ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Lymphocytes; liver function biomarkers; WBCs; and CRP
Online: 19 September 2022 (05:28:34 CEST)
Abstract Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the clinical laboratory features of moderate and severe COVID-19 patients among a cohort of the Egyptian population. The study also aimed to assess the accuracy—sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of various detected parameters in predicting the severity of COVID-19 infection. Patients and methods: One hundred diagnosed COVID-19 patients and fifty healthy participants in total were involved in current study. COVID-19 patients were categorized based on how severe their symptoms into two groups. Estimates were made for serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as well as white blood cells (WBCs) count, lymphocytes count, and hemoglobin content (Hb) content. Results: COVID-19 patients displayed increased serum levels of liver enzymes and CRP as well as WBCs count when compared to healthy individuals. On the other hand, Hb content, lymphocytes count, and albumin level fell in all COVID-19 patients. The severe group showed a statistically significant rise in liver enzymes, WBCs, and CRP levels, compared with moderate group. WBCs and lymphocytes counts were closely correlated with age, ALT, LDH, and CRP in all cases. WBCs and lymphocytes counts also had a negative correlation with albumin Level. Additionally, WBCs count, lymphocytes count, LDH activity and CRP level have higher AUC in severe than in moderate cases. WBCs count, LDH activity and CRP level have AUC above 0.80 in the severe group. Conclusion: The current investigation found a significant correlation between WBCs count, lymphocytes count, CRP level and liver injury in COVID-19 patients. WBCs count, lymphocytes count, LDH activity and CRP level were effective indicators for determining the severity of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0482.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Köppen-Geiger climate classification; Worldwide Bioclimatic Classification System (WBCS); Bioclimates; Thermotypes; Ombrotypes; Vineyards; Olive groves; Portugal
Online: 21 July 2021 (10:27:04 CEST)
Land and climate are strongly connected through multiple interface processes and climate change may lead to significant changes in land use. In this study, high-resolution observational gridded datasets are used to assess modifications in the Köppen-Geiger and Worldwide Bioclimatic (WBCS) Classification Systems, from 1950‒1979 to 1990‒2019 in Portugal. A compound Bioclimatic-Shift Exposure Index (BSEI) is also defined to identify the most exposed regions to recent climatic changes. The temporal evolution of land cover with vineyards and olive groves between 1990 and 2018, as well as correlations with areas with bioclimatic shifts, are analyzed. Results show an increase (decrease) of CSa Warm Mediterranean climate with hot summer (CSb, warm summer) of 18.1% (‒17.8%). The WBCS Temperate areas also reveal a decrease of ‒5.11%. Arid and semi-arid ombrotypes areas increased, conversely to humid to sub-humid ombrotypes. Thermotypic horizons depict a shift towards warmer classes. BSEI highlights the most significant shifts in northwestern Portugal. Vineyards have been displaced towards regions that are either the coolest/humid, in the northwest, or the warmest/driest, in the south. For oliviculture, the general trend for a relative shift towards cool/humid areas suggests an attempt of the sector to adapt, despite the cover area growth in the south. As vineyards and olive groves in southern Portugal are commonly irrigated, options for the intensification of these crops in this region may threaten the already scarce water resources and challenge the future sustainability of these sectors.