REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0252.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: Voronoi tessellation; Voronoi entropy; random set of points; ordering; lamellae; spherulite; continuous measure of symmetry
Online: 27 April 2022 (08:29:01 CEST)
Properties of the Voronoi tessellations arising from the random 2D distribution points are reported. We applied the procedure of dividing the sides of Voronoi cells into equal or random parts to Voronoi diagrams generated by a set of randomly placed on the plane points. The dividing points were then used to construct the following Voronoi diagram. Repeating this procedure led to a surprising effect of positional ordering of Voronoi cells, reminiscent of the formation of lamellae and spherulites in linear semi-crystalline polymers and metallic glasses. Thus, we can conclude, that by applying even a simple set of rules to a random set of seeds we introduce order into an initially disordered system. At the same time, the Voronoi entropy showed a tendency to values typical for completely random patterns and did not distinguish the short-range ordering. The Voronoi entropy and the continuous measure of symmetry of the patterns demonstrated the distinct asymptotic behavior, while approaching the close saturation values with the increase of the number of the iteration steps. Voronoi entropy grew, with the number of iterations, whereas the continuous measure of symmetry of the same patterns demonstrated the opposite asymptotic behavior. The Voronoi entropy is not an unambiguous measure of order in the 2D patterns. The more symmetrical patterns may demonstrate the higher values of the Voronoi entropy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1696.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Discrete Mathematics And Combinatorics Keywords: Complete graph; Shannon Entropy; bi-colored graph; Ramsey Theorem; Ramsey Number; Voronoi tessellation.
Online: 25 July 2023 (10:27:56 CEST)
Shannon entropy quantifying bi-colored Ramsey complete graphs is introduced. Complete graphs in which vertices are connected with two types of links, labeled as α-links and β-links are considered. Shannon-entropy is introduced according to the classical Shannon formula considering the fractions of monochromatic convex α-colored polygons with n α-sides or edges, and the fraction of monochromatic β-colored convex polygons with m β-sides in the given complete graph. Introduced Shannon entropy is insensitive to the exact shape of the graph, but it is sensitive to the distribution of monochromatic polygons in a given graph. The introduced Shannon Entropies Sα and Sβ are interpreted as follows: Sα is interpreted as an average uncertainty to find the green α-polygon in the given graph, Sβ is, in turn, an average uncertainty to find the red β-polygon in the same graph. The re-shaping of the Ramsey theorem in terms of the Shannon Entropy is suggested. Various measures quantifying the Shannon Entropy of the entire complete bi-colored graphs are suggested. Physical interpretations of the suggested Shannon Entropies are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0076.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: symmetry; informational measure; penrose tiling; Voronoi entropy; continuous symmetry measure; ordering
Online: 3 September 2021 (21:36:08 CEST)
The notion of the informational measure of symmetry is introduced according to: HsymG=-i=1kPGilnPGi, where PGi is the probability of appearance of the symmetry operation Gi within the given 2D pattern. HsymG is interpreted as an averaged uncertainty in the presence of symmetry elements from the group G in the given pattern. The informational measure of symmetry of the “ideal” pattern built of identical equilateral triangles is established as HsymD3=1.792. The informational measure of symmetry of the random, completely disordered pattern is zero, Hsym=0. Informational measure of symmetry is calculated for the patterns generated by the P3 Penrose tessellation. Informational measure of symmetry does not correlate neither with the Voronoi entropy of the studied patterns nor with the continuous measure of symmetry of the patterns.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0535.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Voronoi entropy; surface patterns; Lewis law; Aboav law; droplet cluster; self-assembly
Online: 22 November 2018 (04:49:13 CET)
The Voronoi entropy is a mathematical tool for quantitative characterization of the orderliness of points distributed on a surface. The tool is useful to study various surface self-assembly processes. We provide the historical background, from Kepler and Descartes to our days, and discuss topological properties of the Voronoi tessellation, upon which the entropy concept is based, and its scaling properties, known as the Lewis and Aboav-Weaire laws. The Voronoi entropy has been successfully applied to recently discovered self-assembled structures, such as patterned micro-porous polymer surfaces obtained by the breath figure method and levitating ordered water micro-droplet clusters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0012.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Shannon entropy; pentagonal tiling; Marjorie Rice tiling; Voronoi tessellation; iso-symmetrical transitions
Online: 1 December 2022 (06:42:44 CET)
