ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0524.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Vietnam; China; Vietnam - China border; tourism; cross-border tourism
Online: 30 August 2022 (11:32:48 CEST)
This article aims to identify the current development of cross-border tourism between Vietnam and China. The paper analyzes the perception and strategy of cross-border tourism development in the two countries, especially in the context of China’s implementation of the “Belt and Road Initiative” (BRI). The article emphasizes that Vietnam and China have recently made efforts to promote cross-border tourism development. At the same time, Vietnam and China see cross-border tourism development as a significant part of comprehensive border cooperation between the two countries. However, the development plans for cross-border tourism between the two countries are still mainly on the desk, not yet implemented effectively. Thus, its achievements are relatively modest. Besides, the article emphasizes that the interests of the people living in the border area, especially the Vietnam side, are almost “forgotten” in the development of cross-border travel between the two countries. Besides, the article also analyzes the challenges that the two sides are facing, especially the Vietnam side, in promoting the development of cross-border tourism between the two countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0556.v1
Online: 25 August 2020 (13:42:09 CEST)
This paper analyzes calorie consumption in Vietnam using the household survey data. The data suggest that food insecurity is still a major problem in Vietnam, with nearly 40 percent of the population being unable to meet their calorie requirement. Employing nonparametric and parametric estimation techniques, the paper examines the relationship between household calorie consumption and per capita household expenditure in Vietnam. The analysis indicates a positive and significant relationship between per capita expenditure and per capita calorie consumption. The mean calorie elasticity is estimated to be between 0.21 and 0.31 by the parametric method and 0.20 by non-parametric method. In addition, simulated income and food price changes indicate that undernutrition is very responsive to changes in income and food prices
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0887.v1
Online: 13 September 2023 (11:15:16 CEST)
This single case study aims to address a gap in literature regarding the establishment of microenterprises for people with physical disability in Vietnam. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven people with physical disability including the Director of a non-government organisation supporting six entrepreneurs with physical disability who were engaged in teaching English to school aged children after school. Data was analysed utilising Lingelbach, De La Vina and Asel’s (2005) three characteristics that improve probability of entrepreneurial success in developing countries. This framework aided in examining the approach of establishing microenterprises by the non-government organisation. The entrepreneurs with physical disability reported earnings above average wages and feeling empowered by participating in the microenterprises. These feelings of empowerment were reportedly associated with greater independence, increased self-efficacy and a confidence in planning for their futures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0680.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: sharing economy; model; impacts; Vietnam
Online: 1 September 2020 (12:08:06 CEST)
In recent years, there have been many new global companies investing and operating in Vietnam as a form of sharing economy (Uber, Grab, Foody, Agoda, Facebook, Google, etc). These kinds of economic models are popular in the world but very new in Vietnam. Sharing economy enterprises bring both benefit and challenges for Vietnam. Before time, there is no policy and law to govern the activities of these companies. So they make the challenges for the authority of Vietnam to manage. This paper will analyze the nature, characters, and impacts of the sharing economy in Vietnam. It also mentions the problems and recommends some solutions to manage the activities of sharing - economy companies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0325.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Delisting; stock returns; Vietnam stock market
Online: 6 October 2023 (09:02:17 CEST)
This paper aims to measure the effects of delisting on stock returns for Vietnam stock market. The study employs a sample of 118 stocks that were compulsorily delisted from the market between January 2011 and December 2021. Using an event study methodology, the empirical findings confirm that the delisting has negative effects on stock returns in the Vietnam stock market. Specifically, results derived from tests show that the average abnormal return of delisted stocks continuously declines during three trading days following the announcement of delisting. Moreover, it is found that the differences in cumulative abnormal returns between post-delisting and pre-delisting periods are significantly negative for all tracking periods. Apart from the negative effect of delisting on stock abnormal returns, we also find that the impact of delisting on stock returns for smaller companies is greater than bigger companies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1574.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Cost-utility; Covid-19; Molnupiravir; Vietnam; Utility
