compared to collective pitch control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0281.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Wind Energy; Wind Turbine; Drone Inspection; Damage Detection; Deep Learning; Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)
Online: 28 January 2019 (15:50:04 CET)
Timely detection of surface damages on wind turbine blades is imperative for minimising downtime and avoiding possible catastrophic structural failures. With recent advances in drone technology, a large number of high-resolution images of wind turbines are routinely acquired and subsequently analysed by experts to identify imminent damages. Automated analysis of these inspection images with the help of machine learning algorithms can reduce the inspection cost, thereby reducing the overall maintenance cost arising from the manual labour involved. In this work, we develop a deep learning based automated damage suggestion system for subsequent analysis of drone inspection images. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach could achieve almost human level precision in terms of suggested damage location and types on wind turbine blades. We further demonstrate that for relatively small training sets advanced data augmentation during deep learning training can better generalise the trained model providing a significant gain in precision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1323.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: AFDRS; dynamic wind; rugged terrain; downslope wind; terrain forced channelling; buttongrass moorland; wildfire; fire intensity
Online: 19 July 2023 (10:10:26 CEST)
Background: We studied Riveaux Road Fire, which was ignited by multiple lightning strikes in January 2019 and burnt more than 637.19 km2 in southern Tasmania, Australia. Aims: We focused on fire weather, such as identification of dynamic wind and vegetation type, in a valley of the study area. Methods: We employed two methods: numerical weather model vertical sounding (NWMVS) and the use of a fire simulator, to quantify and examine the contribution of dynamic winds to fire behaviour. The NWMVSs allow rapid diagnosis of changes in wind, temperature, dew point temperature and cloud coverage. Prototype 2 is a fire simulator based on the specification of Australian Fire Danger Rating System (AFDRS). Key results: We found fires to be guided by terrain-forced channelling primarily and by downslope wind conditionally in the valleys. In addition, the fire intensity periodically changed with the magnitude of surface wind, in buttongrass moorland, in which the fire often smoulders, during the fire period according to the satellite image. Conclusions and Implications: Therefore, there should be caution for not only terrain and dynamic wind but also vegetation type during fire spread in rugged terrain.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1634.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: tropical cyclone; track; intensity; wind structure
Online: 25 September 2023 (09:32:43 CEST)
Hong Kong was under strike from Super Typhoon Saola (2309), necessitating the issuance of the highest tropical cyclone warning signal. Saola skirted past the south-southwest of Hong Kong, bringing hurricane force winds and significant storm surge. Saola had its closest approach to Hong Kong on 1 September 2023, posing a unique challenge in forecasting and early warning for the commencement date of the new school term, where higher impact to traffic and public safety was anticipated. This paper covers the challenges on the forecasting aspect of the super typhoon. The predicted tropical cyclone track, intensity and wind structure are reviewed. Experience in this case showed that while there was not a perfect numerical weather prediction model in terms of the forecast track, intensity and wind structure of Saola, multi-model approach provided very use-ful and crucial information for operational weather warning services.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1156.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: U_SPACE; drone flight; wind field reconstruction
Online: 16 August 2023 (08:15:44 CEST)
In the present work, the main methodologies used to reconstruct wind fields in the U-SPACE have been analyzed. The SESAR U-SPACE program aims to develop an Unmanned Traffic Management system with a progressive introduction of procedures and services designed to support a secure access to the air space for a large number of drones. The Italian Aerospace Research Center (CIRA) is carrying out the EDUS project focused on the development and validation of operating platform demonstrators serving the micro-scale weather forecasts and the collection of information necessary for the definition of the flight plan of the drones in urban contexts. For this reason, the state of art methodologies that can be used to estimate winds at low altitudes in urban areas starting from available observational data have been reviewed in the present paper. Some of these techniques were originally developed for reconstruction at high altitudes, but successively adapted to treat different heights. A common approach to all techniques is to approximate the probabilistic distribution of wind speed over time with some parametric models, apply spatial interpolation to the parameters and then read the predicted value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0058.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Wind power; Generating set; Venturi Effect
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:01:16 CET)
The growing need to use renewable sources and the current difficulty in spreading the electricity grid in a widespread manner raise the question of how to respond to the need for more electricity immediately. The idea behind this study is to power a horizontal axis wind turbine with the air flow generated for cooling a stationary internal combustion engine. The power extracted from this solution is significantly lower than that of the internal combustion engine (about 0.3%) and could be advantageous only in limited contexts. Installation costs are limited because many elements deriving from wind variability can be removed or simplified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0300.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: regulatory economics; smart grids; wind farms
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:24:23 CEST)
