ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0075.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Complete blood count; deep learning; segmentation; SegNet; Vgg-16
Online: 6 September 2019 (11:02:32 CEST)
Clinically, knowing the number of red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs) helps doctors to make the better decision on accurate diagnosis of numerous diseases. The manual cell counting is a very time-consuming and expensive process, and it depends on the experience of specialists. Therefore, a completely automatic method supporting cell counting is a viable solution for clinical laboratories. This paper proposes a novel blood cell counting procedure to address this challenge. The proposed method adopts SegNet - a deep learning semantic segmentation to simultaneously segment RBCs and WBCs. The global accuracy of the segmentation of WBCs, RBCs, and the background of peripheral blood smear images obtains 89% when segment WBCs and RBCs from the background of blood smear images. Moreover, an effective solution to separate grouped or overlapping cells and cell count is presented using Euclidean distance transform, local maxima, and connected component labeling. The counting result of the proposed procedure achieves an accuracy of 93.3% for red blood cell count using dataset 1 and 97.38% for white blood cell count using dataset 2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0983.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: brain tumor detection; VGG-16 model; convolutional neural network; MRI imaging; deep learning
Online: 14 August 2023 (08:34:12 CEST)
This article presents a study on brain tumor detection using the VGG-16 model, a convolutional neural network known for its performance in computer vision tasks. The aim of the study is to classify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and accurately identify the presence of brain tumors. The dataset used consists of brain tumor MRI images, categorized into two classes: "NO" (no tumor) and "YES" (tumor). The methodology involves setting up the environment, importing and preprocessing the data, building the VGG-16 model, and evaluating its performance using metrics such as accuracy, precision, and recall. The results demonstrate an accuracy of approximately 88% on the validation set and 80% on the test set, indicating the potential of the VGG-16 model in supporting healthcare professionals in diagnosing brain tumors. The study contributes to the field of medical image analysis and offers insights into the application of deep learning for brain tumor detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0320.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Ovarian Tumours; UNet; Convolutional Neural Networks; VGG 16; DenseNet; ResNet; Dice score; Jaccard score
Online: 13 April 2023 (10:50:53 CEST)
The difficulty in detecting tumors in earlier stages is the major cause of mortalities of patients, despite the advancements in treatment and research regarding ovarian cancer. Deep Learning algorithms are applied to serve the purpose of a diagnostic tool by applying them on CT scan images of the ovarian region. The images go through a series of pre-processing techniques and further the tumor is segmented using the UNet model. Instances are then classified into two categories – benign and malignant tumors. Classification is performed using Deep Learning models like CNN, ResNet, DenseNet, Inception-ResNet, VGG16 and Xception along with Machine Learning models such as Random Forest, Gradient Boosting, AdaBoosting, XGBoosting. DenseNet 121 emerges as the best model on this dataset even after applying optimization on the Machine Learning models by obtaining an accuracy of 95.7%. The current work demonstrates the comparison of multiple CNN architectures among themselves and with common Machine Learning algorithms, with and without optimization techniques applied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0311.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: meteor radar; quasi 16-day wave; mesospheric dynamics
Online: 19 December 2022 (02:51:19 CET)
In this study, we present more than 8 years of observations of the quasi-16-day wave (Q16DW) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) wind at middle latitudes observed by the Mengcheng (33.4°N, 116.5°E) meteor radar. The long-term variation in amplitudes calculated from the data between April 2014 and December 2022 shows enhanced wave activity during winter and early spring (near equinox) and suppressed wave activity during the summer. The Q16DWs are relatively weak in the meridional wind. During the winter months, the Q16DWs in the zonal component exhibit a burst below 85 km, and their amplitudes reach up to 10 m/s. In the early spring, the Q16DWs strengthen above 90 km with amplitudes in excess of 12 m/s. The phase differences between the zonal and meridional components of the Q16DW are, on average, slightly smaller than 90°, suggesting the existence of orthogonal relationships between them. During strong bursts, the periods of the Q16DW in winter range between 15 and 18 d, whereas in winter, the periods tend to be more diffuse. The wintertime Q16DW is amplified, on average, when the zonal wind shear peaks, suggesting that barotropic instability may be one source of Q16DW. Q16DW amplitudes exhibit considerable interannual variability; however, a relationship between the 11-year solar cycle and the Q16DW is not found.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: High-strength low-alloy steel; manufacturing process optimization; surrogate model; firefly algorithm; VGG model