Online: 21 June 2023 (15:34:48 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has expanded globally and caused serious consequence in both health system and the economy. MPV is one of two oral antivirals for COVID-19 with mild-to-moderate symptoms that have received FDA approval so far. This study aims to evaluate the cost-utility of using MPV in COVID-19 treatment. To compare the utility costs of MPV and non-MPV treatments for COVID-19 patients, we used a decision tree model. Data on clinical efficacy, cost, and quality of life were gathered from previous studies. The incremental effective cost ratio (ICER) calculated based on costs incurred and quality-adjusted life years (QALY), was considered as primary out-come. The total cost of MPV treatment and not using MPV was 15,362,516 VND (618 USD) and 15,771,262 VND (634 USD), respectively. The estimated QALY with using-MPV was 28.33, while without MPV was 19.72. The ICER was dominant, resulting in savings of 47,453 VND/QALY (1.9 USD). MPV is a cost-effective medication used to treat COVID-19. In mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients, MPV considerably lowers costs and improves quality of life. However, several clinical factors of the drug still need to be taken into account.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0471.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: children; seroprevalence; antibodies; SARS-CoV-2; Vietnam
Online: 31 October 2022 (07:37:55 CET)
Background: The robustness of sero-surveillence has delineated the high burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children; however, these existing data showed wide variation. This study aimed to identify the serostatus of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and associated factors among children following the fourth pandemic wave in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Vietnam National Children’s Hospital (VNCH) between March 13 and April 3, 2022. 4,032 eligible children seeking medical care for any medical condition not related to acute Covid-19 infections was tested for IgG SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies by ADVIA Centaur® SARS-CoV-2 IgG (sCOVG) assay using the residuals of routine blood samples. Results: The median age of enrolled children was 39 (IQR=14-82) months. The overall seropositive prevalence was 59.2%, and the median antibody titer was 4.78 [IQR 2.38-9.57] UI/mL. The risk of seropositivity and the median antibody titer was not related to gender (58.6% versus 60.1%, 4.9 versus 4.6 UI/mL, all p>0.05). Among age groups, the highest seroprevalence was reported in the children aged 13 to <36 months old. Children aged ≤12 months were likely to be seropositive compared to children aged 36 to <60 months (59.2% versus 57.5%, p=0.49) and those aged ≥144 months (59.2% versus 65.5%, p=0.16). Children aged ≥144 months exhibited a significantly higher titer of protective COVID-19 antibodies than other age groups (p <0.001). In multivariate logistic regression, we observed independent factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity, including the age 13 to <36 months (OR=1.29, 95%CI=1.06-1.56, p=0.01), 60 to <144 months (OR=79, 95%CI=0.67-0.95, p=0.01), ≥144 months (OR=1.84, 95%CI=1.21-2.8, p=0.005), the presence of infected household members (OR=2.36, 95%CI=2.06–2.70, p<0.001), participants from Hanoi (OR=1.54, 95%CI=1.34-1.77, p<0.001), underlying conditions (OR=0.71, 95%CI=0.60-0.85, p<=0.001), and using corticosteroids or immunosuppressants (OR=0.64, 95%CI=0.48-0.86, p=0.003). Conclusions: This study highlights a high seroprevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among children seeking medical care for non-COVID-19-related conditions in a tertiary children’s hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. In the context of reopening in-person schools and future emerged COVID-19 variants, this point will also be a key message about the necessity of “rush-out” immunization coverage for children, especially those under the age of three years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0546.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Sustainable; cultural heritage; cultural tourism development; Vietnam
Online: 25 August 2020 (11:24:23 CEST)
This study presents the main ideas of sustainable cultural tourism development, a form of tourism associated with work discover and explore the culture of each region. It implies taking into account economic, environmental and socio-cultural aspects by tourism planning and management. The paper presents the historical background of the idea of sustainability, the factors that affect the sustainability of culture in tourism development. The author emphasizes the negative effects of tourism on cultural preservation that can be prevented by applying the principles of sustainable development; at the same time, propose solutions to balance economic development and cultural preservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0087.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: sustainable land management; adoption; risk; upland; Vietnam
Online: 8 October 2019 (10:50:40 CEST)
This study investigates how the determinants including risk preference affect farmers’ decision to adopt SLM practices in upland areas of Vietnam. Empirical data collected through in-depth interviews with 200 farmers in Na Ri district, Bac Kan province were used. The factors affecting SLM adoption of farmers in Na Ri district were examined by the 2SLS or IV-Probit model. The estimated 2SLS regression indicated that there is a set of factors affecting SLM adoption, namely, relative risk aversion, farming experience, farm size, knowledge of SLM, membership in farmers’ organization, number of labors, and slope of farm land. Specifically, relative risk aversion had a negative effect on SLM practices adoption. The farmers who are less risk averse are more likely to adopt more SLM practices. This implies that reducing farmer’ risk exposure could promote SLM practices. This result is also helpful for policymakers to understand farmers’ behaviors and promote the diffusion of SLM practices across regions on a large scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0291.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy efficiency; clustering analysis; allocation target; Vietnam