An economic and business history approach is used to show the rise and relative failure of the Spanish wind industry during the period between 2004-2015, when Spain became the fourth country after China, the US and Germany in installed capacity of renewable energies and, in relative terms, the second country after Denmark. This study is unique in that it provides an integrated vision of the reasons for the relative fall of Spain in the world ranking of wind energy producers. The methodology of the economic analysis of industrial policies makes it possible to explain the fall in the relative importance of Spain in the international panorama of wind farms. There were no reasons related to technological obsolescence or inability of the CECRE managing renewable energies to explain the fall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0098.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: wind power; urban areas; power management
Online: 8 July 2019 (03:37:09 CEST)
On 2013 the Villonaco wind farm (16.5 MW), the first wind farm in continental Ecuador near the city of Loja, began operations. The power generated is delivered to the National Interconnected System (SNI), which services the city. This research confronts two sets of real data, the electricity use of the urban area of Loja, and the power generated by the Villonaco Wind Farm. Electricity use follows clearly defined daily and weekly cycles, and wind power has a seasonal behaviour. The study shows that wind power integration cannot be a long-term stable power source regardless power or generation surplus. Another essential finding is that time series can be used as a statistical source to determine the need for short- (seconds) and long- (days, weeks) term energy storage. Strategies to further the energy autonomy of the urban area through the expansion of the wind farm by a factor of 2 are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: aerodynamics; BEM; CFD; simulation; wind turbine
Online: 12 October 2018 (08:05:56 CEST)
The present studies deliver the computational investigations of a 10 MW turbine with a diameter of 205.8 m developed within the framework of the AVATAR (Advanced Aerodynamic Tools for Large Rotors) project. The simulations were carried out using two methods with different fidelity levels, namely the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and blade element and momentum (BEM) approaches. For this purpose, a new BEM code namely B-GO was developed employing several correction terms and three different polar and spatial interpolation options. Several flow conditions were considered in the simulations, ranging from the design condition to the off-design condition where massive flow separation takes place, challenging the validity of the BEM approach. An excellent agreement is obtained between the BEM computations and the 3D CFD results for all blade regions, even when massive flow separation occurs on the blade inboard area. The results demonstrate that the selection of the polar data can influence the accuracy of the BEM results significantly, where the 3D polar datasets extracted from the CFD simulations are considered the best. The BEM prediction depends on the interpolation order and the blade segment discretization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0501.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: wind speed; ANN model; hybrid model
Online: 26 July 2018 (04:22:14 CEST)
The predictability of wind information in a given location is essential for the evaluation of a wind power project. Predicting wind speed accurately improves the planning of wind power generation, reducing costs and improving the use of resources. This paper seeks to predict the mean hourly wind speed in anemometric towers (at a height of 50 meters) at two locations: a coastal region and one with complex terrain characteristics. To this end, the Holt-Winters (HW), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Hybrid time-series models were used. Observational data evaluated by the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications-Version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis at the same height of the towers. The results show that the hybrid model had a better performance in relation to the others, including when compared to the evaluation with MERRA-2. For example, in terms of statistical residuals, RMSE and MAE were 0.91 and 0.62 m/s, respectively. As such, the hybrid models are a good method to forecast wind speed data for wind generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0643.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Floating Wind; FOWT; Hull design; Wave load; Bracing; Structural Analysis; Manufacturing; Offshore Wind; Renewable Energy; Optimization
Online: 10 July 2023 (15:57:21 CEST)
Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (FOWT) is an innovative technology with little industry guidance for its hull design. Various FOWT floaters with different hull shapes claim to support the same turbines. Structural integrity and material expense analyses of different pontoon shapes were conducted, and it was found that some configurations, such as those with every two columns connected by both pontoon and bracing, have advantages over others. However, it is important to note that the choice of pontoon shape should be based on the wave loading conditions the floater will be exposed to. While a T-shaped pontoon provides a cost-effective solution under certain wave loading scenarios, it may not be the best option for all conditions. Specifically, ring pontoon designs with full bracing were found to be necessary for withstanding certain wave loads. Therefore, it is important to consider different Dominant Load Parameters (DLP) and ensure that a FOWT floater can withstand all applicable DLPs. An uneven hexahedral column shape, which combines the best attributes of square and round shapes, is proposed as a better alternative to cylindrical columns. It offers ease of manufacture and reasonably low drag. Bracing is found to be necessary for withstanding the wind turbine’s incurred moment and forces. The conclusion is that platform design should prioritize manufacturing costs and strength over maximizing hydrodynamic performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1787.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: wind farm; wind turbine; inverter; Low Voltage Ride Through characteristic; standard disturbance; voltage dip; relay protection
Online: 26 June 2023 (10:21:23 CEST)