Online: 13 May 2021 (16:05:33 CEST)
High-strength low-alloy steels (HSLAs) are widely used in the structural body components of many domestic motor vehicles owing to their better mechanical properties and greater resistance. The real production process of HSLA steelmaking can be regarded as a model that builds on the relationship between process parameters and product quality attributes. A surrogate modeling method is used, and the resulting production process model can be applied to predict the optimal manufacturing process parameters. We used different methods in this paper to build such a surrogate model, including linear regression, random forests, support vector regression, multilayer perception, and a simplified VGG model. We then applied three bio-inspired search algorithms, namely particle swarm optimization, the artificial bee colony algorithm, and the firefly algorithm, to search for the optimal controllable manufacturing process parameters. Through experiments on 9,000 test samples used for building the surrogate model, and 299 test samples for making the optimal process parameter selection, we found that the combination of a simplified VGG model and the firefly algorithm was the most successful at reaching a success rate of 100%—in other words, when the product quality attributes of all test samples satisfy the mechanical requirements of the end products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0390.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: caffeine; 16-O-methylcafestol; kahweol; furfuryl alcohol; tetramethylsilan (TMS); magnetic resonance spectroscopy; validation studies
Online: 30 November 2019 (10:20:17 CET)
Monitoring coffee quality as a means of detecting and preventing economically motivated fraud is an important aspect of international commerce today. Therefore, there is a compelling need for rapid high throughput validated analytical techniques such as quantitative proton NMR spectroscopy for screening and authenticity testing. For this reason, we sought to validate an NMR spectroscopic method for routine screening of coffee for quality and authenticity. A factorial experimental design was used to investigate the influence of NMR device, extraction time and nature of coffee on the content of caffeine, 16-O-methylcafestol (OMC), kahweol, furfuryl alcohol and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in coffee. The method was successfully validated for specificity, selectivity, sensitivity and linearity of detector response. The proposed method produced satisfactory precision for all analytes in roasted coffee, except for kahweol in canephora (robusta) coffee. The proposed validated method may be used for routine screening of roasted coffee for quality and authenticity control, as its applicability was demonstrated during the recent OPSON VIII Europol-Interpol operation on coffee fraud control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0122.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: IoT; ubiquitous healthcare; telehealth system; daily water usage; sleep monitoring; solitary 16 deaths; Node-RED
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:22:10 CEST)
Recently, the Internet of Things (IoT) has attracted wide attention from many fields, especially healthcare, because of its large capacities of information perception and collection. In this paper, we present an IoT-based home telehealth system for providing smart healthcare management for individuals, especially older people. Each client node of the system is mainly composed of an electronic water meter that records the user's daily water usage and an unobtrusive sleep sensor that monitors the user's physiological parameters during sleep such as heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), body movement (BM), and states on the bed or outside the bed. The sleep sensor senses the biosignals and states by a sensor matrix composed of 12 piezoelectric sensors. The collected data can be transmitted to a remote centralized cloud service by a wireless home gateway for analyzing the living pattern and rhythm of users. Furthermore, the periodic feedback of results can be provided to users themselves as well as their family and health advisers. In the present study, data collections from a total of 18 older subjects were made for one year to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed system. By analyzing living pattern and rhythm, preliminary results indicate the effectiveness of the telehealth system and suggest the potential of the system regarding improvement of quality of life (QoL) of older people and promotion of their health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: fault diagnosis; induction motors; wind energy generation; fourier transforms; spectral 16 analysis; spectrogram; transient regime
