ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0421.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Bessel beams; Speckles; Imaging; Holography; Incoherent optics
Online: 27 July 2022 (10:38:52 CEST)
Speckle patterns are formed by random interferences of mutually coherent beams. While speckles are often considered as an unwanted noise in many areas, they also formed the foundation for the development of numerous speckle-based imaging, holography and sensing technologies. In the recent years, artificial speckle patterns have been generated with spatially incoherent sources using static and dynamic optical modulators for advanced imaging applications. In this report, a fundamental study has been carried out with Bessel distribution as the fundamental building block of the speckle pattern: speckle patterns formed by randomly interfering Bessel beams. Indirect computational imaging framework has been applied to study the imaging characteristics. In general, Bessel beams have a long focal depth, which in this scenario is counteracted by the increase in randomness enabling tunability of the axial resolution between the limits of Bessel beam and a Gaussian beam. Three-dimensional computational imaging has been synthetically demonstrated. The presented study will lead to a new generation of incoherent imaging technologies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0009.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Holography; diffractive optics; incoherent optics; Fresnel incoherent correlation holography; Imaging; speckle
Online: 1 December 2020 (09:55:45 CET)
Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) is a well-established incoherent imaging technique. In FINCH, three self-interference holograms are recorded with calculated phase differences between the two interfering, differently modulated object waves and projected into a complex hologram. The object is reconstructed without the twin image and bias terms by a numerical Fresnel back propagation of the complex hologram. A modified approach to implement FINCH by a single camera shot by pre-calibrating the system involving recording of the point spread function library and reconstruction by a non-linear cross-correlation has been introduced recently. The expression of the imaging characteristics from the modulation functions in original FINCH and the modified approach by pre-calibration in spatial and polarization multiplexing schemes are reviewed. The study reveals that a reconstructing function completely independent of the function of the phase mask is required for the faithful expression of the characteristics of the modulating function in the image reconstruction. In polarization multiplexing method by cross-correlation, a partial expression was observed, while in spatial multiplexing method by cross-correlation, the imaging characteristics converged towards a uniform behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0514.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nano-alloy; Si-Cr; Si nano-needles; sub-100 nm; nanoscale
Online: 27 December 2022 (08:41:50 CET)
Ultra-short 230 fs laser pulses of 515 nm wavelength were tightly focused into 700 nm focal spots and utilised in opening ~ 400 nm nano-holes in a Cr etch mask that was tens-of-nm thick. Nano-holes ablated at slightly above the threshold of ablation irradiance became nano-disks and nano-rings at slightly lower pulse energies. Subtle sub-1 nJ pulse energy control was harnessed to pattern large surface areas with controlled nano-alloying of Si and Cr. This technique is extendable to vacuum-free large area patterning of nanolayers by alloying them at distinct locations with sub-diffraction resolution. Such metal masks with nano-hole opening can be used for formation of random patterns of nano-needles with sub-100 nm separation when applied to dry etching of Si.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0242.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: coded aperture imaging; Lucy-Richardson-Rosen algorithm; computational imaging; digital ho-lography; diffractive optics; microscopy
Online: 3 August 2023 (08:26:01 CEST)