Online: 25 July 2019 (11:48:43 CEST)
In order to meet the national energy saving goals set in the Vietnam National Energy Efficiency Program in the period of 2019 – 2030 (VNEEP), the Vietnamese government has adopted a series solutions and policies to improve energy efficiency. The Vietnam’s 63 provinces will be as main actor for the national achievement in energy efficiency. Thus, understanding the province’s potentiality of energy efficiency is useful for the harmonious and sustainable development between the economy and energy systems. In this study, provincial and national data from General Statistic Office are analyzed in terms of the energy efficiency levels. With the trends of economic development and energy consumption in both national and regional levels, the Lorenz curve between Vietnamese energy consumption and GDP is investigated. The Lorenz coefficient shows the energy allocation is nether reasonable nor balanced. By using clustering method, the 63 provinces of Vietnam clustered into 7 groups that the provinces in the cluster has the similar indexes of energy efficiency i.e. ability, responsibility, potential and difficulty. The energy consumption and GDP are predicted in the period of 2019 – 2025. Based on the difference of GDP development and energy consumption levels, the target of energy efficiency for each province through clustering is set. The results show that 33 provinces included in the cluster 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 are heavy contribution. Among them, the provinces in the cluster 2 and 3 need to focus on the industry sector in their energy saving policy. The cluster 7 included the under-developed provinces can learn development’s experiences of the provinces in the cluster 1, 2, 3 and 4 to find the best way of their future development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0578.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Midlands and Northern Mountains, tourism linkage, Vietnam.
Online: 30 July 2018 (10:10:04 CEST)
This study was conducted to investigate the status of regional linkage in tourism development in in the Midlands and Northern Mountains of Vietnam. The data was collected from a survey of 755 people, including officials from State management bodies in charge of tourism, officials and staffs at tourism resorts, tourism firms, tourism scientists and tourists. In addition, we conducted 10 group discussions, interviewed 30 State tourism agency officials and tourism firms in the Midland and Mountainous provinces of Vietnam. The results show that tourism development in Vietnam in general and the Northwest region in particular is extremely fragmented, not yet forming a regional linkage; Regional and national tourism development programs are just formalistic. The main cause of the situation is the limited regional integration policy in Vietnam, the lack of appropriate regional governance mechanisms and inactive participation of the private sector in regional integration. Based on the findings, we propose a tourism sector linkage model; besides, policy implications are given for fulfilling the linkage policy in the Midlands and Northern Mountains area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0873.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Rural building; Remote sensing interpretation; Density; Distribution; Vietnam
Online: 14 November 2023 (10:18:49 CET)
The research on the distribution of rural buildings is one of the fundamental works of urban-rural development in Vietnam. Adopting Mask R-CNN deep learning framework and collecting sub-meter remote sensing images, this research used a remote sensing interpretation model of rural buildings trained based on East Asian characteristics of rural buildings and successfully recognized about 2.87 million rural buildings in 34 Vietnamese provincial administrative districts with a total area of rural buildings of 2,492 million square meters. The reliability of the identification results was verified by manual detection and quantitative statistics, and a multi-scale database of rural buildings in Vietnam based on individual rural buildings was created. Based on the database, this paper analyzes the distribution characteristics of rural buildings and summarizes characteristics of rural buildings distribution at the country, regional, and provincial scales. The identification results lay the foundation for the next study of urban-rural relations in Southeast Asia and the construction of a basic database on villages.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Mangroves; Forests policy; Policy implementation; Rehabilitation; Management; Vietnam
Online: 11 January 2021 (09:59:25 CET)
This article explored how some state policies on rehabilitation, protection and utilization of mangroves are implemented at two locals; namely, Ca Mau provice and its sub-unit Ngoc Hien District as well as Ho Chi Minh City and its sub-unit Can Gio District and what are considered as emgerging issues in the implementation process. The study employed mixed research methods including document and thematic analysis, in-depth interviews, and group discussion. The findings showed that state policies would be adapted through the ways in which these two locals manage to silmultaneously orient their work toward accommodating the madates placed upon them and cope with the reality of socio-economic difficulties at their levels. The findings also showed some issues that need to consider addressing; namely, locals’ struggles to fill the gaps between written and implemented policies in mangrove rehabilitation, conflict among sectors and stakeholders in mangrove utilization and protection, problems in guaranteeing adequate budget for in-need-locals, inconsistence in policies on "forest: water surface” ratio in mangrove-shrimp farm, and unintended consequences in forest thinning and exploitation regimes. Based on the finding analysis, the articles discussed lessons learned from the policy implementation process on mangrove rehabilitation, management and forest allocation to household in the south of Vietnam.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: allanite; REE; ore minerals; IOCG deposit; North Vietnam
