ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0094.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Blockchain; Cryptography; DApp; Health Data; Privacy.
Online: 7 September 2022 (03:06:09 CEST)
With the fast development of blockchain technology in latest years, its application in scenarios that require privacy, such as health area, became encouraged and widely discussed. This paper presents an architecture to ensure the privacy of health-related data, which are stored and shared within a blockchain network in a decentralized manner, through the use of encryption with the RSA, ECC and AES algorithms. Evaluation tests were performed to verify the impact of cryptography on the proposed architecture in terms of computational effort, memory usage and execution time. The results demonstrate an impact mainly on the execution time and on the increase in the computational effort for sending data to the blockchain, however, justifiable considering the privacy and security provided with the architecture and encryption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: No-show; Medical Appointments; Healthcare; Artificial Intelligence; Data processing and management
Online: 1 September 2022 (08:57:07 CEST)
No-show appointments in healthcare is a problem faced by medical centers around the world, and understand the factors associated with the no-show behavior is essential. In the last decades, artificial intelligence took place in the medical field and machine learning algorithms can work as a efficient tool to understand the patients behavior and to achieve better medical appointment allocation in scheduling systems. In this work, we provide a systematic literature review (SLR) of machine learning techniques applied to no-show appointments aiming at establishing the current state-of-the-art. Based on a SLR following the Kitchenham methodology, 24 articles were found and analyzed, in which the characteristics of the database, algorithms and performance metrics of each studies were synthesized. Results regarding which factors have a higher impact on missed appointment rates were analyzed too. The results indicate that the most appropriate algorithms for building the models are decision tree algorithms. Furthermore, the most significant determinants of no-show were related to the patients age, whether the patient missed a previous appointment, and the distance between the appointment and the patients scheduling.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0031.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: LSTM; GMDH; ANFIS; Ensemble Learning Models; Wavelet; Time Series Forecasting
Online: 2 August 2022 (03:50:14 CEST)
To improve the monitoring of the electrical power grid it is necessary to evaluate the influence of contamination in relation to leakage current and its progression to a disruptive discharge. In this paper, insulators were tested in a saline chamber to simulate the increase of salt contamination on their surface, and to evaluate the supportability of these components. From the time series forecasting of the leakage current, it is possible to evaluate the development of the fault before a flashover occurs. Choosing which method to use is always a difficult task since some models may have higher computational effort. In this paper, for a complete evaluation, the long short-term memory (LSTM), group method of data handling (GMDH), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), bootstrap aggregation (bagging), sequential learning (boosting), random subspace, and stacked generalization (stacking) ensemble learning models are analyzed. A review and comparison of these well-established methods for time series forecasting is performed. From the results of the best structure of the model, the hyperparameters are evaluated and the Wavelet transform is used to obtain an enhanced model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0698.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Accidents, Data Analysis, Machine Learning, Transport
Online: 28 May 2021 (11:59:24 CEST)
Daily thousands of people and goods move along Brazilian Federal highways. Traffic accidents are numerous on these highways and have a significant impact, whether on the economy or the health system. Identifying predictor variables, the probability of an event occurring and how to mitigate them are of paramount importance for the actions of the transit authorities that manage these roads. The main contribution of this study is the development of a predictive machine learning model which uses open data to shows graphically the critical points in the highways. This model is fully reproducible and can be applied to any region worldwide helping to minimize the number of accidents and to prevent deaths by automotive collisions. For this study, 43 variables were analyzed supporting the identification of the causes of accidents with fatal victims on the main highways in the south of Brazil. RoadLytics is proposed as a supervised machine learning model, using the Random Forest algorithm to analyze about 33 thousand occurrences between 2017 and 2020. An exploratory analysis of the data was carried out to support the modeling and to facilitate data visualization. In this sense, heat maps were developed to support the analysis and identification of potential risk areas. The results show that BR386 highway registers the highest number of fatal occurrences, regardless of the season. Additionally, concerning the weather conditions, the analysis shows that 52% of accidents occurred in favorable conditions, such as clear skies, victimizing 501 people. The driver’s lack of attention is the main reason for the accidents’ occurrences. Applying the developed model, an accuracy of 77% was achieved for the classification of fatal accidents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0630.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Smart Farm; Smart Systems; Machine Learning; Multispectral Image; Clay.