In the context of energy decarbonization, wind farms with type IV wind turbines from various manufacturers are being massively put into operation. These wind turbines comply with the requirements of the grid codes of the countries where they are designed and/or manufactured, but do not factor in the specific features of the distribution networks of other countries to which they are connected. The study at issue involves a comparative analysis of the requirements of grid codes of different countries for the stable operation of wind turbines under standard disturbances. The Low Voltage Ride Through (LVRT) characteristic implemented in type IV wind turbine inverters makes it possible to prevent wind turbine shutdowns in case of short-term voltage dips of a given depth and duration. The calculations of transient processes indicate that wind turbines may not meet the requirements of the grid code of a particular country for their stable operation. As a result, standard disturbances will block the reactive current injection and the wind turbine will be switched off. This is often caused by the relay protection devices with a time delay of 1-2 s, which are used in distribution networks and implement the functions of long-range redundancy. Excessive shutdowns of wind turbines lead to emergency rise in the load for the generating units of conventional power plants, aggravating the post-accident conditions and disconnecting consumers of electricity. The paper presents a method for checking the LVRT characteristic settings for compliance with the technical requirements for wind turbines. To prevent wind turbine outages, one should either change the configuration of the LVRT characteristic, or upgrade the relay protection devices in the distribution network adjacent to the wind farm, or implement group or individual technical solutions at the wind farm. The performance of the proposed technical solutions is confirmed by the calculations of transient processes.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: marine hydrokinetic turbine; wind energy; floating offshore wind turbine; mooring lines; floating platform; vertical axis turbine
Online: 4 November 2019 (05:13:32 CET)
In April 2019, a team of Keio University and Bucknell University students was assembled to participate in Ericsson Innovation Awards with a novel concept for generating renewable energy. This conceptual system consists of a vertical axis wind turbine, a crossflow marine hydrokinetic turbine, a floating platform integrated with a quadcopter system, and three to four temporary mooring lines with ship-type anchors. The proposed designed aims to offer solutions to two current problems of floating offshore wind energy: high construction cost of floating platforms and difficulties in maintenance of mooring lines. The combination of two vertical-axis turbines into a single floating platform would enable the system, namely ESwift, to extract energy from both wind and current resources. Additionally, due to the utilization of vertical axis turbines, the center of gravity of the proposed concept is significantly lower with respect to water level, compared to that of existing floating horizontal axis wind turbines, which would potentially reduce the floater's size and construction cost. Lastly, the integrated quadcopter mechanism would assist the floater in terms of stability and mobility, and enables an array of ESwifts to automatically rearrange for maximal energy generation. The authors hope that readers would find the idea described in this open access letter worth pursuing and would further develop and commercialize the ESwift concept.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Wind power; Wind turbines; Aerodynamics; Differential Geometry; Airfoils; Blade Element Momentum Theory; BEMT; BEM; HAWT; Wagner rotor
Online: 12 August 2022 (07:53:19 CEST)
Purpose – Extend the Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT) such that rotors with pronounced cone and axis angle (tilt or yaw) can be calculated. Derive an equation for the speed ratio (lambda) as a function of Tip Speed Ratio (TSR), radius, blade, cone and axis angle. This converts the BEMT into an Unsteady BEMT or UBEMT. Present the Wagner rotor as one such rotor geometry. --- Methodology – Literature review and calculations. --- Findings – The UBEMT can be used to calculate highly unconventional rotor geometries. --- Research Limitations – Although the aerodynamic coefficients used in the UBEMT are from measurements in steady flow conditions, they can be used with success. --- Practical Implications – Also conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) with noticeable cone and axis angle should be calculated with the UBEMT. The accuracy of power calculations of these HAWTs can be slightly improved. --- Originality – Analytic equations for rotors with cone and axis angle have barely been discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0538.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Wind power; Fault current limiters, Doubly-fed induction generator; Fixed speed wind turbine; Series dynamic braking resistor
Online: 27 September 2018 (10:00:12 CEST)
The Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) has significant features in comparison with Fixed Speed Wind Turbine (FSWT), which has popularized its application in power system. Due to partial rated back-to-back converters in the DFIG, Fault Ride-Through (FRT) capability improvement is one of the great subjects regarding new grid code requirements. To enhance the FRT capability of the DFIG, many studies have been carried out. Fault current limiting devices as one of the techniques are utilized to limit the current level and protect switches of the back-to-back converter from over-current damage. In this paper, a review is done based on fault current limiting characteristic of the proposed fault current limiting devices Therefore, Fault Current Limiters (FCLs) and Series Dynamic Braking Resistors (SDBRs) are mainly taken into account. Operation of all configurations including their advantages and disadvantages is explained. Impedance type and the fault current limiting devices’ location are two important factors, which significantly affect the DFIG behaviour in the fault condition. These two factors are basically studied by the simulation and their effects on the key parameters of the DFIG are investigated. Finally, future works in respect to the FCL application in the FRT improvement of the DFIG have also been discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0046.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: comparative study; full-scale measurement; wind tunnel model test; multiple-fan actively controlled wind tunnel; research scheme