Online: 3 December 2020 (10:58:03 CET)
Allanite minerals are the principal host of REEs in the Sin Quyen, Iron Oxide Copper Gold (IOCG) type deposit. The studied allanites have concentrations of: REE (14-27 wt%), Ca (9-16 wt%), Al (8-19 wt%), Si (26-34 wt%) and Fe (12-21 wt%). Two populations of allanite are documented, the first is texturally older probably related to the Ca-K alteration (second stage of crystallization). This population has higher REE concentrations ranging from 20 to 27 wt%, and the second population texturally younger has lower total REE concentration ranging from 14 to 19.9 wt%, which occur as a rim surrounding the older and likely arose during the K alteration with Cu-Au mineralization (third crystallization). Differences between the two allanite populations are documented by both optical properties and analysis of their chemical composition. The last parameter indicate that the studied allanites belong to the Ce-La-ferriallanite family, with low HREE with an average of 0.21 wt.%. Temperature 355ºC which was calculated using value of δ34S isotopes is interpreted as a temperature of the second crystallization stage of allanite. The pressure of crystallization solution was calculated and is ranging from 0.98 to 5.88 MPa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1678.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Economic evaluation; Cost-utility analysis; Glucosamine; Knee Osteoarthritis; Vietnam
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:18:22 CEST)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the degeneration of cartilage in joints that results in bones rubbing against each other, it causes uncomfortable symptoms such as pain, swelling, stiffness, and can lead to disability. It usually occurs in the elderly and causes a large medical burden. The aim of this study is to evaluate cost-effectiveness between the standard treatment for osteoarthritis and the standard treatment with added crystalline glucosamine sulfate at various stages. The Markov analysis modelling was applied to evaluate the effect of both adding glucosamine compared to standard treatment from a societal perspective during whole patients’ lifetimes. Data input was collected by review in previous studies. The outcome was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) from a societal perspective was ap-plied with 3%-discounted for all cost and outcome. One-way analysis via Tornado diagram was performed to investigate the change of factors in model. In general, the adding glucosamine into the standard treatment proved to be more cost-effectiveness compared to the standard treatment. Particularly, early stage adding glucosamine in the treatment was cost-effectiveness then post-stage adding glucosamine. The addition of supplementing crystalline glucosamine sulfate to whole regimen at any stage was cost-effectiveness at willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0240.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Credit constraints; Export; SMEs; Instrumental variable; Probit regression; Vietnam
Online: 18 May 2022 (10:35:32 CEST)
Export participation and restricted access to external formal credit are two factors attracting meticulous attention from researchers and policymakers, especially in developing countries. Exploring the interactive relationship of these factors in both the static and dynamic models is the purpose of this study. The study uses data sets from small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) in Vietnam for the period 2009 - 2015. The instrumental variable approach is implemented to deal with the endogenous variable problem in the model. The results show an effect of credit constraint on the firms’ exporting status, and continuous exports are likely to reduce the limit of credit constraint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0372.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: HIV; stigmatizing attitudes; women migrant workers; industrial zones; Vietnam
Online: 29 March 2022 (03:36:48 CEST)
Despite intensive HIV education and prevention efforts in the past years, stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH) remain a major barrier to HIV prevention and treatment efforts in Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of stigmatizing attitudes regarding HIV and identifying correlative factors that impact perceptions of PLWH among women migrant workers working in the industrial zones (IZ) in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1061 women migrant workers aged 18 to 29 from January to November 2020 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH were measured using a four-item scale. