ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0320.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Residuated lattices; Idempotent semigroup; Chain; Construction; Amalgamation
Online: 6 September 2023 (05:27:17 CEST)
In this paper, we study semiconic idempotent commutative residuated lattices. After giving some properties of such residuated lattices, we obtain a structure theorem for semiconic idempotent com- mutative residuated lattices. As an application, we make use of the structure theorem to prove that the variety of strongly semiconic idempotent commutative residuated lattices has the amalgamation property.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0259.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Financial constraints; corporate social responsibility; financial performance
Online: 15 September 2021 (12:43:05 CEST)
This study focuses on a sample of Chinese listed companies from 2019 to 2020 to explore the relationships among corporate social responsibility, financial constraints, and financial performance. In addition, we discuss five factors affecting financial constraints. We also analyze the types of enterprises that can improve their financial performance by implementing corporate social responsibility keeping in mind the factors that lead to a high degree of financial constraint. The results indicate that: 1. The degree of financial constraints has a negative and significant impact on financial performance; 2. There is a reverse relationship between the degree of financial constraints and the effectiveness of corporate social responsibility measures; 3. Enterprises with high financial constraints (due to lower financial slack and revenue growth rates) can significantly improve their financial performance through the implementation of effective corporate social responsibility programs. 4. Enterprises with high financial constraints, caused by financial slack and revenue growth rate, can significantly improve their financial performance by implementing corporate social responsibility programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0214.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: multi-spectral analysis; remote sensing images; sparse coding; generalized aggregation; scene recognition
Online: 30 May 2017 (08:54:08 CEST)
Satellite scene classification is challenging because of the high variability inherent in satellite data. Although rapid progress in remote sensing techniques has been witnessed in recent years, the resolution of the available satellite images remains limited compared with the general images acquired using a common camera. On the other hand, a satellite image usually has a greater number of spectral bands than a general image, thereby permitting the multi-spectral analysis of different land materials and promoting low-resolution satellite scene recognition. This study advocates multi-spectral analysis and explores the middle-level statistics of spectral information for satellite scene representation instead of using spatial analysis. This approach is widely utilized in general image and natural scene classification and achieved promising recognition performance for different applications. The proposed multi-spectral analysis firstly learns the multi-spectral prototypes (codebook) for representing any pixel-wise spectral data, and then based on the learned codebook, a sparse coded spectral vector can be obtained with machine learning techniques. Furthermore, in order to combine the set of coded spectral vectors in a satellite scene image, we propose a hybrid aggregation (pooling) approach, instead of conventional averaging and max pooling, which includes the benefits of the two existing methods but avoids extremely noisy coded values. Experiments on three satellite datasets validated that the performance of our proposed approach is much more accurate than even the deep learning framework for spatial analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0682.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Duffing equation; deep learning; neural networks; recurrent neural networks; long short term memory.
Online: 8 August 2023 (12:58:08 CEST)
This study uses machine learning to predict the convergence results of the Duffing equation with and without damping. The Duffing equation represents a nonlinear second-order differential equation with interesting behavior in undamped free vibration and forced vibration with damping. Convergence alternates randomly between 1 and -1 in undamped free vibration, depending on initial conditions. For forced vibration with damping, multiple factors influence vibration patterns. We utilize the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method to collect convergence results for both conditions. Machine learning techniques, specifically the long short term memory (LSTM) and LSTM-Neural Network (LSTM-NN) method, are employed to predict these convergence values. The LSTM-NN model is a hybrid approach that combines the LSTM method with the addition of hidden layers of neurons. Both the LSTM and LSTM-NN models are thoroughly explored and analyzed in this research. The research process involves three stages: data preprocessing, training, and verification. The results show that the LSTM-NN model becomes more adept at predicting binary datasets, boasting an impressive accuracy of up to 98%. However, when it comes to predicting multiple solutions, the traditional LSTM method outperforms the LSTM-NN approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0725.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: slurry rheology; froth rheology; grinding; flotation; fine particle
Online: 10 May 2023 (09:55:32 CEST)