Online: 26 May 2021 (11:03:37 CEST)
The present work proposed a low-cost portable device as an enabling technology for Smart Farms using multispectral imaging and Machine Learning in soil texture. Clay is an important factor for the verification and monitoring of soil use due to its fast reaction to chemical and surface changes. The system developed uses the analysis of reflectance in wavebands for clay prediction. The selection of each wavelength is performed through an LED lamp panel. A NoIR microcamera controlled by a Raspberry Pi device is employed to acquire the image and unfold it in RGB histograms. Results showed an good prediction performance with R2 of 0.96, RMSEC of 3.66% and RMSECV of 16.87%. The high portability allows the equipment to be used in a field providing strategic information related to soil sciences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0378.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: NCM classification; natural language processing; transformers; multilingual BERT; portuguese BERT; NLP; BERT
Online: 22 November 2021 (10:59:43 CET)
The classification of goods involved in international trade in Brazil is based on the Mercosur Common Nomenclature (NCM). The classification of these goods represents a real challenge due to the complexity involved in assigning the correct category codes especially considering the legal and fiscal implications of misclassification. This work focuses on the training of a classifier based on Bidirectional En-coder Representations from Transformers (BERT) for the tax classification of goods with NCM codes. In particular, this article presents results from using a specific Portuguese Language tuned BERT model as well results from using a Multilingual BERT. Experimental results justify the use of these models in the classification process and also that the language specific model has a slightly better performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0161.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Machine Learning; IoT; Ubiquitous Computing; Wearables; Cardiovascular Diseases.
Online: 11 October 2021 (14:03:09 CEST)
This article presents a systematic mapping study dedicated to conduct a literature review on machine learning and IoT applied in the identification of diseases through heart sounds. This research was conducted between January 2010 and July 2021, considering IEEE Xplore, PubMed Central, ACM Digital Library, JMIR- Journal of Medical Internet Research, Springer Library, and Science Direct. The initial search resulted in 4,372 papers, and after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 58 papers were selected for full reading to answer the research questions. The main results are: of the 58 articles selected, 46 (79.31%) mention heart rate observation methods with wearable sensors and digital stethoscopes, and 34 (58.62%) mention care with machine learning algorithms. The analysis of the studies based on the bibliometric network generated by the VOSviewer showed in 13 studies (22.41%) a trend related to the use of intelligent services in the prediction of diagnoses related to cardiovascular disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0342.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Data Science; HealthCare Applications; Machine Learning; Patient Attitudes
Online: 20 September 2021 (15:51:54 CEST)
Today, across the most critical problems faced by hospitals and health centers are those caused by the existence of patients who do not attend their appointments. Among others, this practice generates waste of resources and increases the patients’ waiting list. To handle these problems, hospitals are actively trying to implement methods to reduce the idle time caused by patient no-shows. Many scheduling systems developed require predicting whether a patient will show up for an appointment or not. Although, a challenging problem resides in obtaining these estimates precisely. The goal of this work is to analyze how objective factors influence a patient not to attending their appointment, to identify the main causes that contribute to a patient’s decision, and to be able to predict whether or not the patient will attend the scheduled appointment. As a result, the obtained model is tested on a real dataset collected in a health center linked to the University of Vale do Itajaí (UNIVALI), which includes 25 features and about 5000 samples. The algorithm that produced the best results for the available dataset is the Random Forest classifier. It reveals the best recall rate (0.91), since it measures the ability of a classifier to find all the positive instances and achieves a receiver operating characteristic curve rate of 0.969.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0282.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Classification of insulators; Electrical power system; k-Nearest neighbors; Computer vision.