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with stigmatizing attitudes. Over seventy-six (76.2 %) of the participants reported having at least one of the four stigmatizing attitudes. Greater levels of stigmatizing attitudes toward PLH were significantly associated with lower HIV knowledge, lower education and being Kinh (the ethnic majority in Vietnam). A high level of stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among the study participants suggests that there is an urgent need for the development of appropriate culturally interventions and outreach education activities to reduce stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among women migrant workers working in the IZs in Vietnam.Despite intensive HIV education and prevention efforts in the past years, stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH) remain a major barrier to HIV prevention and treatment efforts in Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of stigmatizing attitudes regarding HIV and identifying correlative factors that impact perceptions of PLWH among women migrant workers working in the industrial zones (IZ) in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1061 women migrant workers aged 18 to 29 from January to November 2020 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH were measured using a four-item scale. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with stigmatizing attitudes. Over seventy-six (76.2 %) of the participants reported having at least one of the four stigmatizing attitudes. Greater levels of stigmatizing attitudes toward PLH were significantly associated with lower HIV knowledge, lower education and being Kinh (the ethnic majority in Vietnam). A high level of stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among the study participants suggests that there is an urgent need for the development of appropriate culturally interventions and outreach education activities to reduce stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among women migrant workers working in the IZs in Vietnam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0197.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Vietnam; Epidemiology; control; screening
Online: 11 May 2020 (13:02:32 CEST)
IntroductionThe aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology of all COVID-19 patients in Vietnam and to describe the measures of disease control and prevention implemented. MethodsData were recovered from Wikipedia regarding the 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Vietnam. The period covered was from 23 January to 20 April 2020. Descriptive analysis was stratified by gender, age, country of origin, travel history, clinical symptoms and outcome. A survey of disease control and prevention measures was conducted at the Centre for Disease Control in the Thai Binh province, which is responsible for screening and isolating individuals at high risk of COVID-19. ResultsAs of 20 April 2020, Vietnam had recorded 268 confirmed COVID-19 patients. 55.2% were female. 67.9% were aged 20-49 years and 82.5% were Vietnamese. 60.4% of cases were imported from outside Vietnam. Other cases were acquired in Vietnam by individuals in close contact with imported cases. Only one patient who had not travelled had had no known contact with a confirmed case. 63.1% of patients were asymptomatic. 75.7% of patients were discharged. No deaths were recorded. The Thai Binh CDC surveyed a total of 2,203 persons at risk of COVID-19. 336 persons (15.2%) were isolated at hospitals and 1,411 (64.0%) in dedicated isolation facilities. 16.4% reported at least one respiratory symptom. No positive cases confirmed by RT-PCR have been reported in the Thai Binh province to date. ConclusionThe effect of the systematic screening and isolation strategy made it possible to limit local transmission in Vietnam. Vietnam needs to reinforce diagnostic capacities, prevention measures and provide the necessary epidemiological data on which to base interventions. The wider use of rapid serological tests is also advisable in order to be able to conduct extensive screening in the community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0124.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis; efficiency; irrigation water; Robusta coffee; Vietnam
Online: 10 December 2019 (03:43:13 CET)
Recent prolonged dry periods and lack of irrigation water have severely affected the productivity of coffee farms’ in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. This paper analyzes the efficiency of irrigation water use for Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora) in Lam Dong province, Highlands, Vietnam. A Cobb-Douglas production function was used to determine coffee productivity’s response to the application of irrigation water and other production factors using data collected from 194 farmers while the Technical Efficiency (TE) and Irrigation Water Use Efficiency (IWUE) were analyzed using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. The correlation of different factors to IWUE was determined using the Tobit model. The production function analysis using Cobb-Douglas shows that the volume of irrigation water, amount of working capital, labor and farm size significantly influence coffee productivity. It also shows that indigenous farmers are more efficient in utilizing irrigation water than the (mostly Kinh) migrant farmers. The Tobit result, on the other hand. indicates that farmers’ experience, education level, distance of farm to water source, security of access to water source, extension contact and credit access significantly affect IWUE. The study findings further suggest that mitigating water shortages in coffee farms require sub-regional and national policy support such as better access to credit and extension services, training, land management and household-level effort to improve farming practices, through the application of appropriate technologies and traditional knowledge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0571.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Destination Social Responsibility; Tourists’ Emotions; Tourist Satisfaction; Hoi An, Vietnam
