ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0840.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: membrane pump theory; membrane potential; mathematics; Biophysics; Biology
Online: 13 October 2023 (16:43:12 CEST)
The generation and maintenance of membrane potential is considered a fundamental element of the cellular machinery. They are based on elements of physics and chemistry. Mathematics is used to validate the equations and evaluate the results. However, this computation process can lead to a misunderstanding of the phenomena involved or to the masking of crucial events. It is even possible that the calculation no longer corresponds to the hypothesis considered. Membrane theory is no exception to these trivial considerations, which are essential for normal theory validation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1758.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: membrane pump theory; membrane potential; cell shape; biophysics; biology
Online: 26 September 2023 (11:32:12 CEST)
Membrane potential generation and maintenance are fundamental parts of membrane theory. However, since its inception, theories and assumptions have remained simple, whereas the amount of knowledge available has only grown. Unfortunately, this simplification and reductionism lead to its loss of validity on both microscopic and macroscopic scales. This article shows that assumptions made outside the context of factual reality lead to contradictions that cannot be compared with science. Membrane theory must be thoroughly revised, taking into account all forgotten and unanswered assumptions and questions to conform to facts and science to maintain credibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0230.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: membrane pump theory; membrane potential; ion channel; Na/K ATPase; thermodynamics; elecrtromagnetism
Online: 26 April 2022 (06:11:34 CEST)
The membrane potential or resting potential of the neuron has been the subject of many studies. Although this theory explains the generation and maintenance of the membrane potential by direct or even facilitated diffusion, there are too many contradictions to doubt that these forces are sufficient or even at work in a process whose initial conditions are of rare complexity. The aim of this article is to show that already in the past, a competing theory has been developed whose hypothesis seems more scientifically sound. To confirm this last theory, Hirohisa Tamagawa carried out an experiment of great simplicity which makes it possible to invalidate the current theory and to question the teaching and the knowledge in Biology and Biophysics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0182.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: membrane pump theory; membrane potential; ion channel; NA/K ATPase; Biophysics; Biology
Online: 20 April 2022 (03:42:28 CEST)
The generation and maintenance of membrane potential is a fundamental part of Membrane Pump Theory. One of the key points of this hypothesis is based on a natural or facilitated molecular diffusion through several types of ion channels and pumps like the Na/K ATPase. Following the principles of chemistry, electrostatics and geometry, it becomes clear that ion channels cannot function in this way. The ions channels cannot by their location have both a filter function and be ion concentrators, and the Na/K pump by its position in the membrane and by the proposed assumptions is not able to perform its regulatory function. The current model must absolutely be revised according to the current state of our knowledge and allow an advance in the understanding of the phenomena opening new research perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0160.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: membrane pump theory; membrane potential; diffusion; Biophysics; Biology
Online: 11 February 2022 (10:27:36 CET)
The generation and maintenance of membrane potential is a fundamental part of Membrane Pump Theory. One of the key points of this hypothesis is based on a natural or facilitated molecular diffusion through several types of ion channels and pumps like the Na/K ATPase. Chemistry, physics and especially electrochemistry, however, bring strong contradictions to this theoretical assumption. By respecting the principles of chemistry and electrostatics, it becomes obvious that this theoretical hypothesis cannot work. The ionic diffusion that would be at the origin of this potential cannot take place. Indeed, the topology and the forces involved definitively exclude the current model, which must absolutely be revised according to the current state of our knowledge and allow an advance in the understanding of the phenomena and open new research perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0475.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: axon, neuron, electric circuit, capacitance , biophysics, HH model
Online: 18 June 2021 (11:08:11 CEST)
The most common and taught membrane theory assumes that the membrane behaves as a kind of electrical capacitance that is exposed to an electrical current generated by an ionic flow. If this statement is verifiable, it can be confirmed by the laws of physics, mathematics and in particular electricity. We will demonstrate that this hypothesis is not verified and that it is necessary to modify biophysics according to already established and experimentally verified principles of physics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0356.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cell model; Bernstein; Nernst equation; membrane potential; GHK equation; HH model
Online: 14 June 2021 (11:50:34 CEST)
The cellular model we teach and have theorized assumes that the cell is the basic unit of multicellular living beings. This fundamental element has been the subject of many theories concerning its properties and the exchanges that exist with its environment. In this article, we demonstrate that certain functional aspects, in particular the electrical aspects related to diffusion, have not been correctly assumed or that certain initial conditions have been purely ignored and are in contradiction with physics, chemistry and thermodynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0529.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: membrane potential; Nernst; Bernstein; action potential; propagation; theory
Online: 9 September 2020 (09:24:15 CEST)
Man has always been interested in animal electricity, which seems to be measured in every living cell. He has been fascinated by trying to elucidate the mechanisms by which this potential is created and maintained. Biology is the science that seeks to explain this mystery. Biology is based on basic sciences such as physics or chemistry. The latter, in turn, make systematic use of mathematics to measure, evaluate and predict certain phenomena and to develop "laws" and models that are as general as possible while respecting, as closely as possible, observations and facts. The Nernst equation was one of the pillars of electrochemistry. Biology also uses this same equation as one of the indispensable bases for the computation of membrane potential. Man has established a cellular model that highlights this equation in several forms. However, we are going to show by various means that this model is inadequate or even inapplicable.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: axon; neuron; saltatory conduction; action potential; impulse propagation; HH model
Online: 30 August 2020 (18:39:44 CEST)
For more than 70 years, biologists and biophysicists have been trying to unravel the mystery that exists regarding the saltatory conduction of so-called myelinated neurons. Albert Einstein used the train metaphor to explain the theory of relativity. It is possible to use a similar metaphor to better understand this transient functioning of the neuron: the action potential. We will, once again, use a train to demonstrate unequivocally that the action potential does not jump from node of Ranvier to node of Ranvier (noR) as we thought it would. It is possible to describe that the neuron uses an elegant method to increase the speed of transmission of the neural message. It is also important to conclude that this increase in speed, contrary to the common idea, has a certain energy cost that is proportional to speed and in accordance with thermodynamics.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: membrane potential, constant electric field , resting potential, action potentia, GHK eq., HH model
Online: 22 June 2021 (16:03:03 CEST)
An embryonic version of membrane theory can be date back to the Bernstein's work reported more than a hundred years ago. Such an originally old work has evolved conceptually and mathematically up until today, and it plays a central role in current membrane theory. Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation (GHK eq.) is one of the math-based monumental works, which constitutes the present membrane theory. Goldman theoretically derived GHK eq., but its physiological meaning was provided by the two renowned scientists, Hodgkin and Katz. These two employed an assumption that the electric field (EF) across the plasma membrane is constant to validate the GHK eq. physiologically. Proposal of Hodgkin-Huxley model (HH model) is another math-based monumental works developed from the membrane theory and now forms a fundamental part of the current membrane theory. GHK eq. and HH model are quite fundamental central concepts in the current physiology. Despite the broad acceptance of GHK eq. at present time, its prerequisite that the EF within the plasma membrane is constant is hardly believable. Especially when the action potential is generated, it sounds totally nonsense. Furthermore, the existence of constant EF within the plasma membrane is conceptually almost in conflict with the HH model. The authors will discuss those problematic issues the membrane theory inherits.