ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: 5G networks; IPv6; VoIP; bandwidth utilization; header overhead
Online: 5 August 2021 (08:35:06 CEST)
5G technology propagation curve is ascending rapidly. 5G will open up the horizon to improve the performance of many other IP-based services such as voice over IP (VoIP). VoIP is a worldwide technology that is expected to rule the telecommunication world in the near future. However, VoIP has expended a significant part of the 5G technology bandwidth with no valuable use owing to its lengthy packet header. This issue even worsens when VoIP works in IPv6 networks, where the wasted bandwidth and airtime may reach 85.7% of 5G networks. VoIP developers have exerted many efforts to tackle this snag. This study adds to these efforts by proposing a new method called Zeroize (zero sizes). The main idea of the Zeroize method is to use superfluous fields of the IPv6 protocol header to carry the digital voice data of the packet and, thus, reduce or zeroize the VoIP packet payload. Although simple, the Zeroize method achieves a considerable reduction of the wasted bandwidth of 5G networks, which also directly affects the consumed airtime. The performance analysis of the Zeroize method shows that the consumed bandwidth is saved by 20% with the G.723.1 codec. Thus, the Zeroize method is a promising solution to reduce the wasted bandwidth and airtime of 5G networks when running VoIP over IPv6.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2178.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: delay; dimensionality reduction; LTE; VoIP; Neural Networks; Support Vector Machines; k-Nearest Neighbors; Feature Selection; Pareto 80/20 rule
Online: 30 June 2023 (07:38:35 CEST)
Delay in data transmission is one of key performance indicators (KPIs) of a network. The planning and project value of delay in network management is of crucial importance for the optimal allocation of network resources and their performance focuses. To create optimal solutions, predictive models, which are currently most often based on machine learning (ML), are used. This paper aims to investigate the training, testing and selection of the best predictive delay model for a VoIP service in an Long Term Evolution (LTE) network using three ML techniques - Neural Networks (NN), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN). The space of model input variables is optimized by dimensionality reduction techniques: RReliefF algorithm, Backward selection via the recursive feature elimination algorithm and the Pareto 80/20 rule. A three-segment road in the geo-space between the cities of Banja Luka (BL) and Doboj (Db) in the Republic of Srpska (RS), Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), covered by the cellular network (LTE) of the M:tel BL operator was chosen for the case study. The results show that, in all three optimization approaches, the k-NN model is selected as the best solution. For the RReliefF optimization algorithm, the best model has 6 inputs and minimum relative error (RE), RE=0.109; for the Backward selection via the recursive feature elimination algorithm, the best model has 4 inputs and RE=0.041; and for the Pareto 80/20 rule, the best model has 11 inputs and RE= 0.049. The comparative analysis of the results concludes that according to observed criteria for the selection of the final model, the best solution is an approach to optimizing the number of predictors based on the Backward selection via the recursive feature elimination algorithm.