Online: 30 July 2018 (09:39:20 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to define destination social responsibility as a multidimensional construct and examine the relationships among DSR, tourists’ emotions, and their satisfaction through the lens of corporate social responsibility. A model was empirically tested with a sample of 359 random foreign tourists caught in Hoi An, Vietnam. The results indicate that all DSR dimensions, including economic, environmental, legal-ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities significantly enhance tourists’ emotions while only legal-ethical and philanthropic responsibilities directly affect tourists’ satisfaction. The findings also confirm the mediating effect of emotions between destination social responsibility and tourists’ overall satisfaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0035.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: landslide; classifier ensemble; instance based learning; Rotation Forest; GIS; Vietnam
Online: 4 May 2017 (08:25:12 CEST)
This study proposes a novel hybrid machine learning approach for modeling of rainfall-induced shallow landslides. The proposed approach is a combination of an instance-based learning algorithm (k-NN) and Rotation Forest (RF), state of the art machine techniques that have seldom explored for landslide modeling. The Lang Son city area (Vietnam) is selected as a case study. For this purpose, a spatial database for the study area was constructed, and then, was used to build and evaluate the hybrid model. Performance of the model was assessed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), area under the ROC curve (AUC), success rate and prediction rate, and several statistical evaluation metrics. The results showed that the model has high performance with both the training data (AUC = 0.948) and the validation data (AUC = 0.848). The results were compared with those obtained from soft computing techniques i.e. Random Forest, J48 Decision Trees, and Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks. Overall, the performance of the proposed model is better than those obtained from the above methods. Therefore, the proposed model is a promising tool for landslide modeling. The research result can be highly useful for land use planning and management in landslide prone areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0430.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Vietnam; dementia; older adult; quality of life; related factors; nursing home
Online: 6 December 2023 (15:39:13 CET)
Better understanding of the quality of life among nursing home residents with dementia is im-portant for developing interventions. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to examine factors associated with poor health-related quality of life in older adults with dementia living in nursing homes in Hanoi, Vietnam. In-person interviews were conducted with 140 adults 60 years and older with dementia and information about their quality of life was obtained using the Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease scale (QOL-AD). A number of sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with poor health-related quality of life (lowest tertile) were assessed through the results of physical tests, interviews with nursing home staff, and review of medical records. The average age of the study sample was 78.3 years, 65% were women, and their av-erage QOL-AD total score was 27.3 (SD = 4.4). Malnutrition, total dependence in activities of daily living, and urinary incontinence were associated with poor quality of life after controlling for multiple potentially confounding factors. Our findings show that Vietnamese nursing home residents with dementia have a moderate quality of life and interventions based on comprehen-sive geriatric assessment remain needed to modify risk factors associated with poor health-related quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0646.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: WHO-5 Well-being; COVID-19; social distancing; preventive measures; Vietnam
Online: 25 March 2021 (16:35:46 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictive measures implemented may considerably affect people’s lives. This study aimed to assess the well-being of Vietnamese people after COVID-19 lockdown measures were lifted and life gradually returned to normal. An online survey was organized from 21st to 25th April 2020 among Vietnamese residents aged 18 and over. Besides collecting socio-demographic and COVID-19-related data, the WHO-5 Well-Being Index (scored 0–25) was used to score participants’ well-being. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors of well-being. A total of 1922 responses were analyzed (mean age: 31 years; 30.5% male). Mean well-being score was 17.35±4.97. Determinants of high well-being score (≥13) included older age, eating healthy food, practising physical exercise, working from home, and adhering to the COVID-19 preventive measures. Female participants, persons worried about their relatives’ health, and smokers were more likely to have a low well-being score. In conclusion, after the lockdown measures were lifted, the Vietnamese people continued to follow COVID-19 preventive measures and most of them scored high on the well-being scale. Waiting to achieve large scale COVID-19 vaccine coverage, promoting preventive COVID-19 measures remains important, together with strategies to guarantee the well-being of the Vietnamese people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1646.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: low-carbon emission; low-carbon measures; logistics service providers; foreign invested; Vietnam
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:23:57 CEST)