These years have witnessed growing research on applying rheology in grinding and flotation treatment of finely disseminated ores. The slurry rheology has long been identified as the comprehensive effect of inter-particle interactions, including their aggregation (coagulation and flocculation) and dispersion states in slurry, which are more impactive under the fine-particle effect. In this regard, rheology has the potential to play a significant role in interpreting the flowing and deforming phenomenon of inter-particle aggregates, particle-bubble aggregates, and flotation froth. Though much attention has been paid to the rheological effect in industrial suspension, this has not been the case for mineral grinding and flotation for fine particles. The influential mechanism of rheology on the sub-processes of mineral processing has not been systemically concluded and revealed thoroughly, without which the underpinning mechanism for enhancing the processing efficiency has been difficult to discover. This paper reviews the current application and importance of rheology in the fine mineral processing, and the potential research direction in the field is proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0825.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Green finance; Carbon dioxide emissions; COVID-19 pandemic; Impulse response model
Online: 24 April 2023 (05:09:15 CEST)
The Chinese government has expressed great confidence in the role of green finance in fulfilling its carbon neutrality commitment. However, the effectiveness of green finance, especially under the impact of emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic scenario, requires further examination. Using data from 2000 to 2020 in China, the correlation between green finance and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions has been analyzed, both in BaU scenario and the COVID-19 scenario. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) In BaU scenario, green finance can effectively reduce CO2 emissions, especially through government green expenditure and green credit; (2) In COVID-19 scenario, although there is no direct relationship between the pandemic and carbon emissions, the data shows that the pandemic has hindered the progress of green finance, weakened its ability to curb carbon emissions, and indirectly led to an increase in carbon emissions. This study not only clarifies the mechanism by which the COVID-19 pandemic affects carbon emissions through the green finance system but also addresses the common problem of data scarcity in green finance research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: antipsychotic; mortality; schizophrenia; elderly; daily defined dosage
Online: 6 December 2023 (07:45:10 CET)
Patients with schizophrenia had higher mortality risks and the role of antipsychotic medications remained inconclusive. In an aging society, elderly schizophrenia patients warrant increased attention. In this study, we aimed to explore medication dosage associations with mortality in schizophrenia patients, using Taiwan's national healthcare database from 2010 to 2014, with 102,964 patients with schizophrenia, and a subgroup of 6,433 elderly patients, compared to an age- and gender-matched control group. The findings revealed that schizophrenia patients with no antipsychotic exposure had the highest mortality risk as compared to the control sample—with a 3.61 and 3.37-fold risk for overall and cardiovascular mortality respectively in age and gender-adjusted model, followed by high, low, and moderate exposure groups. A similar pattern was observed in elderly schizophrenia patients but high exposure to antipsychotics was associated with the highest risk in both overall and cardiovascular mortality in elderly patients, with a 3.01, and 2.95-fold risk), respectively. In conclusion, the use of antipsychotics is beneficial to patients with schizophrenia, with recommended exposure levels being low to moderate. In elderly patients, high antipsychotic exposure was associated with the highest mortality risk. We should pay more attention to antipsychotic dosage in elderly schizophrenia patients.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0372.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: breakdown voltage; electric field; floating-poly; lattice temperature; n-LDMOS
Online: 6 May 2023 (04:05:34 CEST)
This study employed a TSMC 0.18-µm 50 V process to establish a high-voltage n-LDMOS structure. In the reference device, the number of floating-poly (poly-2) turns was 7, and the width and spacing of each turn was 1 µm. Although increasing the number of turns reduces the peak field, directly reducing or increasing the number of poly-2 turns is a common practice. The present experiment was realized in three steps, namely fixing the number of occupied area adjustment turns, adjusting the width of each turn, and adjusting the distance between turns. The first step was fixing the number of occupied area adjustment turns. The number of turns was increased from 7 to 9, and the number of turns was reduced to 5 and 3 in the reference group. A reduction in the number of turns led to a greater decrease in the peak field and increase in the breakdown voltage despite the area remaining unchanged. A comparison of the use of three turns with that of seven turns revealed that the maximum electric field decreased by 42%, from 4.17e+3 to 2.46e+3 V/cm, and that the breakdown voltage (VBK) increased from 30.2 to 35.84 V. The second step was adjusting the width of each turn from 1 to 1.4, 1.2, 0.8, and 0.6 µm in the reference group. This increase in width reduced the maximum electric field and led to a greater increase in VBK. When the width was increased to 1.4 µm, the maximum electric field decreased by 29% from 1.95e+3 to 1.4e+3 V/cm, and the VBK increased by 183% from 30.2 to 85.6 V. The third step was adjusting the spacing of each turn from 1 to 1.4, 1.2, 0.8, and 0.6 µm in the reference group. The results revealed that a reduction in the spacing led to a greater reduction in the maximum electric field and an in-crease in the VBK. When the pitch was reduced to 0.6 µm, the maximum electric field decreased by 33%, from 1.95e+3 to 1.32e+3 V/cm, and the VBK increased by 345%, from 30.2 to 134.4 V.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0607.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Roasted Fish Skin, PAHs mutagenicity risk, Limonene