Coded aperture 3D imaging techniques have been rapidly evolving in the recent years. The two main directions of evolution are in aperture engineering to generate the optimal optical field and in development of computational reconstruction to reconstruct the object’s image from the intensity distribution with a minimal noise. The goal is to find the ideal aperture-reconstruction method pair and if not, to optimize one to match the other for designing an imaging system with required 3D imaging characteristics. Lucy-Richardson-Rosen algorithm (LR2A), a recently developed computational reconstruction method was found to perform better than its predecessors such as matched filter, Weiner filter, phase-only filter, Lucy-Richardson algorithm and non-linear reconstruction (NLR) for certain apertures when the point spread function (PSF) is a real and symmetric function. For other cases of PSF, NLR performed better than the rest of the methods. In this tutorial, LR2A has been presented as a generalized approach for any optical field along with MATLAB codes for reconstruction of any image when the PSF is known. The common problems and pitfalls in using LR2A has been discussed. Simulation and experimental studies for common optical fields such as spherical, Bessel, vortex beams and exotic optical fields such as Airy, scattered and self-rotating beams have been presented. From this study, it can be seen that it is possible to transfer the 3D imaging characteristics from non-imaging type exotic fields to indirect imaging systems faithfully using LR2A. The application of LR2A to medical images such as colonoscopy images and cone beam computed tomography images with synthetic PSF has been demonstrated. We believe that the tutorial will provide a deeper understanding of computational reconstruction using LR2A.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0505.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: ATR, THz, synchrotron radiation, diagnostics, polariscopy, four polarisation method
Online: 21 June 2021 (11:28:36 CEST)
Capabilities of the Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) at THz wavelengths for increased sub-surface depth characterisation of (bio-)materials is presented. The penetration depth of a THz evanescent wave in biological samples is dependent on the wavelength and temperature and can reach 0.1-0.5 mm depth due to strong refractive index change ∼0.4 of the ice-water transition; this is quite significant and important when studying biological samples. Technical challenges are discussed when using ATR for uneven, heterogeneous, high refractive index samples with possibility of frustrated total internal reflection (a breakdown of the ATR reflection-mode into transmission-mode). Local field enhancements at the interface are discussed with numerical/analytical examples. Maxwell’s scaling was used to model behaviour of absorber-scatterer inside materials at the interface with ATR prism for realistic complex refractive indices of bio-materials. Modality of ATR with polarisation analysis is proposed and its principle illustrated, opening an invitation for its experimental validation. The sensitivity of the polarised ATR mode to the refractive index between the sample and ATR prism is revealed. Design principles of polarisation active optical elements and spectral filters are outlined. The results and concepts are based on experiments carried out at the THz beamline of the Australian Synchrotron.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0281.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: diffractive lens; imaging; Lucy-Richardson-Rosen algorithm; holography; incoherent imaging; telescope; photolithography; computational imaging
Online: 15 November 2022 (07:52:16 CET)
Direct imaging systems that create an image of an object directly on the sensor in a single step are prone to many constraints as a perfect image is required to be recorded within this step. In designing high resolution direct imaging systems with a diffractive lens, the outermost zone width either reaches the lithography limit or the diffraction limit itself imposing challenges in fabrication. However, if the imaging mode is switched to an indirect one consisting of multiple steps to complete imaging, then different possibilities open up. One such methods is the widely used indirect imaging method with Golay configuration telescopes. In this study, a Golay-like configuration has been adapted to realize a large area diffractive lens with three sub-aperture diffractive lenses. The sub-aperture diffractive lenses are not required to collect light and focus them to a single point as in a direct imaging system but to focus independently on different points within the sensor area. This approach of Large Area Diffractive lens with Integrated Sub-Apertures (LADISA) relaxes the fabrication constraints and allows the sub-aperture diffractive elements to have a larger outermost zone width and smaller area. The diffractive sub-apertures were manufactured using photolithography. The fabricated diffractive element has been implemented in indirect imaging mode using non-linear reconstruction and Lucy-Richardson-Rosen algorithm with synthesized point spread functions. The computational optical experiments revealed an improved optical and computational imaging resolutions compared to previous studies.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0257.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Phase imaging, bioimaging; synchrotron; near infrared beam; holography; incoherent optics; chemical imaging; phase retrieval; 3D imaging.