Logistics industry has been found to be among the key sources of carbon emission. In Vietnam logistics industry, there is a considerable difference between the number of foreign and Vietnamese firms as well as the proportion of markets that they are taking. This study is to research the low-carbon emission measures conducted by domestic and foreign invested logistics service providers (LSPs) and compare the results of the two groups. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches are applied. Literatures in relevant fields are reviewed and expert opinions are taken for structuring a questionnaire which was later distributed to 279 LSPs, with 166 returned and 159 being valid for data calculation. The results imply that there are differences in extension of applications of low-carbon practices between foreign and domestic firms. Except for transport mode switch and energy-saving lighting, the other practices witness that adoption levels of foreign LSPs are higher than their counterparts, which is possibly thanks to their global operation, more comfortable capital resources and awareness level of green initiative necessity. In conclusion, a comparison between the application conducted by foreign-invested firms and domestic ones, which has not been investigated before, was made.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2098.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: chronic kidney disease; end-stage renal disease; dialysis; diabetes; frailty; elderly; Vietnam
Online: 29 June 2023 (10:16:12 CEST)
Background. There is limited evidence on the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and frailty in older people in Vietnam. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of frailty and its impact on mortality in older patients with end-stage renal disease. Method. This is a prospective, observational study at two large Dialysis Centres in Vietnam from November 2020 to June 2021. Consecutive older patients diagnosed with end-stage renal disease and on dialysis were recruited. Participants’ frailty status was defined by the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). The study outcome was all-cause mortality at 6th month. Results. A total of 175 participants were recruited (mean age 72.4 years, 58.9% female). Using the cut-point of CFS ≥4, 87.4% of the participants were frail. Mortality at 6th month was 14.9%, 31.9% in participants with CFS ≥7, 12.8% in participants with CFS=6, 7.5% in participants with CFS from 4 to 5, and 4.5% in participants with CFS ≤3 (p=0.001). Cox regression analysis showed that compared to the non-frail participants, the probability of death over 6 months was nearly 2-fold higher in the mildly frail, 3-fold higher in the moderately frail, and 9-fold higher in the severely frail participants. Conclusion. This study demonstrated a very high prevalence of frailty in older patients with end-stage renal disease and dialysis and the significant impact of frailty severity on mortality. Healthcare providers should consider incorporating frailty screening into routine care for older patients with end-stage renal disease and dialysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0092.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Heritage of Buddhism; religious heritage; tangible cultural heritage; intangible cultural heritage; Vietnam
Online: 5 March 2020 (12:16:31 CET)
In history and the present, Buddhism holds an important position in the spiritual life of Vietnamese people. For about two thousand years of existence and development with the Vietnamese people, Buddhism has left many valuable (tangible and intangible) heritage, has contributed a significant part in creating the cultural values of the nation. This research focuses on analyzing how did Buddhism creates heritages, how that Buddhism religion heritage becomes the cultural heritage of the Vietnamese people, the values that Buddhism religious heritage contributed to the culture of Vietnam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0759.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Eco-label; Customer; WTP; PLS-SEM; Cocoa powder; Biosphere reserve; Dong Nai; Vietnam.
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:10:32 CEST)
This study examines the Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) of consumers and the determinants of eco-labeling for the organic cocoa powder produced in the Dong Nai UNESCO Biosphere Reserve (DNBR), Southern Vietnam. Eco-labels are designed according to Tiers of eco-labeling for biosphere reserves (BR) introduced by UNESCO include BR Destination (Tier 1), BR Quality Label (Tier 2), and Professional Certification Label (Tier 3). Questionnaires are delivered to 203 customers in the DNBR and nearby places, such as Dong Nai and HCMC. This study employs a hybrid approach using descriptive statistics, ANOVA test, and Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM). The results indicate that gender and educational level have a positive effect on consumers' preferences. Customers are willing to pay more for cocoa powder with an eco-label than one with an organic label. Perceived food safety and product knowledge lower customers’ WTP, whereas agricultural environment and pricing concerns increase it. Tier 2 is suggested for labeling cocoa powder in the DNBR. The DNBR Management Board, together with the federal and provincial governments, should all follow a similar certification process. Increased eco-label awareness is crucial for the future of environmentally responsible shopping and responsible business practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0262.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: value chain analysis; medicinal plants; Jiaogulan; ethnic minority; NTFPs; geopark; transboundary landscape; Vietnam
Online: 19 October 2022 (03:21:58 CEST)
