Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: 5G; AR/VR; BIM; Building maintenance; matching
Online: 24 May 2021 (07:35:35 CEST)
The significance of virtual reality (AR/VR/MR) technology stands out because it can be used in various construction fields such as urban design, construction review, maintenance and education, etc. As to prove this, conglomerates such as Facebook, Google, Sony, Microsoft, and Samsung are increasing their investments to preoccupy the virtual reality market and are competing to dominate the contents and platform market. Virtual reality technology has a concept that collectively refers to VR (Virtual Reality), AR (Augmented Reality), and MR (Mixed Reality), but technically, the two technologies are strictly separated. While VR technology is an immersive virtual environment using computer graphic technology, AR technology is a more advanced technology that combines real data and VR data, and MR technology is a technology that combines both AR and VR. In Korea, Republic of, the use of BIM (Building Information Modeling), a 3D information model, becomes mandatory and based on this, the demand for a new market where VR/AR/MR technologies and advanced sensing equipment are combined increases. This study implemented a building maintenance platform using AR based on 5G, and developed matching technology between BIM of the building maintenance platform and AR equipment. Besides this study implemented the technology to enhance the matching rate of the matching technology and carried out the process to enhance the matching rate empirically through continuous tests. As a result, the initial target of 90% matching rate could be improved to 96%. Based on this, it is expected that effective EV (Optimum Life Cycle Cost) could be achieved at a lower cost compared to the previous one by using it for maintenance monitoring after construction and completion of the building, and can be used as an effective solution in the aspect of building maintenance as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0275.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Voltage Regulation (VR); Distributed Generation (DG); Renewable Energy Sources (RES); Voltage Regulation (VR); Ancillary Service
Online: 28 April 2022 (08:36:36 CEST)
Voltage Stability & Control, is very crucial compared to other Power System (PS) Quality and Stability issues. Long-Vertical-Power-Flows in Conventional Grids, causes voltage drops which in turn causes huge power losses, especially in the Medium Voltage (MV) and Low Voltage (LV) Distribution Networks. Such technical losses in abysmally-planned weak distribution networks, lead to substantial loss of revenues to the utility grid. Apart from classic Voltage Regulation (VR) techniques, with the rise of Distributed Generation (DG) based on Renewable Energy Sources (RES), Horizontal-Power-Flows can be introduced in the network, through various Smart Grid techniques. Coupling such sources, near load centers shall mitigate long flows from expensive conventional sources at times of huge demands, improving feeders’ Voltage Profile. This Ancillary Service of Voltage Support from DG RESs shall thereby alleviate revenue losses caused by long-power-flows in weak distribution grids. For a developing country like Pakistan, loss of revenue from an already expensive utility gives huge blow to the economy. So, a similar technique for voltage support is proposed for an 11-kV feeder, which faces similar problem, and the results are remarkable. The technique is implemented using OpenDSS Tool by modelling 3MWp PV Penetration along with some future storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0224.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: VR-XGBoost; K-VDTE; ETC data; ESAs; data mining
Online: 12 August 2022 (03:53:23 CEST)
To scientifically and effectively evaluate the service capacity of expressway service areas (ESAs) and improve the management level of ESAs, we propose a method for the recognition of vehicles entering ESAs (VeESAs) and estimation of vehicle dwell times using ETC data. First, the ETC data and their advantages are described in detail, and then the cleaning rules are designed according to the characteristics of the ETC data. Second, we established feature engineering according to the characteristics of VeESA, and proposed the XGBoost-based VeESA recognition (VR-XGBoost) model. Studied the driving rules in depth, we constructed a kinematics-based vehicle dwell time estimation (K-VDTE) model. The field validation in Part A/B of Yangli ESA using real ETC transaction data demonstrates that the effectiveness of our proposal outperforms the current state of the art. Specifically, in Part A and Part B, the recognition accuracies of VR-XGBoost are 95.9% and 97.4%, respectively, the mean absolute errors (MAEs) of dwell time are 52 s and 14 s, respectively, and the root mean square errors (RMSEs) are 69 s and 22 s, respectively. In addition, the confidence level of controlling the MAE of dwell time within 2 minutes is more than 97%. This work can effectively identify the VeESA, and accurately estimate the dwell time, which can provide a reference idea and theoretical basis for the service capacity evaluation and layout optimization of the ESA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Augmented reality (AR); Virtual reality (VR); Simulation; Training; Navigation
Online: 4 October 2021 (11:04:55 CEST)