Online: 9 October 2017 (06:38:40 CEST)
Full-scale/model test comparison studies to validate the traditional ABL wind tunnel simulation technique are reviewed. According to the literature review, notable discrepancies between full-scale measurement results and model test results were observed by most performed comparison studies, but the causes of the observed discrepancies were not revealed in a scientific way by those studies. In this regard, a new research scheme for future full-scale/model test comparison studies is proposed in this article, which utilizes the multiple-fan actively controlled wind tunnel simulation technique. With the new research scheme, future full-scale/model test comparison studies are expected to reasonably disclose the main problems with the traditional ABL wind tunnel simulation technique, and the technique can be improved correspondingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0713.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: typhoon; LIDAR; wind profiler; dropsonde; ocean radar
Online: 9 August 2023 (07:10:12 CEST)
Extensive surface and upper air measurements of a typhoon over the northern part of the South China Sea, namely, Typhoon Talim in July 2023, are documented and analyzed in this paper. A number of features have been observed from the upper air measurements. First, the log law and the power law are found to be appropriate in fitting the wind profiles of the typhoon in the first 1000 m or so above the sea surface. A low level jet is observed in the lower troposphere from the observations of the radar wind profilers. The paper is also novel from the perspectives that the vertical wind profile from a Doppler LIDAR on an offshore platform over the northern part of the South China sea, and that ocean radar data are used to analyze the surface wind observations of a typhoon in the region. The results of this paper would be useful in understanding the structure of tropical cyclones, e.g. in wind engineering applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0425.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Wind energy; voltage profile; distribution network; simulation
Online: 6 June 2023 (09:35:15 CEST)
Currently, there are different types of technology for the production of electricity that use various energy sources, this causes the establishment of generation centers that provide from a small amount to tens of megawatts of electrical energy. These centers are built to supply electricity to nearby loads through networks integrated into a large electrical system or in isolation with their electrical system. The technological evolution, the different energy sources, and the generation centers close to the consumers entail what has been called a distributed generation (DG), the DG carries with it aspects that need to be analyzed. In this paper, the impact of wind generation on the medium voltage energy distribution network is studied, it was determined that the addition to the distribution network of power by wind turbines less than the transmission center does not produce an impact on the network. Simulated results obtained using SIMULINK and DIgSILENT are presented and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0243.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: ensemble; wind forecast; dynamical downscaling; breeding; blending
Online: 14 February 2023 (09:36:21 CET)
This work compared the performance of three methods for constructing a regional ensemble prediction system (EPS) for wind speed forecasts: dynamical downscaling, breeding of growth modes (BGM), and blending method. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to downscale the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) EPS. In addition, as the BGM method needs observation data for generating scaling factors, an alternative method for generating scaling factors was proposed to eliminate dependence on observation data. One-month tests between October 1st and October 30th, 2020, were implemented to evaluate the performance of three methods in the Gansu province of China. The results demonstrate that the blending method outperforms the other two methods. Furthermore, the difference in performance is evident mainly in early forecast lead time and becomes negligible as forecast time increases.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0584.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Wind statistics assessment; Weibull distribution; Rayleigh distribution.
Online: 31 January 2023 (11:30:30 CET)
SStatistical characteristics of the wind speed in Samaria region of Israel have been analyzed by processing 11 years of wind data provided by the Israeli Meteorological Service, recorded at 10 m height above the ground. The cumulative mean wind speed at measurement height was shown to be 4.53 m/s with standard deviation of 2.32 m/s. Prevailing wind direction is shown to be char-acterized by cumulative mean azimuth of 226° with standard deviation of 79.76°. The results were extrapolated to 70-meter height in order to estimate wind characteristics at hub height of a me-dium-scale wind turbine. Moreover, Weibull distribution parameters were calculated annually, monthly and seasonally, demonstrating a good match with histogram-based statistical repre-sentations. Shape parameter of the Weibull distribution was shown to reside within a narrow range of 1.93 to 2.15, allowing us to assume a Rayleigh distribution, thus simplifying wind tur-bines energy yield calculations. The novelty of the current paper is related to gathering wind statistics for a certain area (Samaria) we are not aware of any published statistics regarding wind velocity and direction in this area. The data may be interesting for potential regional wind energy development in which the obtained Weibull distribution can be used in calculations of expected power generation of particular turbines with known power dependence on velocity. We also point out that the fact that realistic wind velocity statistics is well described by an analytic formula (Weibull distribution) is not trivial, and in fact the fit may have been poor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0003.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Scatterometer; wind stress; surface currents; Indian Ocean
Online: 31 December 2021 (14:50:47 CET)