Online: 18 October 2022 (08:28:25 CEST)
Phase imaging of biochemical samples has been demonstrated for the first time at the Infrared Microspectroscopy (IRM) beamline of the Australian Synchrotron using the usually discarded Near-IR (NIR) region of the synchrotron-IR beam. The synchrotron-IR beam at the Australian Synchrotron IRM beamline has a unique fork shaped intensity distribution as a result of the gold coated extraction mirror shape, which includes a central slit for rejection of the intense X-ray beam. The resulting beam configuration makes any imaging task challenging. For intensity imaging, the fork shaped beam is usually tightly focused to a point on the sample plane followed by a pixel-by-pixel scanning approach to record the image. In this study, a pinhole was aligned with one of the lobes of the fork shaped beam and the Airy diffraction pattern was used to illuminate biochemical samples. The diffracted light from the samples was captured using a NIR sensitive lensless camera. A rapid phase-retrieval algorithm was applied to the recorded intensity distributions to reconstruct the phase information corresponding to different planes. The preliminary results are promising to develop multimodal imaging capabilities at the IRM beamline of the Australian Synchrotron.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0280.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Polarisation; IR; fingerprint region; birefringence; dichroism; sculptured thin films; anisotropy
Online: 19 October 2021 (14:11:15 CEST)
Polarisation analysis in the mid-infrared fingerprint region was carried out on thin (∼1μm) Si and SiO2 films evaporated via glancing angle deposition (GLAD) method at 70∘ to the normal. Synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopic measurements were carried out on the Infrared Microspectroscopy (IRM) beamline at Australian Synchrotron. Specific absorption bands, particularly Si-O-Si stretching vibration, was found to follow the angular dependence of ∼cos2θ, consistent with the absorption anisotropy. This unexpected anisotropy stems from the enhanced absorption in nano-crevices, which have orientation following the cos2θ angular dependence as revealed by Fourier transforming the image of the surface of 3D columnar films and numerical modeling of light field enhancement by sub-wavelength nano-crevices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0043.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: THz filters; Synchrotron
Online: 4 July 2022 (09:26:05 CEST)
THz band-pass filters were fabricated by laser ablation of micro-foils of stainless steel and Kapton. Their spectral performance was tested in transmission and re- flection at the THz beamline at the Australian Synchrotron (AuSy). A 25 μm Kapton film performed as a Fabry-Pérot etalon with a free spectral range of FSR = 119 cm−1, high finesse Fc ≈ 17, and was tuneable over ~10 μm (at ~5 THz band) with β = 30° tilt. The structure of the THz beam focal region as extracted by the first mirror (slit) shows a complex polarisation-wavelength- position dependence across the beam. This is important for polarisation sensitive measurements (in transmission and reflection) and requires normalisation at each orientation of linear polarisation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1290.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: fraxicon; micro-optics; RGB; SZ2080™ resist; direct-laser-writing
Online: 21 November 2023 (10:42:14 CET)
Emerging applications of optical technologies are driving the development of miniaturised light sources, which in turn require the fabrication of matching micro-optical elements with sub-1 mm cross sections and high optical quality. This is particularly challenging for spatially-constrained biomedical applications where reduced dimensionality is required, such as endoscopy, optogenetics, or optical implants. Planarisation of a lens by the Fresnel lens approach was adapted for a conical lens (axicon) and was made by direct femtosecond 780 nm/100 fs laser writing in SZ2080™polymer with photo-initiator. Optical characterisation of the positive and negative fraxicons is presented. Numerical modeling of fraxicon optical performance under illumination by incoherent and spatially extended light sources is compared with the ideal case of plane wave illumination. Considering the potential for rapid replication in soft polymers and resists, this approach holds great promise for the most demanding technological applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0408.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: imaging; deblurring; deep learning; image classification; Lucy-Richardson algorithm; holography; aberrations; diffraction; incoherent optics; smart phone
Online: 23 February 2023 (09:49:26 CET)