Background Augmented reality (AR) in surgery can offer an enhanced view of reality through the superimposition of computer-generated digital images on the real environment. It allows surgeons to integrate image visualisation, improving operative efficiency, surgical outcomes, surgical training and patient education. This review aims to evaluate the current status of augmented reality in surgery, surgical training and potential future applications. Methods We performed a non-systematic review of available literature from January 2005 to August 2021 by searching PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library using a combination of terms “augmented reality”, “virtual reality”, “surgery”, “simulation” and “training”. Articles considered for this review were identified by relevant search criteria including title, keywords, abstract, and full-text. Conclusions AR technologies present an exciting new trend with multiple potential applications in surgery. Intraoperative AR systems have shown promise in specialties involving fine movement of organs during surgical procedures, including Neurosurgery, Ears, Nose and Throat and Orthopaedic Surgery. AR has also exhibited the potential to enhance surgical training and improve knowledge acquisition; it can foster international collaborations via telesurgery and telepresence. In the near future, AR will likely work in symbiosis with surgeons, serving as a complex computer-human coalition which can improve patient outcomes, patient education and surgical training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0074.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: VR; aging effect; gender difference; control device; wayfinding strategy
Online: 5 May 2020 (11:32:12 CEST)
The application of Virtual Reality in a driving simulation is not novel, yet little is known about the use of this technology by senior populations. The effects of age, sex, control device (joystick or handlebar), and task type on wayfinding proficiency using a virtual reality (VR) driving simulation were explored. The driving experimental model involved 96 randomly recruited participants, including 48 young people and 48 seniors (split evenly by gender in each group). The experimental results and statistical analyses indicate that in a VR driving scenario task type significantly affected VR driving performance. Navigational scores were significantly higher for the straight (easy) task than for the curved (difficult) task. The aging effect was the main reason for significant and interacting effects of sex and control device. It was found that interactions between age and sex difference indicated that the young group exhibited better wayfinding performance than the senior group, and in the young group males had better performance than females. Similarly, interactions between age and control device indicated that the handlebar control device type resulted in better performance than the joystick device in the young group, but no difference was found in the senior group due to age or learning effects. Findings provide an understanding of the evaluation of the interface designs of navigational support systems, taking into consideration any effects of age, sex, control device, and task type within three-dimensional VR games and driving systems. With a VR driving simulator, seniors can test drive inaccessible products, such as electric bicycles or cars, using a computer at home.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: haptic master; force feedback; VR- based interaction; ergonomics assessments
Online: 3 December 2017 (06:02:50 CET)
This paper presents a novel 3-degrees-of-freedom (3-DOF) haptic master with rubber bands for self-resetting. The mechanical design avoids coupling between three directions mechanically by using three perpendicular axis intersecting at one point. Bevel gear transmission is adopted to increase the compactness of the overall structure. VR-based interactive system is designed and built by incorporating the proposed haptic master. The proposed haptic device can generate force feedback along 3-degree-of-freedom motion using motors and provide command signals to the avatar in the virtual environment. In order to analyze the performance of the developed device in terms of haptic feedback operation, ergonomics assessments are designed and experimentally implemented. Preliminary studies on the influencing factor including the guidance force, the reset force, the speed of the avatar and the arm the length have been conducted. The results of this paper are of great significance for the design of the haptic master and interactive system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0776.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: virtual reality; VR; hockey training; motor reaction; response time; sport
Online: 31 March 2021 (15:16:38 CEST)