Online: 5 August 2019 (03:56:26 CEST)
Induction machines drive many industrial processes, and their unexpected failure can cause heavy production losses. The analysis of the current spectrum can identify online the characteristic fault signatures at an early stage, avoiding unexpected breakdowns. Nevertheless, frequency domain analysis requires stable working conditions, which is not the case for wind generators, motors driving varying loads, etc. In these cases an analysis in the time-frequency domain -such as a spectrogram- is required for detecting faults signatures. The spectrogram is built using the short frequency Fourier transform, but its resolution depends critically on the time window used to generate it: short windows provide good time resolution, but poor frequency resolution, just the opposite than long windows. Therefore, the window must be adapted at each time to the shape of the expected fault harmonics, by highly skilled maintenance personnel. In this paper, this problem is solved with the design of a new multi-band window, which generates simultaneously many different narrow-band current spectrograms, and combines them into a single, high resolution one, without the need of manual adjustments. The proposed method is validated with the diagnosis of bar breakages during the start-up of a commercial induction motor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1485.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle; Reconfigurable; Multi-mission; Computational Fluid Dynam- 16 ics; Additive Manufacturing; Finite Element Analysis
Online: 22 May 2023 (09:35:00 CEST)
The performance of a small reconfigurable unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is evaluated, 1 combining a multidisciplinary approach in computational analysis of additive manufactured struc- 2 tures, fluid dynamics, and experiments. Reconfigurable UAVs promise cost savings and efficiency 3 without sacrificing performance, while demonstrating versatility to fulfill different military mission 4 profiles. The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in UAV design produces higher accuracy 5 aerodynamic data, which is particularly important for complex aircraft concepts such as blended 6 wing bodies. To address challenges relating to anisotropic materials, the Tsai-Wu failure criterion is 7 applied to structural analysis, using CFD solutions as load inputs. Aerodynamic performance results 8 show the low-speed variant attains an endurance of 1 hour, 48 minutes, whereas for its high-speed 9 counterpart, it is 29 minutes at 66.7% higher cruise speed. Each variant serves different aspects of 10 small UAS deployment in combat, with low-speed envisioned for close surveillance, and high-speed 11 for incursions. Experimental and simulation results suggest room for design iteration, in wing area 12 and geometry adjustments. Structural simulations demonstrated the need for airframe improvements 13 in the low-speed configuration. This paper highlights the potential of reconfigurable UAVs to disrupt 14 the industry, advocating for further research and design improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Educational action research; unregistered community design; shared intellectual property; cooperative learning; K-16 students; net-zero emissions
Online: 6 March 2023 (04:35:22 CET)
Education is one of the most important tools available to policymakers and non-governmental bodies to promote a change in the behavior of society and to address the climate crisis, in line with the 4th and 13th Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations 2030 Agenda. Project-based learning (PBL) addresses real and global challenges and allows the academic and professional formation of students. As part of the reflection stage of the educational action research method using the Business Canvas Model (BMC), pedagogic deficiencies were identified in the PBL and a didactic proposal was elaborated to emulate the interaction of students with the ecosystems of society. A prototype for improving the management of organic manures as soil amendments was initially developed, to provide the students with a quick start on the first steps of the proposed project. In the 10 sessions designed for the PBL (Make it happen!), the students elaborate a more sophisticated artifact in response to the demands of potential clients, as per the outcomes of the primary market research (5th session). Active teaching methods and tools, such as a modified template of the BMC with the Rumsfeld’s matrix, aid the metacognition of students and their competences development. In a double session of the PBL, the primary market research is organized with key stakeholders of the agroindustry to enquire about the feasibility of the implementation of the technological solution and the logistics at farm level. Finally, the evaluation relies on the suitability of the upgraded prototype to respond customers’ demands.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Buildings; earthquake safety assessment; extreme events; urban sustainability; seismic 16 assessment; rapid visual screening; reinforced concrete buildings