Online: 30 September 2018 (10:03:24 CEST)
Traditional edible barbecue products use with lemon juice not only make the barbecue more delicious but also reduce the risk of PAHs in the barbecue products. One of the major economics crops in Taiwan, the waste from citrus fruits was very tremendous mass. However, the peelings of citrus fruits are rich in essential oil, especially, the limonene is the major. Whether the anti-carcinogenesis activities of terpene, such as limonene, in citrus fruits essential oil extraction. This study to demonstrate the PAHs content in fish skin increased markedly after being roasted at 210℃ for 20 minutes and greater mutagenicity risk of roasted fish skin was observed by Ame's test. The reduction of mutagenicity risk of roasted fish skin, which the antimutagenic abilities of substances in descending order were limonene > cold pressure oil > lemon >grapefruit. The antimutagenicity rate and ability of the three extracts were limonene: 18–23%; cold-pressed lemon oil: 18–22%; and steam distilled lemon essential oil: 8–16%. The obvious anti- mutagenicity effects against the PAHs mutagenicity of roasted fish skins can be found in citrus fruits essential oil extraction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0480.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: surface plasmon resonance; core–shell nanoparticles; discrete-dipole approximation; aspect ratio
Online: 25 July 2018 (11:53:51 CEST)
In this work, numerical simulations for the absorption and scattering efficiencies of spheroid core–shell nanoparticles (CSNs) were conducted and studied using the discrete-dipole approximation method. The characteristics of surface plasmon resonances (SPR) depend upon shell thickness, the compositions of the core and shell materials, and the aspect ratio of the constructed CSNs. We used different core@shell compositions, specifically Au@SiO2, Ag@SiO2, Au@TiO2, Ag@TiO2, Au@Ag, and Ag@Au, for extinction spectra analysis. We also investigated coupled resonance mode wavelengths by adjusting the composition’s layer thickness and aspect ratio. In this study, we show that the extinction efficiency of the Ag@TiO2 core–shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) was higher than that of the others, and we examined the impact of TiO2 shell thickness and Ag core radius on SPR peak positions. From the extinction spectra we found that the Ag@TiO2 nanoparticle had better refractive index sensitivity and figure of merit when the aspect ratio was set to 0.3. All of the experimental results proved that the tunability of these plasmonic resonances was highly dependent on the material used, the layer thickness, and the aspect ratio of the core@shell CSNPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1702.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: large-scale floating shock platform (LFSP); shock environments; underwater explosion; marine diesel engines; shock spectra
Online: 26 October 2023 (11:40:15 CEST)
To conduct a precise impact assessment of marine diesel engines, a 200t floating impact platform was utilized to simulate realistic testing conditions. The testing generated the acceleration time curve and the impact response spectrum for the diesel engine. According to the applicable standards, the spectral velocity was chosen as the evaluation index, and an evaluation of the longitudinal, transverse, and vertical impact environment of the diesel engine was conducted. The shock factor interpolation method was corrected using the confidence interval based on normal distribution, and the interpolated confidence interval of the shock factor was determined. The findings reveal that: The 200t-class floating shock platform is capable of providing a reliable shock environment for diesel engine tests. The shock wave serves as the primary external force during the experiment, and the impact of bubble pulsation can be disregarded when assessing using the floating shock platform. To more accurately describe the experimental shock intensity when presented with dispersed data, the confidence interval can be utilized, and the resulting prediction formula provides a higher level of impact safety. The obtained conclusions can serve as a reference for predicting the shock environment of large shipboard equipment using the shock platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1339.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: linguistic E-learning; phonetic transcription; mel frequency cepstrum coefficient; grapheme-to-phoneme; transformer; speech synthesis
Online: 20 September 2023 (09:59:40 CEST)