The efficiency of performance in various sports has the development of certain specific skills at its core. In ice hockey, both the technical aspects (techniques, stance) and the cognitive ones (keeping attention on the puck, game strategy, etc.) are highly important. This study is aimed at the identification of specific features that determine the performance efficiency of professional hockey players. We used virtual reality (VR) to study the differences between professional ice hockey players and novices in terms of motor responses to the puck’s presentation on different levels of difficulty. The study involved 22 participants, 13 of them being professional ice hockey players (Mage=20±2.9; mean age of training experience М=14.18±3.8) and 9 being not experienced participants (Mage=20±1.4). The study showed that the stick response time of professional hockey players is significantly higher (0.98 ms vs 1.5 ms, p≤0.05) in more difficult situations close to a real game. Moreover, professionals proved to have more stable movement patterns of the knee and hip joints. They also make fewer head movements as a response to stimuli during all runs (0.66 vs 1.25, p≤0.05). Therefore, the results indicate specific spatial-temporal, technical and tactical, and energetic determinants, that ensure higher performance efficiency in hockey players
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0434.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: higher education; pedagogy; forensic science; VR; learning technologies; crime scene
Online: 24 April 2020 (10:13:58 CEST)
Simulated crime scene investigation is an essential component of forensic science education, but its implementation poses challenges relating to cost, accessibility and breadth of experience. Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging technology which offers exciting prospects for teaching and learning, especially for imparting practical skills. We document here a multidisciplinary experimental study in which a bespoke VR crime scene app was designed and implemented, after which it was tested by both undergraduate student and staff/postgraduate student cohorts. Through both qualitative and quantitative analyses, we demonstrate that VR applications support learning of practical crime scene processing skills. VR-based practical sessions have the potential to add value to forensic science courses through offering cost-effective practical experience and the ability to work in isolation, in a variety of different scenarios. Both user groups reported high levels of satisfaction with the process and reports of adverse effects (motion sickness) were minimal. With reference to user feedback, we proceed to evaluate the scalability and development challenges associated with large-scale implementation of VR as an adjunct to forensic science education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0134.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: virtual reality (VR); immersive; synesthesia; synesthaesia; artificial synesthesia; pain therapy
Online: 7 August 2018 (05:54:14 CEST)
This paper is an interdisciplinary study of novel applications of techniques and tools of an area of brain science, known as Synesthesia (involving associations and/or confusion between distinct senses), to area of Computer Science known as Immersive Virtual Reality (VR), that makes the subject’s awareness of physical self be diminished by being surrounded in an engrossing artificial environment. Natural Synesthesia has for the last decade been an important emerging area in brain science but is present in only a small proportion of the population. For example a person with Natural Synesthesia, when viewing a grapheme, may perceive a color additionally to be associated to the grapheme. In contrast, Artificial synesthesia (also known as virtual synesthesia or synthetic synesthesia) has been defined as the sensory joining due a cross-modal mapping device, where information of one sense is accompanied by an induced perception in another sense. In particular, we propose use of a multimodal manner of displaying information in VR to increase and concentrate attention. Artificial Synesthesia to synthetically create induced associations between senses, allowing Artificial Synesthesia to be experienced by anyone using a VR system. The paper describes the enhancement of immersive VR by use of Artificial Synesthesia to improve the system’s performance at steering and directing the attention of the user. We describe techniques for an enhanced immersive VR that displays associations between a variety of senses: between colors and characters, also between colors and sounds, and between sounds and the position of tactile sensations. The sense association provided by Artificial Synesthesia allows the system to better capture the user’s attention and better direct that attention. A major application of our work in VR-induced Artificial Synesthesia is to provide an enhanced methodology for controlling the attention of the subject, and to improve the direction of attention of subjects undergoing guided imagery therapies for pain relief. Other potential high-impact applications include improved immersive VR, more programmable human/computer interfaces and other medical therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0328.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: eye-tracking; virtual reality; education and VR; education and eye-tracking
Online: 13 April 2021 (09:11:43 CEST)
The concept of using eye-tracking in virtual reality for education has been researched in various fields over the past years. With this review, we aim to discuss the recent advancements and applications in this area, explain the technological aspects, highlight the advantages of this approach and inspire interest in the field. Eye-tracking has already been used in science for many decades and now has been substantially reinforced by the addition of virtual and augmented reality technologies. The first part of the review is a general overview of eye-tracking concepts and its applications. In the second part, the focus shifted towards application of eye-tracking in virtual reality. The third part is the description of the recently emerged concept of eye-tracking in virtual reality when applied to education and studying, which has not been thoroughly described before. We describe the main findings, technological aspects and advantages of this approach.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0299.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: Relics protection; Protection of material heritage; VR animation; Stone statue; The Ming Xiao Mausoleum