We used the complete set of convex pentagons enabling filing the plane without any overlaps or gaps (including the Marjorie Rice tiles) as generators of Voronoi tessellations. Shannon entropy of the tessellations was calculated. Some of the basic mosaics are flexible and give rise to a diversity of Voronoi tessellations. The Shannon entropy of these tessellations varied in a broad range. Voronoi tessellation, emerging from the basic pentagonal tiling built from hexagons only, was revealed (the Shannon entropy of this tiling is zero). Decagons and hendecagon did not appear in the studied Voronoi diagrams. The most abundant Voronoi tessellations are built from three different kinds of polygons. The most widespread is the combination of pentagons, hexagons and heptagons. The most abundant polygons are pentagons and hexagons. No Voronoi tiling built only of pentagons was registered. Flexible basic pentagonal mosaics give rise to a diversity of Voronoi tessellations, which are characterized by the same symmetry group; however, the coordination number of the vertices is variable. These Voronoi tessellations may be useful for the interpretation of the iso-symmetrical phase transitions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0336.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Voronoi entropy; Voronoi tessellation; symmetry; ordering; Shannon measure of information
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:51:44 CEST)
Voronoi entropy for the random patterns and patterns demonstrating various elements of symmetry are calculated. The symmetric patterns are characterized by the values of the Voronoi entropy very close to those inherent to random ones. This contradicts the idea that the Voronoi entropy quantifies the ordering of the seed points, constituting the pattern. The extension of the Shannon-like formula embracing symmetric patterns is suggested. Analysis of Voronoi diagrams enables revealing of the elements of symmetry of the pattern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0307.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Archimedes Spiral; Voronoi tessellation; Voronoi entropy; surface patterns; aesthetic attraction; phyllotaxis; golden ratio.
Online: 17 January 2023 (10:07:18 CET)
Voronoi mosaics inspired by the seed points placed on the Archimedes Spirals are reported. Voronoi entropy was calculated for these patterns. Equidistant and non-equidistant patterns are treated. Voronoi mosaics built from a sells of equal size which are of a primary importance for decorative arts are reported. The pronounced prevalence of hexagons is inherent for the patterns with an equidistant and non-equidistant distribution of points, when the distance between the seed points is of the same order of magnitude as the distance between the turns of the spiral. Penta- and heptagonal “defected” cells appeared in the Voronoi diagrams due to the finite nature of the pattern. The ordered Voronoi tessellations demonstrating the Voronoi entropy larger than 1.71, reported for the random 2D distribution of points, were revealed. The dependence of the Voronoi entropy on the total number of the seed points located on the Archimedes Spirals is reported. Voronoi tessellations generated by the phyllotaxis-inspired patterns are addressed. The aesthetic attraction of the Voronoi mosaics arising from seed points placed on the Archimedes Spirals is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0082.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: WSN; RSSI; Voronoi diagram; vector similar degrees; Lagrange
Online: 16 November 2016 (13:10:52 CET)
With the integrated development of the Internet, wireless sensor technology, cloud computing, and mobile Internet, there has been a lot of attention given to research about and applications of the Internet of Things. A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is one of the important information technologies in the Internet of Things; it integrates multi-technology to detect and gather information in a network environment by mutual cooperation, using a variety of methods to process and analyze data, implement awareness, and perform tests. This paper mainly researches the localization algorithm of sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network. Firstly, a multi-granularity region partition is proposed to divide the location region. In the range-based method, the RSSI (Received Signal Strength indicator, RSSI) is used to estimate distance. The optimal RSSI value is computed by the Gaussian fitting method. Furthermore, a Voronoi diagram is characterized by the use of dividing region. Rach anchor node is regarded as the center of each region; the whole position region is divided into several regions and the sub-region of neighboring nodes is combined into triangles while the unknown node is locked in the ultimate area. Secondly, the multi-granularity regional division and Lagrange multiplier method are used to calculate the final coordinates. Because nodes are influenced by many factors in the practical application, two kinds of positioning methods are designed: the unknown node is in the positioning unit or not. When the unknown node is on the side of the positioning unit, we use the method of vector similarity. Moreover, we use the centroid algorithm to calculate the ultimate coordinates of unknown node. When the unknown node is not on the side of the positioning unit, we establish a Lagrange equation containing the constraint condition to calculate the first coordinates. Furthermore, we use the Taylor expansion formula to correct the coordinates of the unknown node. In addition, this localization method has been validated by establishing the real environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Expectation-maximization algorithm; Lloyd’s algorithm; stochastic geometry; Poisson point process; Voronoi diagram
Online: 2 May 2018 (12:31:33 CEST)