This study examines the effect of surface currents on the bulk algorithm calculation of wind stress estimated using the scatterometer data during 2007-2020 in the Indian Ocean. In the study region as a whole the wind stress decreased by 5.4% by including currents into the wind stress equation. The most significant reduction in the wind stress is found along the most energetic regions with strong currents such as Somali Current, Equatorial Jets and Aghulhas retroflection. A highest reduction of 11.5% is observed along the equator where the Equatorial Jets prevail. A sensitivity analysis has been carried out for the study region and for different seasons to assess the relative impact of winds and currents in the estimation of wind stress by changing the winds while keeping the currents constants and vice versa. The inclusion of currents decreased the wind stress and this decrease is prominent when the currents are stronger. This study showed that equatorial Indian Ocean is the most sensitive region where the current can impact on wind stress estimation. The results showed that uncertainties in the wind stress estimations are quite large at regional levels and hence better representation of wind stress incorporating ocean currents should be considered in the ocean/climatic models for accurate air-sea interaction studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Wind energy; Renewable resources; Black-Scholes model
Online: 11 January 2021 (12:33:54 CET)
The limitedness of the nonrenewable local energy resources in Israel, even in background of the later gas fields’ findings, continues to force the state to devote various efforts for the ‘green’ energy development. These efforts include installations both in the solar and in the wind energy, with a purpose to improve the diversity of energy sources. While the standard discounted cash flow (DCF) method using the net present value (NPV) criterion is extensively adopted to evaluate investments, the standard DCF method is inappropriate for the rapidly changing investment climate and for the managerial flexibility in investment decisions. In recent years, the real options analysis (ROA) technique is widely applied in many studies for valuation of renewable energy investment projects. Hence, we apply in this study the real options analysis approach for the valuation of wind energy turbines and apply it to the analysis of wind energy economic potential in Israel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0258.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: power quality; wind power plant; voltage fluctuations
Online: 21 May 2019 (11:19:57 CEST)
Integration of wind energy into the grid faces a great challenge regarding power quality. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)~61400-21 standard defines the electrical characteristics that need to be assessed in a Wind Turbine (WT), as well as the procedure to measure the disturbances produced by the WT. One of the parameters to be assessed are voltage fluctuations or flicker. To estimate the flicker emission of a Wind Power Plant (WPP), the standard establishes that a quadratic exponent should be used in the summation of the flicker emission of each WT. This exponent was selected based on studies carried out in WPPs with type I and II WTs. Advances in wind turbines technology have reduced their flicker emission, mainly thaks to the implementation of power electronics for the partial or total management of the power injected into the grid. This work is based on measurements from a WPP with 16 type III WTs. The flicker emission of a single WT and of the WPP were calculated. Low flicker emission values at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) of the WPP were obtained. The flicker estimation at the PCC, based on the measurement from a single WT, was analyzed using different exponents. The results show that a cubic summation performs better than the quadratic one in the estimation of the flicker emission of a WPP with type III WTs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0491.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Dry-state galloping; excitation mechanism; Karman vortex; low-frequency-vortices; shedding correlation; along-wind component; vertical-wind component
Online: 7 June 2023 (05:33:12 CEST)
This article presents a study conducted within a wind tunnel to enhance understanding of the excitation mechanism of stay cable vibration under arid conditions. Numerous wind tunnel tests were meticulously analyzed. Initially, the vibration of the stay cable was measured under steady flow conditions at a flow angle of 45 degrees and an inclination of 25 degrees, while varying wind velocities were applied. Additionally, an investigation into the flow field surrounding the stay cable was conducted in both vertical and horizontal directions. By utilizing two hot wire anemometers in the cable wake, an extensive database of flow field measurements was obtained. The experimental results revealed that the vibration characteristics of the stay cable under the arid conditions considered in this study aligned with findings reported in existing literature. Notably, a deeper comprehension of the excitation mechanism of a stay cable in a dry state was attained. This mechanism is closely associated with the inhibition of Karman vortices and the development of low-frequency vortices. At low wind speeds, Karman vortices predominated, resulting in small-amplitude vibrations. However, as the wind speed increased, the influence of Karman vortices diminished progressively, while the low-frequency vortices grew stronger. These low-frequency vortices exhibited high energy and a significant correlation with shedding along the stay cable, thereby inducing cable vibration in a dry environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0994.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: The Yellow River basin; The Xiliugou tributary; underlying surface; wind-sand flow; wind erosion characteristics; sediment transport flux
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:39:22 CEST)