The E-learning system has achieved great development after the pandemic. In this work, we proposed three artificial intelligence-based enhancements to our linguistic interactive E-learning system from different aspects. Compared with the original phonetic transcription exam system, our enhancements include an MFCC+CNN-based disordered speech classification module, a Transformer-based Grapheme-to-Phoneme converter, and a Tacotron2-based IPA-to-Speech speech synthesis system. This work not only provides a better experience for the users of this system but also explores the utilization of artificial intelligence technologies in the E-learning field and linguistic field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: dog; ST131; ESBL; fecal colonization; Escherichia coli
Online: 18 September 2020 (07:15:23 CEST)
Background: Most drug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates in dogs come from diseased dogs. Prior to this study, the prevalence and risk factors of fecal carriage drug-resistant E. coli and epidemic clone sequence type (ST) 131 (including subtypes) isolates in dogs were unknown. Methods: Rectal swabs were used for E. coli isolation from 299 dogs in a veterinary teaching hospital in Taiwan. Antibiotic resistance and multiplex PCR analyses of E. coli for major STs were performed. Result: There were 43.1% cefazolin-resistant, 22.1% fluoroquinolone-resistant, and 9.4% extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli in our cohort. In the phylogenetic study, B2 was the predominant group (30.1%). The cefazolin-resistant group and ciprofloxacin-resistant group had greater antibiotic exposure in the last 14 days (P < 0.05). The age, sex, and dietary habits of the antibiotic-resistant and -susceptible groups were similar. In the seven isolates of ST131 in fecal colonization, the most predominant subtypes were FimH41 and FimH22. Conclusion: Recent antibiotic exposure was related to the fecal carriage of antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates. Three major subtypes (FimH41, H22, and H30) of ST131 can thus be found in fecal carriage in dogs in Taiwan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0067.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: bisphenol analogues; colloids; suspended particulate matter; environmental risk; water diversion project
Online: 6 August 2019 (04:09:58 CEST)
Because of the widespread use of bisphenol analogues (BPs) as the alternatives to bisphenol A (BPA), they have attracted considerable attention for health risk in aquatic ecosystems. The occurrence and distribution of six BPs were researched in soluble phase (< 5 kDa), colloidal phase (5 kDa to 1 µm) and suspended particulate matter (SPM > 1 µm) in a water diversion project of Nanjing, China. Except for bisphenol Z, all BPs were detected in the two or three phases, the total concentrations of detected BPs were 161-613 ng/L, 5.19-77.2 ng/L and 47.5-353 ng/g for the soluble phase, colloidal phase and SPM, respectively. Among the detected compounds, BPA still the dominant BPs in the soluble and colloidal phases, followed by BPS, while BPAF was the major contaminant in SPM, followed by BPA. The mean contribution proportions of colloids were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than SPM, suggesting that colloids have an obvious impact on regulating BPs’ environmental behaviors. In terms of spatial distribution, although the water diversion project could reduce the pollution levels of BPs, which might further affect the ecological security of the Yangtze River.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0320.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: conjugated linolenic acid; Caco-2 cell; lipid peroxidation; apoptosis; pyroptosis
Online: 27 January 2020 (02:03:33 CET)
The probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 has been proved to manifest comprehensive functions, which were due to ability to synthesise conjugated fatty acids (CFAs). To investigate the specific functions of CFAs produced by this probiotic bacterium, α-linolenic acid was isomerized by Lactobacillus plantarum strain ZS2058, and two different conjugated α-linolenic acid (CLNA) isomers were successfully isolated. These isoforms, CLNA1 (c9, t11, c15-CLNA, purity 97.48%) and CLNA2 (c9, t11, t15-CLNA, purity 99.00%), both showed the ability to inhibit the growth of three types of colon cancer cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the expression of MDA in Caco-2 cells was increased by CLNA1 or CLNA2, which indicated lipid peroxidation was related to the antiproliferation activity of CLNAs. Examination of the key protein of pyroptosis showed that CLNA1 induced the cleavage of caspase-1 and gasdermin-D, while CLNA2 induced the cleavage of caspase-4, 5 and gasdermin-D. The addition of relative inhibitors could alleviate the pyroptosis by CLNAs. CLNA1 and CLNA2 showed no effect on caspase-3, 7, 9 and PARP-1, which were key proteins associated with apoptosis. And no sub-diploid apoptotic peak appeared in the result of PI single staining test. In conclusion, CLNA1 activated caspase-1 and induced Caco-2 cell pyroptosis, whereas CLNA2 induced pyroptosis through the caspase-4/5-mediated pathway. The inhibition of Caco-2 cells by the two isomers was not related to apoptosis. This is the first report showing the ability of CLNAs to activate antioxidant defenses resulting in pyroptosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0036.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: bisphenol analogues; colloids; suspended particulate matter; environmental risk; water diversion project
Online: 5 August 2019 (03:21:46 CEST)