Non-timber forest products (NTFP) have contributed in various ways to the living, livelihoods, and trading of households and communities who live in rural and urban areas all over the world. This paper analyses the value chain of Jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum) in the Cao Bang Geopark, Vietnam. 106 actors were surveyed using a semi-structured questionnaire: experts (agricultural extension officers, farmers' associations), harvesters, traders, primary processors, processors, distributors, and consumers. The results show that a map of Jiaogulan value chain, value added of households in main market channels, and impact of value added and distribution of Jiaogulan products on household income.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Nepal; Vietnam; Bangladesh; gridded population sampling; GridSample; OpenStreetMap; GeoODK; cross-sectional design; urban; household survey
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:51:16 CEST)
Background: The methods used in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) household surveys have not changed in four decades; however, LMIC societies have changed substantially and now face unprecedented rates of urbanisation and urbanisation of poverty. This mismatch may result in unintentional exclusion of vulnerable and mobile urban populations. We compare three survey method innovations with standard survey methods in Kathmandu, Dhaka, and Hanoi, and summarize feasibility of our innovative methods in terms of time, cost, skill requirements, and experiences. Methods: We used descriptive statistics and regression techniques to compare respondent characteristics in samples drawn with innovative versus standard survey designs and household definitions, adjusting for sample probability weights and clustering. Feasibility of innovative methods was evaluated using a thematic framework analysis of focus group discussions with survey field staff, and via survey planner budgets. Results: We found that a common household definition excluded single adult (46.9%) and migrant headed households (6.7%), as well as non-married (8.5%), unemployed (10.5%), disabled (9.3%), and studying adults (14.3%). Further, standard two-stage sampling resulted in fewer single adult and non-family households than an innovative area-microcensus design; however, two-stage sampling resulted in more tent and shack dwellers. Our survey innovations provided good value for money and field staff experiences were neutral or positive. Staff recommended streamlining field tools and pairing technical and survey content experts during fieldwork. Conclusions: This evidence of exclusion of vulnerable and mobile urban populations in LMIC household surveys is deeply concerning, and underscores the need to modernize survey methods and practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0491.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: folk beliefs; ancestor worshiping belief; spiritual life; beliefs and religion life; Vietnamese people; Vietnam today
Online: 22 August 2020 (05:03:32 CEST)
In all forms of folk beliefs, ancestor worship is a universal traditional belief form of the Vietnamese people. As a Vietnamese people, “everyone worships their ancestors, everyone worships their parents and grandparent”. Ancestor worship is a common belief in the whole country. It is a belief that expresses the deeply humanistic spirit of the Vietnamese people and has great values in human life. So, what is the nature of ancestor worship? What is the values of ancestor worship in life? And in the context of globalization, how has this the belief changed? This study focuses on analyzing the above contents, thereby highlighting the value of this belief in the spiritual life of Vietnamese people; to point out the positive and negative changes of this belief in the current period; from that, take the right measures to bring into play the positive and limit the negative side of those changes in the spiritual life of Vietnamese people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1812.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Green building certification; green building movement; health co-benefits; sustainable buildings; transdisciplinary approach; users’ perspectives; urban health; Vietnam
Online: 25 May 2023 (14:13:06 CEST)
The health of urban citizens is defined by how their living environments are planned, built, and operated. These complex relations between health and the characteristics of built environments require system-orientated thinking and transdisciplinary interventions, yet have mainly been addressed using conventionally narrow sector-based approaches. This paper investigates the opportunities and challenges of the Vietnamese Green Building Movement (GBM) based on a transdisciplinary approach, with attention to additional health benefits of green buildings that are currently under-researched, while highlighting building users’ perspectives. Focusing on the perspectives of high-rise building residents, the paper examines transdisciplinary insights collected from six thematic webinars, expert interviews, and, in particular, from a household survey conducted in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Among other findings on opportunities and challenges for the Vietnamese GBM, the paper points out a challenging mismatch between the high importance homebuyers place on green building health benefits, and the focus of GBM stakeholders on GB energy-saving benefits- which are not necessarily homebuyers’ most pressing concerns. With this evidence-based inquiry, the paper concludes that improved health and well-being should be considered co-benefits of green buildings, along with energy efficiency. Importantly, this paper also brings attention to the necessity of a systemic and transdisciplinary approach in both academic and practical efforts toward the implementation of SDG3- to “ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all ages”- and SDG 11- “to make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable”.