The survey findings reveal that rivers worldwide carry an annual sediment load of 15 billion tons into the sea, and the Yellow River basin alone contributes 1.6 billion tons of sand. Therefore, understanding the science of wind and sand in the Yellow River is crucial to ensuring the safe development of similar basins across China and the world. This study examines the midstream wind and sand area of the Xiliugou tributary, a part of the upper Yellow River. The researchers used a stepped sand collector combined with an anemometer to measure the sand transport flux at 0-50 cm height on various underlying surfaces of the basin. Then, they estimated the amount of wind and sand entering the Yellow River using a function model based on the measured factors. Furthermore, the team analyzed the particle size composition of wind-eroded sand to better understand the principles of wind and sand erosion and accumulation in the basin. The results of the study show that the sand transport flux per unit area varies significantly across different underlying surfaces. Moreover, the contribution of moving sandy land, semi-fixed sand, and fixed sand to wind and sand deposition in the Yellow River basin was 77.08%, 15.30%, and 7.62%, respectively. The vertical change of sand transport rate on the basin's surface demonstrates that the total sand transport rate is an exponential function of wind speed. Based on this relationship, the researchers estimated that the total annual average wind and sand entering the Yellow River basin via the Xiliugou tributary is approximately 8.09×105t. Due to the basin's unique geography and sand source, the particle size composition of wind-eroded sand differs between the east and west sides of the river channel. On the west side, desert sand, mainly fine sand, and very fine sand constitutes the sand source. Conversely, on the east side, sand collected in the riverbed by secondary wind erosion is the primary sand source. Furthermore, human activities have disturbed the grain composition, mainly comprising powder and clay particles. This phenomenon, known as "wind-blown mud and water-washed sand," is evident in this geographical unit. In conclusion, the Yellow River basin still faces significant ecological security hazards. Understanding the coupling relationship between desert-basin-sand and wind is the foundation for effectively controlling wind and sand flow into the Yellow River basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0253.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Offshore Wind power; Operation and maintenance management; Intelligent operation and maintenance robot; Smart wind farm technology; 5g technology
Online: 27 April 2022 (08:57:55 CEST)
With the rapid development of global offshore wind power, the demand for offshore wind power operation and maintenance is also increasing. Wisdomization of offshore wind farms is a practical need to improve the operation level and benefit of offshore wind farms. This paper first introduces the current development situation and characteristics of global offshore wind power, and expounds the current situation and main challenges of offshore wind power operation and maintenance market. Therefore, our paper discusses the innovation of offshore wind power operation and maintenance from the aspects of operation and maintenance management of offshore wind power, monitoring and analysis technology of units, far-reaching wind field monitoring and operation and maintenance risks. Then, combined with information technology and lean management concept, a smart operation and maintenance management platform for wind farms in far-reaching sea areas is built to explore centralized and intelligent operation and maintenance management mode, improve operation and maintenance efficiency of wind farms in far-reaching sea areas, and minimize operation and maintenance costs. Finally, through the research on the characteristics of 5G technology, combined with the practical experience of operation and maintenance, and in view of the characteristics of offshore wind farms, we analyze and propose several typical application scenarios of 5G technology in the intelligent operation and maintenance of offshore wind farms, which provides a new solution for the efficient operation and maintenance of offshore wind farms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1277.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT); dual-rotor wind turbine; counter-rotating wind turbine; dual-rotor permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSM); control system; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); actuator line modeling (ALM)
Online: 28 April 2023 (10:14:17 CEST)
In this paper, dual-rotor counter-rotating (CR) configurations of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) are briefly inspected and divided into three types. This investigation was focused on one of these types – the CR-VAWT with co-axial rotors, in which two equal rotors are placed on the same shaft, displaced from each other along it and rotate in opposite directions. For this CR-VAWT with three-blade H-Darrieus rotors, the properties of the design in terms of aerodynamics, mechanical transmission and electric generator, as well as control system are analyzed. A new direct-driven dual-rotor (DR) permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) was proposed, in which two built-in low-power PM electric machines have been added. They perform two functions – start-up and overclocking of the rotors to the angular velocity at which the lifting force of the blades is generated and stabilizing the CR-VAWT work as wind gusts act on the two rotors. Detailed in this paper is the evaluation of aerodynamic performance of the CR-VAWT via 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The evaluation was conducted using the CONVERGE CFD software with the inclusion of the actuator line model for the rotor aerodynamics, which significantly reduces the computational effort. Obtained results show that both rotors, while they rotate in opposite directions, had a positive impact on each other: the power coefficients of the upper and lower rotors in the CR-VAWT increased by 5.5% and 13.3% respectively compared to the single-rotor VAWT at the optimal distance between the rotors of 0.3 from a rotor height.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0289.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: tunnel entrance; crosswind; wind–train–track coupling dynamic model; transient response of aerodynamic load; sudden wind effect; traffic safety
Online: 24 January 2020 (15:07:07 CET)