Online: 25 February 2022 (13:54:51 CET)
This paper takes the VR animation display of the Ming Xiao Mausoleum General stone statue life as an example to study the advantages of VR animation in the display of material heritage. Combined with literature and pictures, the digital restoration of the Ming Xiao Mausoleum stone statue is carried out in MAYA and Z brush, and the construction of the scene and the output of the final effect are realized in UE4.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0459.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Autonomous Driving System; In-Car Gaming; Driver Behavior; Driving Related Tasks; 3D-VR/AR
Online: 17 June 2021 (12:29:00 CEST)
As Automated Driving Systems (ADS) technology gets assimilated into the market, the driver’s obligation will be changed to a supervisory role. A key point to consider is the driver’s engagement in the secondary task to maintain the driver/user in the control loop. The paper’s objective is to monitor driver engagement with a game and identify any impacts the task has on hazard recognition. We designed a driving simulation using Unity3D and incorporated three tasks: No-task, AR-Video, and AR-Game tasks. The driver engaged in an AR object interception game while monitoring the road for threatening road scenarios. From the results, there was less than 1 second difference between the means of gaming task (mean = 2.55s, std = 0.1002s) to no-task (mean = 2.55s, std = 0.1002s). Game scoring followed three profiles/phases: learning, saturation, and decline profile. From the profiles, it is possible to quantify/infer drivers’ engagement with the game task. The paper proposes alternative monitoring that has utility, i.e., entertaining the user. Further experiments AR-Game focusing on real-world car environment will be performed to confirm the performance following the recommendations derived from the current test.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0167.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Virtual reality(VR; Virtual environment; Simulation sickness; Head mounted display(HMD); Usability; Design; Guidelines; User
Online: 7 July 2021 (07:56:37 CEST)
Virtual Reality(VR) is an emerging technology with a broad range of application in training, entertainment, and business. To maximize the potentials of virtual reality as a medium, the unwelcome feeling of simulation sickness needs to be minimized. Even with advancements in VR, the usability concerns are barriers for a wide-spread acceptance. Several factors (hardware, software, human) play a part towards a pleasant VR experience. The reviewed scientific articles are mostly part of documents indexed in digital libraries. In this paper, we review the potential factors which cause simulation sickness and minimize the usability of virtual reality systems. We review the best practices from a developer’s perspective and some of the safety measures a user must follow while using the VR systems from existing research. Even after following some of the guidelines and best practices VR environments do not guarantee a pleasant experience for users. Limited research in VR environments towards requirement specification, design, and development for maximum usability and adaptability was the main motive for this work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0737.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: double-skin facade perforation; environmental design; robotics in construction; VR/AR for monitoring; digital twin in construction
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:42:05 CEST)
In contemporary design practices, there is a disconnect between the design techniques used for early-stage design experimentation and performance analysis, and those used for the manufacture and construction. This study addresses the problems in developing an integrated digital design workflow and provides a research framework for integrating environmental performance requirements with robotic manufacturing processes on a construction site. The proposed method enables the user to import a design surface, identify design parameters, set several environmental performance goals, and thereafter simulate and select a robotic building strategy. Based on these inputs, design alternatives are developed and evaluated, considering their robotically simulated constructibility, in terms of their performance criteria. To validate the proposed method, the design is evaluated in an experiment wherein a double-skin facade perforation is generated using the proposed methodology. The results suggest a heuristic feature to improve the simulated robotic constructibility. Moreover, the functionality of the prototype is demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0086.v1
Subject: Keywords: double-skin facade perforation, environmental design, robotics in construction, VR/AR for monitoring, digital twin in construction.