In a wireless network, locations of base stations (BSs)/access points (APs)/sensor nodes can be modeled based on stochastic processes, e.g., a Poisson point process (PPP) or a deterministic pattern planned ahead by providers. While deterministic deployment does not provide tractable interference analysis in general, PPP yields tractable analysis for interference. However, PPP allows APs to be deployed very close to each other and gives pessimistic results compared to the field measurements. In this study, in order to address this issue, Lloyd’s algorithm, which functions as a bridge between random and structural APs deployments, is investigated for analyzing coverage probability in a network. The link distance distribution is modeled as a mixture of Weibull distributions and its parameters are obtained by using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for each iteration of Lloyd’s algorithm. The link distance distribution is further utilized for calculating the coverage probability approximately by exploiting the tractability of PPP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0255.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: indoor navigation networks, navigation routes in buildings, segmentation structure, TIN, Voronoi, MAT algorithm
Online: 25 January 2019 (06:41:03 CET)
Automatic methods for constructing navigation routes do not fully meet all requirements. The aim of this study was to modify the methodology for generating indoor navigation models based on the Medial Axis Transformation (MAT) algorithm. The simplified method for generating corridor axes relies on the Node-Relation Structure (NRS) methodology. The axis of the modeled structure (corridor) is determined based the points of the middle lines intersecting the structure (polygon). The proposed solution involves a modified approach to the segmentation of corridor space. Traditional approaches rely on algorithms to construct Triangulated Irregular Networks (TINs) by Delaunay triangulation or algorithms for generating Thiessen polygons known as Voronoi diagrams (VDs). In this study, both algorithms were used in the segmentation process. The edges of TINs intersect structures. Selected midpoints on TIN edges, which are located in the central part of the structure, are used to generate VDs. Polygon VDs segment corridor structures. The identifiers or structure nodes are the midpoints on TIN edges rather than the calculated centroids. The generated routes are not zigzag lines, and they approximate natural paths. The main advantage of the proposed solution is its simplicity which can be attributed to the use of standard tools for processing spatial data in a geographic information system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0112.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Road-network matching; matching precision; matching recall; network Voronoi area diagram; intelligent transportation systems.
Online: 7 December 2021 (23:44:09 CET)
A road network represents road objects in a given geographic area and their interconnections, and is an essential component of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) enabling emerging new applications such as dynamic route guidance, driving assistance systems, and autonomous driving. As the digitization of geospatial information becomes prevalent, a number of road networks with a wide variety of characteristics coexist. In this paper, we present an area partitioning approach to the conflation of two road networks with a large difference in level of details. Our approach first partitions the geographic area by the Network Voronoi Area Diagram (NVAD) of low-detailed road network. Next, a subgraph of high-detailed road network corresponding to a complex intersection is extracted and then aggregated into a supernode so that a high matching precision can be achieved via 1:1 node matching. To improve the matching recall, we also present a few schemes that address the problem of missing corresponding object and representation dissimilarity between these road networks. Numerical results at Yeouido, Korea's autonomous vehicle testing site, show that our area partitioning approach can significantly improve the performance of road network matching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0153.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: honeycomb polymer films; breath figures self-assembly; oil-lubricated substrates; Voronoi entropy; Cassie wetting regime
Online: 13 August 2019 (09:57:51 CEST)
Hierarchical honeycomb patterns were manufactured with the breath-figures self-assembly by drop-casting on the silicone-oil lubricated glass substrates. Silicone oil promoted spreading of the polymer solutions. The process was carried out with the industrial grade polystyrene and polystyrene with the molecular weight Mw=35.000. Both of polymers gave rise to the patterns, built from micro- and nano-scaled pores. Ordering of the pores was quantified with the Voronoi tessellations and calculating the Voronoi entropy. Measurement of the apparent contact angles evidenced the Cassie - Baxter wetting regime of the porous films.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: lamins; structured illumination microscopy; single molecule localization microscopy; steerable filters; computational geometry; delaunay triangulation; voronoi tessellation
Online: 22 March 2019 (15:55:59 CET)
The nuclear lamina consists of a dense fibrous meshwork made of nuclear lamins, Type V intermediate filaments, and is ~14 nm thick according to recent cryo-electron tomography studies. Recent advances in light microscopy have extended the resolution to a scale allowing for the fine structure of the lamina to be imaged in the context of the whole nucleus. We review quantitative approaches to analyze the imaging data of the nuclear lamina as acquired by structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM), as well as the requisite cell preparation techniques. In particular, we discuss the application of steerable filters and graph based methods to segment the structure of the four mammalian lamin isoforms (A, C, B1, and B2) and extract quantitative information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1594.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric vehicles; hydrogen fuel cell vehicles; site selection and fixed capacity; voronoi diagram; electric-hydrogen integrated charging station