Sudden variation of aerodynamic loads is the potential source of safety accidents of high-speed train (HST). As a follow-up investigation on the aerodynamic response of a HST that enters a tunnel under crosswind environment, this paper focuses on the transient response of a HST’s safety indices based on the train–track coupling interaction model. Firstly, a wind–train–track coupling dynamic model is proposed by introducing transient aerodynamic loads into the vehicle–track system. Secondly, the temporal evolution of safety coefficients indicates that the train’s safety risk increases during tunnel entry with crosswind. Results show that the derailment coefficients and wheel load reduction rate during tunnel entry are not only larger than those in open air but also those inside the tunnel due to the sudden disappearance of wind excitation at the tunnel entrance. In addition, the characteristic wind curve, which is the wind velocity against the train speed, is presented for application based on the current specification of the safety criteria threshold. The investigation will be useful in assessing the safety risk of a running train subjected to other aerodynamic attacks, such as the coupling effect of infrastructure scenario and crosswind in windy area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: renewable energies; horizontal axis wind turbine; turbulence model
Online: 18 September 2023 (02:38:42 CEST)
Renewable energy research becomes increasingly necessary as it grows in importance. Wind turbines are an excellent method of harnessing wind energy, which is one of the most important renewable energy sources. In light of the importance of studying wind turbine performance, this study describes the background and principles of wind turbine operation. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to evaluate the hydrodynamic performance of two types of offshore and onshore wind turbines. Mechanical power and thrust force are calculated using the CFD model for both types of turbines in a steady state based on the number of blades and rotors. The results of three-dimensional simulations are compared with those of experimental testing. Based on the method and assumptions used, the offshore turbine's mechanical torque showed an average deviation of about 4%. Increased wind speed increased mechanical power and thrust, while turbulence caused irregular pressure distributions on surfaces as a result of turbulence intensity. Furthermore, as the free wind speed increases, the blade tip and hub speed will also increase, expanding the vortices created by that flow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Natural ventilation; Wind tunnel; Air pressure; Aerodynamic coefficients.
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:14:30 CEST)
The close proximity of different buildings heights can cause disturbances in the working of the smoke and ventilation ducts of lower buildings, threatening the health and even the lives of residents. To define the influence of high-rise building on the work of the ducts of the neighbouring double-storied building, experimental investigations in the wind tunnel were conducted. On this basis, empirical equations and graphs were developed leading to determining the aerodynamic coefficients considering different wind directions and the height of ducts. The direction of the wind reveals a greater influence than the height of the ducts. Properly using deflectors or increasing the height of the duct ensures maintaining static rarefaction in the area of smoke and ventilation ducts. The creation of rarefaction ensures the reliability of the natural ventilation system and the safety of the health of residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0554.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Field measurement; Typhoon; High-rise building; Strong wind
Online: 30 January 2023 (10:13:31 CET)
The overcrowding of high-rise buildings in the city adversely affects the wind environment by changing the air currents in the surrounding areas. In particular, extreme climate phenomena caused by climate change are stronger and more frequent, causing social damages in cities. To comprehensively better understand the wind properties around high-rise buildings, actual filed measurement is necessary to determine the environment assessment of wind effect. We performed the on-site measurement on LCT residential complex regions (411.6m tall) with highly concentrated high-rise buildings in coastal city Busan, South Korea under extreme weather conditions such as typhoon invasions to determine wind fluid characteristics. In the field monitoring, five anemometers were installed to analyze the wind environment around high-rise buildings when typhoon 'Hinnamnor' invaded. Compared to the nearby weather station operated by KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration), the gust was 3.7 times stronger and the max 1 min-mean wind speed was 3.1 times stronger, and the characteristics of the downward wind and the canyon wind were shown depending on the location characteristics of the point. Turbulence intensity decreased as the wind speed increased and converged to a certain value. Likewise, the gust factor also decreased as the wind speed increased and converged to 2.0, which is considered to be the parameter that best represents the intensity of the instantaneous gust caused by the skyscraper wind effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0531.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: scatterometer; sea surface wind; storm surge; atmospheric model
Online: 28 December 2022 (08:24:58 CET)
Sea surface wind forecasts in the Adriatic Sea often suffer for unadequate modelling, especially for the wind speed. This has detrimental effects on the accuracy of sea level and storm surge predictions. We present a numerical method to reduce the bias between the sea surface wind observed by the scatterometers and that supplied by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global atmospheric model, for storm surge forecasting applications. The method, called “wind bias mitigation”, relies on scatterometer observations to determine a multiplicative factor ∆ws which modulates the standard model wind in order to decrease the bias between scatterometer and model. We compare four different mathematical approaches to this method, for a total of eight different formulations of the multiplicative factor ∆ws. Four datasets are used for the assessment of the eight different bias mitigation methods: a collection of 29 Storm Surge Events (SEVs) cases in the years 2004-2014, a collection of 48 SEVs in the years 2013-2016, a collection of 364 cases of random sea level conditions in the same period, and a collection of the seven SEVs in 2012-2016 that were worst predicted by the Centro Previsioni e Segnalazioni Maree, Comune di Venezia (Tide Forecast and Early Warning Centre of the Venice Municipality - CPSM). The statistical analysis shows that the bias mitigation procedures supplies a mean wind speed more accurate than the standard forecast, when compared with scatterometer observations, in more than 70% of the analyzed cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0018.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: airborne wind energy; optimal control; open-source software
