ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0252.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: false belief; Williams syndrome; theory of mind; social cognition
Online: 14 March 2023 (09:02:41 CET)
Background: People with Williams syndrome (WS) are characterized with hypersociability, fluency in languages, and advantageous face-processing skills, leading to the proposal of a social module. Previous studies on the mentalizing abilities of people with WS using two-dimensional pictures and mindreading from eyes, including normal-like, delayed, and deviant behaviors, have yielded mixed results. This study thus examined the mentalizing ability of people with WS through structured computerized animations of false belief tasks to investigate whether inferences about other people’s minds can be improved in this population. Method: Participants were shown animations with unexpected location and content changes. After viewing each animation, participants had to answer four types of questions: character identification, reality, memory, and false belief. Their responses were recorded and analyzed. Results: Comprehension of false belief was observed in 4-year-old healthy children, whereas children with WS showed unsuccessful comprehension of false belief (until they attained a mental age of 5.3 years), suggesting an improvement in theory of mind resulting from viewing structured computerized animations. This age is earlier than that reported by previous studies for using theory of mind to pass false belief tests (8.5 years old), even challenging the age at which individuals failed to pass the tests (12.10 years old). Conclusions: Structured computerized animations enhanced the mentalizing ability of people with WS to a certain extent. Compared to the typically developing controls, people with WS presented with a lower developmental level in processing false belief tasks. The educational implication of this study is to develop computerized social skills interventions for people with WS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2073.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: soybean; RIL; Forrest; Williams 82; linkage map; RFOs; sucrose; raffinose; stachyose; SNP
Online: 31 August 2023 (03:50:41 CEST)
Soybean seed sugars are among the most abundant beneficial compounds for human and animal consumption in soybean seeds. Higher seed sugars such as sucrose are desirable as it contributes to taste and flavor in soy-based food. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to use ‘Forrest’ by ‘Williams 82’ (F×W82) recombinant inbred line (RIL) soybean population (n=309) to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate genes that control seed sugar (sucrose, stachyose, and raffinose) contents in two environments (North Carolina and Illinois) over two years (2018 and 2020). A total of 26 QTL that control seed sugars contents were identified and mapped on 16 soybean chromosomes (chrs.). Interestingly, five QTL regions were identified in both locations, Illinois and North Carolina, in this study on chrs. 2, 5, 13, 17, and 20. Amongst 57 candidate genes identified in this study, 16 were located within 10 Megabase (MB) of the identified QTL. Amongst them a cluster of four genes involved in the sugars’ pathway was collocated within 6 MB with two QTL that were detected in this study on chr. 17. Further functional validation of the identified genes could be beneficial in breeding programs to produce soybean lines with high beneficial sucrose and low raffinose family oligosaccharides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0325.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: speciesism; intuition; evolutionary debunking arguments; experimental philosophy; species-egalitarianism; conservation; singer; williams; kagan; jacquet
Online: 29 September 2019 (06:07:31 CEST)
This article argues for five correctives to the current ethical debate about speciesism, and proposes normative, conceptual, methodological and experimental avenues to move this debate forward. Firstly, it clarifies the Principle of Equal Consideration of Interests and points out limitations of its scope. Secondly, it disambiguates between ‘favouritist’ and ‘species-relative’ views about moral treatment. Thirdly, it argues that not all moral intuitions about speciesism should be given equal weight. Fourthly, it emphasizes the importance of empirical research to corroborate statements about ‘folk speciesism’. Fifthly, it disambiguates between the moral significance of species and the moral status of their individual members. For each of these issues, it is shown that they have either been overlooked, or been given inapt treatment, in recent contributions to the debate. Building on the correctives, new directions are proposed for ethical inquiry into the moral relevance of species and species membership.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0032.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: inverse acoustic problem; helicopter rotor; Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation; aerodynamic constraint; Thikhonov method
Online: 5 February 2018 (11:34:30 CET)
An inverse aeroacoustic problem for a helicopter rotor combined with aerodynamic constraint is proposed based on Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation in subsonic. The rotor noise includes thickness noise and loading noise when quadrupole noise is neglected. Thickness noise is related to geometry and motion conditions. Loading noise is related to the pressure on the wall. Therefore, the equation between pressure on the wall and far-field noise can be established, thus the pressure on the wall can be obtained by solving this equation. Since this equation is an ill-posed, the singular value decomposition combined with the regulation method is applied and the aerodynamic constraint is taken into account. The direct noise prediction is verify firstly and then the inverse problem is solved. The reconstruction pressure is compared to the input data. The result is in good agreement with the input value. At the same time, the influence of interference noise is also considered. Under low signal-to-noise ratio, the reconstruction result is also reasonable.