Online: 6 May 2021 (13:11:51 CEST)
In contemporary design practices, there is a disconnect between the design techniques used for early-stage design experimentation and performance analysis, and those used for the manufacture and construction. This study addresses the problems in developing an integrated digital design workflow and provides a research framework for integrating environmental performance requirements with robotic manufacturing processes on a construction site. The proposed method enables the user to import a design surface, identify design parameters, set several environmental performance goals, and thereafter simulate and select a robotic building strategy. Based on these inputs, design alternatives are developed and evaluated, considering their robotically simulated constructibility, in terms of their performance criteria. To validate the proposed method, the design is evaluated in an experiment wherein a double-skin facade perforation is generated using the proposed methodology. Initial results suggest a heuristic feature to improve the simulated robotic constructibility. Moreover, the functionality of the prototype is demonstrated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0280.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: depression, virtual reality (VR), virtual reality therapy (VRT), long-term care facility (LTCF), mood disorder, place attachment, neuro-architecture
Online: 12 April 2021 (11:51:41 CEST)
Virtual reality (VR) describes a family of technologies which immerse users in sensorily-stimulating virtual environments. Such technologies have increasingly found applications in the treatment of neurological and mental health disorders. Depression, anxiety, and other mood abnormalities are of concern in the growing elderly population – especially those who reside in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). The transition from the familiar home environment to the foreign LTCF introduces a number of stressors that can precipitate depression. However, recent studies reveal that VR therapy (VRT) can promote positive emotionality and improve cognitive abilities in the elderly, both at home and in LTCFs. VR thus holds potential in allowing elderly individuals to gradually adapt to their new environments – thereby mitigating the detrimental effects of place attachment and social exclusion. Nevertheless, while the current psychological literature is promising, the implementation of VR in LTCFs faces many challenges. LTCF residents must gain trust in VR technologies, care providers require training to maximize the positive effects of VRT, and decision makers must evaluate both the opportunities and obstacles in adopting VR. Here, we concisely review the implications of depression related to place attachment in LTCFs, and explore the potential therapeutic applications of VR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0189.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Flying Social Robot; Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV); Emotion Recognition; Convolution Neural Network (CNN); Virtual Reality (VR); Unity; MATLAB/Simulink; Python
Online: 5 March 2021 (11:52:50 CET)
This work is part of an ongoing research project to develop an unmanned flying social robot to monitor dependants at home in order to detect the person’s state and bring the necessary assistance. In this sense, this paper focuses on the description of a virtual reality (VR) simulation platform for the monitoring process of an avatar in a virtual home by a rotatory-wing autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This platform is based on a distributed architecture composed of three modules communicated through the Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol: the UAV Simulator implemented in MATLAB/Simulink, the VR Visualiser developed in Unity, and the new emotion recognition (ER) System developed in Python. Using a face detection algorithm and a convolutional neural network (CNN), the ER System is able to detect the person’s face in the image captured by the UAV’s on-board camera and classify the emotion among seven possible ones (surprise, fear, happiness, sadness, disgust, anger or neutral expression). The experimental results demonstrate the correct integration of this new computer vision module within the VR platform, as well as the good performance of the designed CNN, with around 85% in the F1-score, a mean of the precision and recall of the model. The developed emotion detection system can be used in the future implementation of the assistance UAV that monitors dependent people in a real environment, since the methodology used is valid for images of real people.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: multimodal experiment; multisensory experiment; automatic device integration; open-source; PsychoPy; Unity; Virtual Reality (VR); Lab Streaming Layer; LabRecorder; LabRecorderCLI; Windows command line (cmd.exe)
Online: 12 October 2020 (07:06:28 CEST)
The human mind is multimodal. Yet most behavioral studies rely on century-old measures of behavior—task accuracy and latency (response time). Multimodal and multisensory analysis of human behavior creates a better understanding of how the mind works. The problem is that designing and implementing these experiments is technically complex and costly. This paper introduces versatile and economical means of developing multimodal-multisensory human experiments. We provide an experimental design framework that automatically integrates and synchronizes measures including electroencephalogram (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), eye-tracking, virtual reality (VR), body movement, mouse/cursor motion and response time. Unlike proprietary systems (e.g., iMotions), our system is free and open-source; it integrates PsychoPy, Unity and Lab Streaming Layer (LSL). The system embeds LSL inside PsychoPy/Unity for the synchronization of multiple sensory signals—gaze motion, electroencephalogram (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), mouse/cursor movement, and body motion—with low-cost consumer-grade devices in a simple behavioral task designed by PsychoPy and a virtual reality environment designed by Unity. This tutorial shows a step-by-step process by which a complex multimodal-multisensory experiment can be designed and implemented in a few hours. When conducting the experiment, all of the data synchronization and recoding of the data to disk will be done automatically.