Pattern recognition techniques form the heart of most, if not all, incoherent linear shift-invariant systems. When an object is recorded using a camera, the object information gets sampled by the point spread function (PSF) of the system, replacing every object point with the PSF in the sensor. The PSF is a sharp Kronecker Delta-like function when the numerical aperture (NA) is large with no aberrations. When the NA is small, and the system has aberrations, the PSF appears blurred. In the above case, if the PSF is known, then the object information can be obtained by scanning the PSF over the recorded object intensity pattern and looking for pattern matching conditions through a mathematical process called correlation. In this study, a recently developed deconvolution method, the Lucy-Richardson-Rosen algorithm (LR2A), has been implemented to computationally refocus images recorded in the presence of spatio-spectral aberrations. The performance of LR2A was compared against the Lucy-Richardson algorithm and non-linear reconstruction. LR2A exhibits a superior deconvolution capability even in extreme cases of spatio-spectral aberrations and blur. Experimental results of deblurring a picture captured using high-resolution smartphone cameras are presented. LR2A was implemented to significantly improve the performances of the widely used deep convolutional neural networks for image classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0010.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: imaging; incoherent optics; Lucy-Richardson-Rosen algorithm; deblurring; refractive lens; com-putational imaging; holography; 3D imaging; deconvolution
Online: 1 August 2022 (07:45:42 CEST)
A refractive lens is one of the simplest, cost-effective and easily available imaging elements. With a spatially incoherent illumination, a refractive lens can faithfully map every object point to an image point in the sensor plane, when the object and image distances satisfy the imaging conditions. However, static imaging is limited to the depth of focus, beyond which the point-to-point mapping can be only obtained by changing either the location of the lens or the imaging sensor. In this study, the depth of focus of a refractive lens in static mode has been expanded using a recently developed computational reconstruction method, Lucy-Richardson-Rosen algorithm (LRRA). The technique consists of three steps. In this first step, the point spread functions (PSFs) were recorded along different depths and stored in the computer as PSF library. In the next step, the object intensity distribution was recorded. The LRRA was then applied to deconvolve the object information from the recorded intensity distributions in the final step. The results of LRRA were compared against two well-known reconstruction methods namely Lucy-Richardson algorithm and non-linear reconstruction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0399.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Holography; computational imaging; non-linear reconstruction; Fresnel incoherent correlation holography; coded aperture imaging; rotating point spread function; diffractive optics; scattering.
Online: 30 May 2022 (11:37:04 CEST)
Indirect imaging methods involve at least two steps, namely optical recording, and computational reconstruction. The optical recording process uses an optical modulator that transforms the light from the object into a typical intensity distribution. This distribution is numerically processed to reconstruct the object’s image corresponding to different spatial and spectral dimensions. There have been numerous optical modulation functions and reconstruction methods developed in the past years for different applications. In most cases, a compatible pair of optical modulation function and reconstruction method gives optimal performance. A new reconstruction method termed non-linear reconstruction (NLR) was developed in 2017 to reconstruct the object image in the case of optical scattering modulators. During the years, it was revealed that the NLR could reconstruct an object’s image modulated by an axicons, bifocal lenses and even exotic spiral diffractive elements, which generate deterministic optical fields. Apparently, NLR seems to be a universal reconstruction method for indirect imaging. In this review, the performance of NLR has been investigated for many deterministic and stochastic optical fields. Simulation and experimental results for different cases are presented and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0416.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: X-rays; free electron laser (FEL); ultra-short phenomena; pump-probe; warm-dense matter; astrophotonics; co-axial volumetric interaction diagnostics
Online: 26 May 2020 (03:53:19 CEST)
We put forward a co-axial pump(optical)-probe(X-rays) experimental concept and show performance of the optical component. A Bessel beam generator with a central 100 micrometers-diameter hole (on the optical axis) was fabricated using femtosecond (fs) laser structuring inside a silica plate. This flat-axicon optical element produces a needle-like axial intensity distribution which can be used for the optical pump pulse. The fs-X-ray free electron laser (X-FEL) beam of sub-1 micrometer diameter can be introduced through the central hole along the optical axis onto a target as a probe. Different realisations of optical pump are discussed. Such optical elements facilitate alignment of ultra-short fs-pulses in space and time and can be used in light-matter interaction experiments at extreme energy densities on the surface and in the volume of targets. Full advantage of ultra-short 10 fs X-FEL probe pulses with fs-pump(optical) opens an unexplored temporal dimension of phase transitions and the fastest laser-induced rates of material heating and quenching. A wider field of applications of fs-laser-enabled structuring of materials and design of specific optical elements for astrophotonics is presented.