Online: 13 August 2021 (11:45:50 CEST)
The contamination on the insulators may increase its surface conductivity and, as a consequence, electrical discharges occur more frequently, which can lead to interruptions in the power supply. To maintain reliability in the electrical distribution power system, components that have lost their insulating properties must be replaced. Identifying the components that need maintenance, is a difficult task as there are several levels of contamination that are hardly noticed during inspections. To improve the quality of inspections, this paper proposes to use the k-nearest neighbours (k-NN) to classify the levels of insulator contamination, based on the image of insulators at various levels of contamination simulated in the laboratory. Using computer vision features such as mean, variance, asymmetry, kurtosis, energy, and entropy are used for training the k-NN. To assess the robustness of the proposed approach, statistical analysis and a comparative assessment with well-consolidated algorithms such as decision tree, ensemble subspace, and support vector machine models are presented. The k-NN showed results of up to 85.17 % accuracy using the k-fold cross-validation method, with an average accuracy higher than 82 % for multi-classification of the contamination of the insulators, being superior to the compared models.
Online: 15 December 2019 (13:54:37 CET)
Smart Grid systems have become popular and necessary for the development of a sustainable power grid. These systems use different technologies to provide optimized services to the users of the network. Regarding computing, these systems optimize electrical services by processing a large amount of data generated. However, privacy and security are essential in this kind of system. With a large amount of data generated, it is necessary to protect the privacy of users, because this data may reveal users’ personal information. Today, blockchain technology has proven to be an efficient architecture for solving privacy and security problems in different scenarios. Over the years, different blockchain platforms have emerged, attempting to solve specific problems in different areas. However, the use of different platforms fragmented the market, which was no different in the smart grid scenario. This work proposes a blockchain architecture that uses sidechains to make the system scalable and adaptable. We used three blockchains to ensure privacy, security, and trust in the system. To universalize the proposed solution, we used the OSGP protocol and smart contracts. The results show that architecture security and privacy are guaranteed, making it feasible for implementation in real systems. Although scalability issues regarding the storage of data generated still exists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0306.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: AIoT; Artificial Intelligence; Assistive Technology; Deep Learning; Machine Learning
Online: 20 September 2022 (10:45:15 CEST)
According to the World Health Organization, about 15% of the world’s population has some form of disability. Assistive Technology, in this context, contributes directly to the overcoming of difficulties encountered by people with disabilities in their daily lives, allowing them to receive education and become part of the labor market and society in a worthy manner. Assistive Technology has made great advances in its integration with Artificial Intelligence of Things (AIoT) devices. AIoT processes and analyzes the large amount of data generated by IoT devices and applies Artificial Intelligence models, specifically Machine Learning, to discover patterns for generating insights and assisting in decision making. Based on a systematic literature review, this article aims at identifying the Machine Learning models used in multiple different research about Artificial Intelligence of Things applied to Assistive Technology. The survey of the topics approached in this article also highlights the context of such research, their application, IoT devices used, and gaps and opportunities for further development. Survey results show that 50% of the analyzed research address visual impairment, and for this reason, most of the topics cover issues related to computational vision. Portable devices, wearables, and smartphones constituted the majority of IoT devices. Deep Neural Networks represent 81% of the Machine Learning models applied in the reviewed research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0294.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Financial Investment; Machine Learning; Artificial Intelligence.
Online: 20 September 2022 (05:45:26 CEST)
To support the decision making process of new investors, this paper aims to implement Machine Learning algorithms to generate investment indications. Three artificial intelligence techniques were implemented, namely: Multilayer Perceptron, Logistic Regression and Decision Tree, which performed the classification of investments. The results of the different algorithms were compared to each other using the metrics: accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score. The Decision Tree was the algorithm that obtained the best classification metrics and an accuracy of 77%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0456.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: children; digital games; executive function; motor skills.