Owing to the widespread use of bisphenol analogues (BPs) as bisphenol A (BPA) alternatives, they have been recognized to constitute a health risk for aquatic ecosystems. The occurrence and distribution of six BPs were investigated in the truly dissolved phase (< 5 kDa), colloidal phase (5 kDa to 1 µm) and suspended particulate matter (SPM > 1 µm) in a water diversion project of Nanjing, China. With the exception of bisphenol Z, all BPs were detected in at least two phases, the total concentrations of detected BPs were 161-613 ng/L, 5.19-77.2 ng/L and 47.5-353 ng/g for the truly dissolved phase, colloidal phase and SPM, respectively. Among the detected compounds, BPA still the dominant BPs in the truly dissolved phase and colloidal phase, followed by BPS, while BPAF was the major contaminant in SPM, followed by BPA. The mean contribution proportions of colloids were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than that of SPM, suggesting that colloids play an important role in regulating the environmental behaviors of BPs. In terms of spatial distribution, although the water diversion project could reduce the pollution levels of BPs, which might further affect the ecological security of the Yangtze River.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: 1; brain protection 2; HTK 3; cardiac arrest 4; hypoxic injury 5; HIF-1α
Online: 5 October 2018 (15:45:43 CEST)
Ischemic neuron loss contributes to brain dysfunction in patients with cardiac arrest (CA). Histidine–tryptophan–ketoglutarate (HTK) solution is a preservative used during organ transplantation. Can HTK also protect neurons from severe hypoxia (SH) following CA? We isolated rat primary cortical neurons and induced SH with or without HTK. Changes in caspase-3, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), and NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX4) expression were evaluated at different time points till 72 h. Using a rat asphyxia model, we induced CA-mediated brain damage and then completed resuscitation. HTK or sterile saline was administered into the left carotid artery. Neurological deficit scoring and mortality were evaluated for 3 days. Then the rats were sacrificed for evaluating NOX4 and H2O2 level in blood and brain. In the in vitro study, HTK attenuated SH- and H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity in a volume- and time-dependent manner, associated with persisted HIF-1α expression, reductions in procaspase-3 activation and NOX4 expression. The inhibition of HIF-1α abrogated HTK’s effect on NOX4. In the in vivo study, neurological scores were significantly improved by HTK. H2O2 level, NOX4 activity and NOX4 gene expression were all decreased in the brain specimen of HTK-treated rats. Our results suggest that HTK acts as an effective neuroprotective solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: DEHP; biochemical pathways; immobilization; MBR; bacterial community dynamics
Online: 9 January 2020 (05:00:48 CET)
A bacterial strain that could effectively degrade DEHP was isolated from the activated sludge and identified as Bacillus sp. by DNA sequencing. The biochemical degradation pathway of DEHP was further analyzed by GC-MS, and the results showed that DEHP was first decomposed into phthalates (DBP). Diuretic sylycol (DEP) was then generated, and phthalates (PA) were generated by a continuous de-ehelateization reaction. Phthalic acid (PA) was oxidized, dehydrogenated, and decarboxylated into protocatechins. Protocatechins enter the TCA cycle through orthotopic ring opening. To enhance DEHP degradation, sodium alginate and calcium chloride were used as embedding and cross-linking materials, and the strain was immobilized. The immobilization conditions were optimized via an orthogonal experiment, and the results showed that the optimal immobilization conditions were SA mass fraction of 4%, CaCl2 mass fraction of 5%, ratio of bacteria to SA of 1:1, and the crosslinking time of 6 hours. The immobilized bacteria agent was further applied to MBR systems. The results showed that the removal rate of DEHP (5mg/L) in the system by immobilized bacteria was 91.9%, which is significantly higher than that of free bacteria. The 3, 4-dioxygenase gene and microbial community dynamics were analyzed by q-PCR and Illumina Miseq sequencing. The q-PCR results showed that the number of copies of 3, 4-dioxygenase gene in the immobilized system was significantly higher than that of free bacteria. Illumina Miseq sequencing results showed that Micromonospora, Rhodococcus, Bacteroides and Pseudomonas were the dominant generas in the MBR system. The analysis of bacterial community structure indicated that immobilization technology had a positive impact on the system stability. The results implied that this immobilized technique had potential applications in DEHP wastewater treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0457.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Latilactobacillus sakei; comparative genomics; carbohydrate utilization; antibiotic tolerance; CRISPR-Cas
Online: 20 July 2021 (15:02:42 CEST)
Increasing attention has been paid to the potential probiotic effects of Latilactobacillus sakei. To explore the genetic diversity of L. sakei, 14 strains isolated from different niches (feces, fermented kimchi and meat products) and 54 published strains were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the average genome size and GC content of L. sakei were 1.98Mb and 41.22%, respectively. Its core genome mainly encodes translation and transcription, amino acid synthesis, glucose metabolism and defense functions. L. sakei has an open pan-genomic characteristics, and its pan-gene curve shows an upward trend. L. sakei has open pan-genome feature, and its pan-genome curve is on the rise. The genetic diversity of L. sakei is mainly reflected in carbohydrate utilization, antibiotic tolerance, and immune/competition-related factors, such as clustering regular interval short palindromic repeat sequence (CRISPR)-Cas. The CRISPR system is mainly IIA type, and a few are IIC types. This work provides a basis for the study of this species.