Online: 1 December 2022 (08:54:28 CET)
In this paper we present AWEbox, a Python toolbox for modeling and optimal control of multi-aircraft systems for airborne wind energy (AWE). AWEbox provides an implementation of optimization-friendly multi-aircraft AWE dynamics for a wide range of system architectures and modeling options. It automatically formulates typical AWE optimal control problems based on these models, and finds a numerical solution in a reliable and efficient fashion. To obtain a high level of reliability and efficiency, the toolbox implements different homotopy methods for initial guess refinement. The first type of methods produces a feasible initial guess from an analytic initial guess based on user-provided parameters. The second type implements a warmstart procedure for parametric sweeps. We investigate the software performance in two different case studies. In the first case study we solve a single-aircraft reference problem for a large number of different initial guesses. The homotopy methods reduce the expected computation time by a factor of 1.7 and and the peak computation time by a factor of 8, compared to when no homotopy is applied. Overall, the CPU timings are competitive to timings reported in the literature. When the user initialization draws on expert a priori knowledge, homotopies do not increase expected performance, but the peak CPU time is still reduced by a factor of 5.5. In the second case study, a power curve for a dual-aircraft lift-mode AWE system is computed using the two different homotopy types for initial guess refinement. On average, the second homotopy type, which is tailored for parametric sweeps, outperforms the first type in terms of CPU time by a factor of 3. In conclusion, AWEbox provides an open-source implementation of efficient and reliable optimal control methods that both control experts and non-expert AWE developers can benefit from.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0513.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Economic Dispatch; Spatio-temporal kriging; Wind power; Uncertainty
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:08:13 CET)
The incorporation of wind generation introduces challenges to the operation of the power system due to its uncertain characteristics. Therefore, the development of methods to accurately model the uncertainty is necessary. In this paper, the spatio-temporal Kriging and analog approaches are used to forecast wind power generation and used as input to solve an economic dispatch problem, considering the uncertainties of wind generation. Spatio-temporal Kriging takes into account the spatial and temporal information given by the database to enhance wind forecasts. We evaluate the performance of using the spatio-temporal Kriging, and comparisons are carried out versus other approaches in the framework of the economic power dispatch problem, for which simulations are developed on the modified IEEE 3-bus and IEEE 24-bus test systems. The results show that the use of Kriging-based spatio-temporal models in the context of economic power dispatch can provide an opportunity for lower operating costs in the presence of uncertainty when compared to other approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0268.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: fatigue; thickness effect; offshore wind turbine; corrosion fatigue
Online: 12 September 2020 (09:54:28 CEST)
This paper reassesses the detrimental effect on fatigue performance due to thicker sections based on extensive fatigue strength test database, taken from research program worldwide over the past half of a century in offshore oil & gas and renewable industry. The data entries in the database have been evaluated to ensure its data integrity. Statistical analyses on these S-N data are performed with or without the thickness correction at different exposure level to corrosive environment, in order to re-evaluate the suitability of current standards in regard to the thickness effect. The study has concentrated on T-joint, transverse butt welded joint and tubular joint as these are the most commonly used joint types in the offshore wind industry. The analysis indicates general agreement of fatigue strength with the thickness effects in current standard for in air conditions but great conservatism for corrosive environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0300.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: synthetic aperture radar; sea surface wind; neural network
Online: 18 May 2020 (10:50:03 CEST)
In this paper, we presented a method of retrieving sea surface wind speed from Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) horizontal-horizontal (HH) polarization data in extra-wide mode, which have been extensively acquired over the Arctic for sea ice monitoring. In contrast to the conventional algorithm, i.e., using a geophysical model function (GMF) to retrieve sea surface wind by spaceborne SAR, we introduced an alternative method based on physical model guided neural network. Parameters of SAR normalized radar cross section, incidence angle, and wind direction are used as the inputs of the backward propagation (BP) neural network, and the output is the sea surface wind speed. The network is developed based on more than 11,000 HH-polarized EW images acquired in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) of the Arctic and their collocations with scatterometer measurements. Verification of the neural network based on the testing dataset yields a bias of 0.23 m/s and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.25 m/s compared to the scatterometer wind speed. Further comparison of the SAR retrieved sea surface wind speed with independent buoy measurements shows a bias and RMSE of 0.12 m/s and 1.42 m/s, respectively. We also analyzed the uncertainty of retrieval when the wind direction data of a reanalysis model are used as inputs to the neural network. By combining the detected sea ice cover information based on the EW data, one can expect to derive simultaneously sea ice and marine-meteorological parameters by spaceborne SAR in a high spatial resolution in the Arctic.