Online: 29 October 2021 (14:03:58 CEST)
Studies show that executive functions and motor development are associated among each other and with learning ability. A more technological lifestyle, related with digital culture, should be considered an important component to stimulate children. In addition, digital games constitute an element of the digital culture in which children are inserted. The aim of this study is to present a systematic mapping of the literature involving executive functions, motor development and the use of digital games in intervention programs for elementary school children, from 6 to 11 years old. Four databases were searched: PubMed, Scielo, Science Direct and SCOPUS, including publications between 2012 and March 2021. The initial results indicated 4881 works. After the selection process, 15 investigations that presented the central theme of the study were selected. The main results indicate that intervention strategies are quite heterogeneous. Most of the studies demonstrated significant positive effects after intervention protocols and were conducted in Europe and 46% of the studies were conducted in a school environment. No researches were identified that involved technological solutions involving executive functions, motor development and digital games in an integrated manner, constituting a field of future scientific research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0243.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: distance learning; intelligent services; literature review; virtual learning environments.
Online: 14 September 2021 (15:06:55 CEST)
Distance learning has assumed a relevant role in the Educational scenario. The use of Virtual Learning Environments contributes to obtain a substantial amount of educational data. In this sense, the analyzed data generate knowledge used by institutions to assist managers and professors in strategic planning and teaching. The discovery of students’ behaviors enables a wide variety of intelligent services for assisting in the learning process. This article presents a literature review in order to identify the intelligent services applied in distance learning. The research covers the period from January 2010 to May 2021. The initial search found 1,316 articles, among which 51 were selected for further studies. Considering the selected articles, 33% (17/51) focus on learning systems, 35% (18/51) propose recommendation systems, 26% (13/51) approach predictive systems or models, and 6% (3/51) use assessment tools. This review allowed to observe that the principal services offered are recommendation systems and learning systems. In these services, the analysis of student profiles stands out to identify patterns of behavior, detect low performance and identify probabilities of dropouts from courses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0046.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: English vocabulary learning; Incidental vocabulary acquisition,; Context-aware ubiquitous learning,; Ubiquitous Computing; Open-source software
Online: 1 June 2021 (15:24:35 CEST)
Language learners often face communication problems when they need to express themselves and do not have this ability. On the other hand, continuous advances in technology create new opportunities to improve second language (L2) acquisition through context-aware ubiquitous learning (CAUL) technology. Since vocabulary is the foundation of all language acquisition, this article presents the ULearnEnglish, an open-source system to allow ubiquitous English learning focused on incidental vocabulary acquisition. To evaluate the proposal, 15 learners used the system developed, and 10 answered a survey based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Results indicate a favorable response to the use of the learner context to assist them in their learning. The ULearnEnglish achieved an acceptance of 78.66% for the perception of the utility, 96% for the perception of ease of use, 86% for user context assessment, and 88% for ubiquity. This study presented a positive response in using the location of users to assist their learning. Among the main contributions, this study demonstrates an opportunity for ubiquity use in future research in language learning. Also, furthers studies can use the source available to evolve the model and system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0018.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Ambient Intelligence; Internet of Things; Context; Prediction; Context Histories; Alzheimer’s Disease
Online: 4 May 2021 (13:47:01 CEST)
The new Internet of Things (IoT) applications are enabling the development of projects that help monitoring people with different diseases in their daily lives. Alzheimer’s is a disease that affects neurological functions and needs support to maintain maximum independence and security of patients during this stage of life, as the cure and reversal of symptoms have not yet been discovered. The IoT-based monitoring system provides the caregivers’ support in monitoring people with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). This paper presents an ontology-based computational model which receives physiological data from external IoT applications, allowing to identify of potentially dangerous behaviors for patients with AD. The main scientific contribution of this work is the specification of a model focusing on Alzheimer’s disease using the analysis of Context Histories and Context Prediction, which considering the state of the art, it is the only one that uses analysis of Context Histories to perform predictions. The research also proposes a simulator to generate activities of the daily life of patients allowing the creation of datasets. These datasets were used to evaluate the contributions of the model and were generated according to the standardization of the ontology. The simulator generated 1025 scenarios applied to guide the predictions, which achieved average accurary of 97.44%. The experiments also allowed the learning of 20 relevant lessons on technological, medical and methodological aspects of DCARE that are recorded in this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0285.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Mobile Edge Computing; Internet Of Things; Cost Minimization Model; Energy Consumption; Scheduling Algorithm
Online: 10 March 2021 (13:23:33 CET)
Advances in communication technologies have made the interaction of small devices, such as smartphones, wearables, and sensors, scattered on the Internet, bringing a whole new set of complex applications with ever greater task processing needs. These Internet of Things (IoT) devices run on batteries with strict energy restrictions. They tend to offload task processing to remote servers, usually to Cloud Computing (CC) in datacenters geographically located away from the IoT device. In such a context, this work proposes a dynamic cost model to minimize energy consumption and task processing time for IoT scenarios in Mobile Edge Computing environments. Our approach allows for a detailed cost model, with an algorithm called TEMS that considers energy, time consumed during processing, the cost of data transmission, and energy in idle devices. The task scheduling chooses among Cloud or Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) server or local IoT devices to better execution time with lower cost. The simulated environment evaluation saved up to 51.6% energy consumption and improved task completion time up to 86.6%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0125.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Routing; 2L-CVRP; Loading; Multithreading; Rotation; Tabu Search; Graph Theory.