Online: 25 November 2023 (14:32:31 CET)
In view of the problem of charging and hydrogen filling facilities construction in the transition from fuel vehicles to electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, in order to meet the electric energy demand of electric vehicles and hydrogen energy demand of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles at the same time, this paper puts forward a method of siting and capacity determination of electric-hydrogen refueling integrated station (EHRIS) based on Voronoi diagram and particle swarm algorithm based on calculating the demand of charging and filling of hydrogen in vehicles. Firstly, OD pair(Origin-Destination) is used to represent the starting point and end point of the car to portray the travel demand of the car, and on the basis of the traffic network model, the shortest driving path of the new energy car is determined by Dijkstra algorithm, and Monte Carlo simulation is used to get the electric-hydrogen energy demand of the car; secondly, the Voronoi diagram is introduced to classify the service scope of the electric-hydrogen charging station to determine the equipment capacity of the electric-hydrogen charging station, while taking into account the electric-hydrogen charging and refueling capacity. Secondly, a Voronoi diagram is introduced to divide the service scope of the EHRIS, determine the capacity of the equipment in the EHRIS, and consider the distance constraints between the sites of EHRIS, so as to make the division of the site and service scope more reasonable. Finally, a dynamic optimal current model framework for distribution networks based on second-order cone relaxation is established, and each element of the active distribution network is planned, so that the distribution network can operate safely and stably after being connected to the EHRIS. With the objective of minimizing the total social cost of EHRIS and considering the constraints of the charging equipment and hydrogen production and injection equipment of the EHRIS, a siting and capacity model to meet the electric-hydrogen energy demand of electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles is developed, and solved by a particle swarm algorithm. Finally, the simulation planning is carried out with Sioux Falls city and IEEE33 network, which ensures the stable operation of the power grid while meeting the energy demand of automobiles, and the results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0579.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Graph Theory; Computational Geometry; Spatial Statistics; Image analysis; Tessellations; Voronoi Polygons; Delaunay Triangulations; Minimal Spanning Trees; Pitteway Violations
Online: 31 August 2021 (15:58:36 CEST)
Every biological image contains quantitative data that can be used to test hypotheses about how patterns were formed, what entities are associated with one another, and whether standard mathematical methods inform our understanding of biological phenomena. In particular, spatial point distributions and polygonal tessellations are particularly amendable to analysis with a variety of graph theoretic, computational geometric, and spatial statistical tools such as: Voronoi Polygons; Delaunay Triangulations; Perpendicular Bisectors; Circumcenters; Convex Hulls; Minimal Spanning Trees; Ulam Trees; Pitteway Violations; Circularity; Clark-Evans spatial statistics; Variance to Mean Ratios; Gabriel Graphs; and, Minimal Spanning Trees. Furthermore, biologists have developed a number of empirically related correlations for polygonal tessellations such as: Lewis’s Law (the number of edges of convex polygons are positively correlated with the areas of these polygons): Desch’s Law (the number of edges of convex polygons are positively correlated with the perimeters of these polygons); and Errara’s Law (daughter cell areas should be roughly half that of their parent cells’ areas). We introduce a new Pitteway Law that the number of sides of the convex polygons in a Voronoi tessellation of biological epithelia is proportional to the minimal interior angle of the convex polygons as angles less than 90 degrees result in Pitteway violations of the Delaunay dual of the Voronoi tessellation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: Airspace Reconfiguration; irregular boundary smoothing; dynamic Monte Carlo method by changing location of flexible vertices; Monte Carlo method by radius changing; Voronoi diagram; graph cutting; multi-objective optimization
Online: 25 July 2019 (10:22:38 CEST)
With the growth of air traffic demand in busy airspace, there is an urgent need for airspace sectorization to increase air traffic throughput and ease the pressure on controllers. The purpose of this paper is to develop a method framework that can perform airspace sectorization automatically, reasonably, which can be used as an advisory tool for controllers as an automatic system, especially for eliminating irregular sector shapes generated by simulated annealing algorithm (SAA) based on region growth method. Two graph cutting method, dynamic Monte Carlo method by changing location of flexible vertices (MC-CLFV) and Monte Carlo method by radius changing (MC-RC) were developed to eliminating irregular sector shapes generated by SAA in post-processing. The experimental results show that the proposed method framework of AS can automatically and reasonably generate sector design schemes that meet the design criteria. Our methodology framework and software can provide assistant design and analysis tools for airspace planners to design airspace, improve the reliability and efficiency of airspace design, and reduce the burden of airspace planners. In addition, this lays the foundation for reconstructing airspace with more intelligent method.