ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1562.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: 5G NR V2X; 3GPP; C-V2X; Connected vehicle; ns-3 simulation; V2X communication; Performance analysis
Online: 24 November 2023 (11:26:39 CET)
Recently, the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) introduced the New Radio (NR) technology for Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication to enable delay-sensitive and bandwidth-hungry applications in vehicular communication. The NR system is strategically crafted to complement the existing Long Term Evolution (LTE) Cellular-Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X) infrastructure, particularly to support advanced services such as the operation of automated vehicles. It is widely anticipated that the 5th generation (5G) NR system will surpass LTE C-V2X in terms of achieving superior performance in scenarios characterized by high throughput, low latency, and enhanced reliability, especially in the context of congested traffic conditions and a diverse range of vehicular applications. This article will provide a comprehensive literature review on vehicular communications from Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) to NR V2X. Subsequently, it delves into a detailed examination of the challenges and opportunities inherent in NR V2X technology. Finally, we proceed to elucidate the process of creating and analyzing an open-source 5G NR V2X module in network simulation-3 (ns-3) and then demonstrate the NR V2X performance in terms of different key performance indicators implemented through diverse operational scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1212.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: cellular V2X; 5G V2X; side-link; 5G NR, 3GPP; connected and automated vehicles
Online: 19 October 2023 (03:59:57 CEST)
The Third Generation Partnership Project(3GPP) has specified the Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X) radio access technology in Releases 14 and 15, with a focus on facilitating direct communication between vehicles through the sidelink PC5 interface. This interface offers a robust cloud-native core network with end-to-end network slicing functionality. The performance of di-rect vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications has been improved by using the sidelink interface, which allows for network infrastructure by-pass. Sidelink transmissions make use of orthogonal resources that are either centrally allocated (Mode 1) or chosen by the vehicles themselves (Mode 2). The development of radio access technologies that enable dependable and low-latency vehicular communications has become of utmost relevance with the rise in interest in connected and autonomous vehicles. This is especially necessary when there are heavy traffic conditions and patterns. We thoroughly examined the New Radio (NR) sidelink’s performance under various vehicle densities, speeds, and distance settings. Thus, by evaluating sidelink’s strengths and drawbacks, we are able to optimize resource allocation to obtain maximum coverage in urban areas. The performance evaluation is conducted on Network Simulator 3 (NS3.34/5G-LENA) utilizing various network metrics such as average packet reception rate, throughput, and latency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: V2X; Connected Vehicles; Communication; Environmental; Safety; Transportation
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:08:32 CET)
With the rapid development of communication technology, connected vehicles (CV) have the potential, through the sharing of data, to enhance vehicle safety and reduce vehicle energy consumption and emissions. Numerous research efforts have been conducted to quantify the impacts of CV applications, assuming instant and accurate communication among vehicles, devices, pedestrians, infrastructure, the network, the cloud, and the grid, collectively known as V2X (vehicle-to-everything). The use of cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X), to share data is emerging as an efficient means to achieve this objective. C-V2X releases 14 and 15 utilize the 4G LTE technology and release 16 utilizes the new 5G new radio (NR) technology. C-V2X can function without network infrastructure coverage and has a better communication range, improved latency, and greater data rates compared to older technologies. Such highly efficient interchange of information among all participating parts in a CV environment will not only provide timely data to enhance the capacity of the transportation system but can also be used to develop applications that enhance vehicle safety and minimize negative environmental impacts. However, before the full benefits of CV can be achieved, there is a need to thoroughly investigate the effectiveness, strengths, and weaknesses of different CV applications, the communication protocols, the varied results with different CV market penetration rates (MPRs), the interaction of CVs and human driven vehicles, the integration of multiple applications, and the errors and latencies associated with data communication. This paper reviews existing literature on the environmental, mobility and safety impacts of CV applications, identifies the gaps in our current research of CVs and recommends future research directions. The results of this paper will help shape the future research direction for CV applications to realize their full potential benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0535.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Connected vehicles; C-V2X; V2V; INTEGRATION software; traffic simulation; communication modeling
Online: 23 February 2021 (19:38:56 CET)
The transportation system has evolved into a complex cyber-physical system with the introduction of wireless communication and the emergence of connected travelers and connected automated vehicles. Such applications create an urgent need to develop high-fidelity transportation modeling tools that capture the mutual interaction of the communication and transportation systems. This paper addresses this need by developing a high-fidelity, large-scale dynamic and integrated traffic and direct cellullar vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (collectively known as V2X) modeling tool. The unique contributions of this work are (1) we developed a scalable analytical communication model that captures packet movement at the millisecond level; (2) we coupled the communication and traffic simulation models in real-time to develop a fully integrated dynamic connected vehicle modeling tool; and (3) we developed scalable approaches that adjust the frequency of model coupling depending on the number of concurrent vehicles in the network. The proposed scalable modeling framework is demonstrated by running on the Los Angeles downtown network considering the morning peak hour traffic demand (145,000 vehicles), running faster than real-time on a regular personal computer (1.5 hours to run 1.86 hours of simulation time). Spatiotemporal estimates of packet delivery ratios for downtown Los Angeles are presented. This novel modeling framework provides a breakthrough in the development of urgently needed tools for large-scale testing of Direct C-V2X enabled applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0193.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: location-based services; Vehicle-to-Everything(V2X); publish-subscribe; application protocol