Online: 6 February 2020 (10:50:33 CET)
Earthquake is among the most devastating natural disasters causing severe economic, environmental, and social destruction. Earthquake safety assessment and building hazard monitoring can highly contribute to urban sustainable development through identification and insight into optimum materials and structures. While the vulnerability of structures mainly depends on the structural resistance, the safety assessment of buildings can be highly challenging. In this paper, we consider Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) method which is a qualitative procedure for estimating structural scores for buildings suitable for medium- to high-seismic cases. This paper presents an overview of the common RVS methods, i.e., FEMA P-154, IITK-GGSDMA, and EMPI. To examine the accuracy and validation, a practical comparison is performed between their assessment and observed damage of reinforced concrete buildings from a street survey in the Bingöl region, Turkey, after the 11 May 2003 earthquake. The results demonstrate that the application of RVS methods for preliminary damage estimation is a vital tool. Furthermore, the comparative analysis showed that FEMA P-154 creates an assessment that overestimates damage states and is not economically viable while EMPI and IITK-GGSDMA provide for more accurate and practical estimation, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0766.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: PAM; Passive acoustic monitoring; audio classiﬁcation; texture classiﬁcation; PAM- 16 ﬁlter; experimental protocols for audio classiﬁcation; statistical tests.
Online: 29 April 2021 (07:55:09 CEST)
Abstract: Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is a non-invasive technique to supervise the wildlife. Acoustic surveillance is preferable in some situation such as in the case of marine mammals, when the animals spend most of their time underwater, making it hard to obtain their images. Machine learning is very useful for PAM, for example, to identify species based on audio recordings. But some care should be taken to evaluate the capability of a system. We deﬁne PAM-ﬁlters as the creation of the experimental protocols according to the dates and locations of the recordings, aiming to avoid the use of the same individuals, noise and recording devices in both training and test sets. A random division of a database present accuracies much higher than accuracies obtained with protocols generated with PAM-ﬁlter. Although we use the animal vocalizations, in our method we convert the audio into spectrogram images, after that, we describe the images using the texture. Those are well-known techniques for audio classiﬁcation, and they have already been used for species classiﬁcation. Also, we perform statistical tests to demonstrate the signiﬁcant difference between accuracies generated with and without PAM-ﬁlters with several well-known classiﬁers. The conﬁguration of our experimental protocols and the database were made available online.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0634.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: OSCC; oral cancer; genes; mutations; miRNA; expression; mir-34a; mir-155; mir-124; mir-1; mir-16; bioinformatics; in silico analysis
Online: 11 July 2023 (04:16:04 CEST)
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most prevalent human malignancies and a global health concern with a poor prognosis despite therapeutic advances, highlighting the need for a better understanding of its molecular background. The genomic landscape of OSCC is well-established and recent research has focused on miRNAs, which regulate gene expression and may be useful as non-invasive biomarkers. A plethora of findings regarding miRNA expression have been generated, posing challenges for their interpretation and identification of disease-specific molecules. Hence, we opted to identify the most important miRNA molecules by bridging genetics and epigenetics, focusing on the key genes implicated in OSCC development. Based on published reports, we have developed a custom panel of 15 major oncogenes and a second panel of 5 major tumor suppressor genes. Following a miRNA/target interaction analysis and a comprehensive study of the literature, we selected the miRNA molecules, which target the majority of each gene panel and are reported to be downregulated or upregulated in OSCC, respectively. As a result, miR-34a-5p, miR-155-5p, miR-124-3p, miR-1-3p and miR-16-5p appeared to be the most OSCC-specific. Their expressional patterns, their verified targets and the signaling pathways affected by their dysregulation in OSCC, are thoroughly discussed in this review.