Online: 7 September 2021 (12:02:03 CEST)
This work presents a multi-start algorithm for solving the capacitated vehicle routing problem with two-dimensional loading constraints (2L-CVRP) allowing for the rotation of goods. Researches dedicated to graph theory and symmetry considered the vehicle routing problem as a classical application. This problem has complex aspects that stimulate the use of advanced algorithms and symmetry in graphs. The use of graph modeling of the 2L-CVRP problem by undirected graph allowed the high performance of the algorithm. The developed algorithm is based on metaheuristics such as the Constructive Genetic Algorithm (CGA), to construct promising initial solutions; a Tabu Search (TS), to improve the initial solutions on the routing problem; and a Large Neighborhood Search (LNS), for the loading subproblem. Although each one of these algorithms allowed to solve parts of the 2L-CVRP, the combination of these three algorithms to solve this problem was unprecedented in the scientific literature. In our approach, a parallel mechanism for checking the loading feasibility of routes was implemented using multi-threading programming to improve the performance. Additionally, memory structures, like hash-tables, were implemented to save time by storing and querying previously evaluated results for the loading feasibility of routes. For benchmarks, tests were done on well-known instances available in the literature. The results proved that the framework matched or outperformed most of the previous approaches. As the main contribution, this work brings higher quality solutions for large-size instances of the pure CVRP. This paper involves themes related to the symmetry journal, mainly complex algorithms, graphs, search strategies, complexity, graph modeling, and genetic algorithms. In addition, the paper especially focuses on topic-related aspects of special interest of the community involved in symmetry studies, such as, graph algorithms and graph theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0369.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Data privacy; Ambient intelligence; COVID-19
Online: 17 July 2020 (08:17:07 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic plagues the whole world, bringing numerous challenges which need to be addressed. One of them is the privacy of patient data. There are several problems related to data privacy in IoT environments, the use of applications, devices, and functionalities in hospital processes. Therefore, we have compared works from the literature and developed a taxonomy consisting of the requirements necessary to control patient privacy data in a hospital setting in the current pandemic. Based on the studies, an application was modeled and implemented. According to the tests and comparisons drawn between the variables, the application yielded satisfactory results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0022.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: smart environments; notification management; machine learning
Online: 3 November 2019 (16:12:57 CET)
With the evolution of technology over the years, it has become possible to develop intelligent environments based on the concept of the Internet of Things, distributed systems, and machine learning. Such environments are incorporated with various solutions to solve user demands from services. One of these solutions is UBIPRI middleware, whose central concept is to maintain privacy in smart environments and to receive notifications as one of its services. However, this service is freely performed, disregarding the privacy that the environment employs. Another consideration is that based on the researched related works, it was possible to identify that the authors do not use statistical hypothesis tests in their solutions developed in the presented context. This work proposes an architecture for notification management in smart environments, composed by a notification manager named PRIPRO to assign it to UBIPRI and to aim to perform tests and comparisons between classification algorithms to delimit which one is most feasible to implement in the PRINM decision-making mechanism. The experiments showed that the J48 algorithm obtained the best results compared to the other algorithms tested and compared.