Online: 20 January 2019 (09:43:11 CET)
Location-Based Services (LBS) have been widely deployed for the connected vehicle (CV) applications such as vehicle navigation,vehicle tracking and location-based augmented reality. The current LBS deployments have limitations in supporting time-critical CV use cases, including vehicle to vehicle (V2V), vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-people (V2P) safety applications. The paper presents the new LBS framework based on the publish-subscribe communication paradigm, to enable device-to-device (D2D) connections through use of selected application protocols in the application layer of the TCP/IP layered protocol model. Two publish-subscribe application protocols, Distributed Data Service (DDS) real-time publish and subscribe (DDS-RTPS) and Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT), are introduced to support the LBS D2D applications. A number of test scenarios with Mosquitto MQTT and OpenDDS under 4G-mobile broadband (MBB) services are designed to assess the transmit/receive round-trip time (RTT) and packet-loss rate (PLR) with settings of a publisher to multiple subscribers, to simulate the connections to multiple vehicles. The transmission frequency is set for 10 Hz and the message sizes vary from 100 to 2000 Bytes. The PLRs are defined as the percentages of the delayed messages beyond a delay limit. Static test results with OpenDDS show that for the RTT delay beyond the limit of 100 ms, the total PLRs range between 5.25% and 8.76% for the message size of 50 to 2000 Bytes. Vehicle testing results with Mosquitto show that PLRs for the RTT delays between 200 ms and 1000 ms are 0.63%, 3.58% and 5.77%, for connections with 1, 4 and 10 vehicles, respectively. The results demonstrate the potential of the D2D LBS framework for medium-demanding CV safety applications such as V2P and V2I use cases, taking advantages of the 4G-MBB services and 5G extreme mobile broadband (eMBB) services and mobile devices generally available with all road users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0132.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: V2X; vehicle-to-network; blockchain; distributed registry; data protection; network; decentralized systems
Online: 5 September 2020 (08:21:40 CEST)
Over the past decade, wireless communication technologies have developed significantly for intelligent applications in road transport. This paper provides an overview of telecommunications-based intelligent transport systems with a focus on ensuring system safety and resilience. In vehicle-to-everything, these problems are extremely acute due to the specifics of the operation of transport networks, which requires the use of special protection mechanisms. In this regard, it was decided to use blockchain as a system platform to support the needs of transport systems for secure information exchange. This paper describes the technological aspects of implementing blockchain technology in vehicle-to-network; the features of such technology are presented, as well as the features of their interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0468.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: C-V2X; Eco-routing; ITS; CAV; VANET; Smart cities; environmental applications; vehicular networks; V2V; V2I
Online: 26 January 2023 (04:11:31 CET)
Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X) is a communication technology that supports various safety, mobility, and environmental applications given its higher reliability properties compared to other communication technologies. The performance of these C-V2X-enabled Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) applications is affected by the performance of the C-V2X communication technology (mainly packet loss). Similarly, the performance of the C-V2X communication is dependent on the vehicular traffic density which is affected by the traffic mobility patterns, and vehicle routing strategies. Consequently, it is critical to develop a tool that can simulate, analyze, and evaluate the mutual interactions of the transportation and communication systems at the application level and to the evaluate the benefits of the C-V2X enabled ITS applications. In this paper, we demonstrate the benefits gained when using C-V2X Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication technology in an energy-efficient dynamic routing application. Specifically, we develop a Connected Energy-Efficient Dynamic Routing (C-EEDR) application using C-V2X as a communication medium in an integrated vehicular traffic and communication simulator (INTEGRATION). The results demonstrate that the C-EEDR application achieves fuel savings of up to 16.6% and 14.7% in the IDEAL and C-V2X communication cases, respectively for a peak hour demand on the downtown Los Angeles network considering a 50% level of market penetration of connected vehicles. The results demonstrate that the fuel savings increase with increasing levels of market penetration at lower traffic demand levels (25% and 50% the peak demand). At higher traffic demand levels (75% and 100%) the fuel savings increase with increasing levels of market penetration with maximum benefits at a 50% market penetration rate. Although the communication system is affected by the high density of vehicles at the high traffic demand levels (75% and 100% the peak demand), the C-EEDR application manages to perform reliably producing system-wide fuel consumption savings.The C-EEDR application achieves fuel savings of 15.2% and 11.7% for the IDEAL communication and 14% and 9% for the C-V2X communication at the 75% and 100% market penetration rates, respectively. Finally, the paper demonstrates that the C-V2X communication constraints only affect the performance of the C-EEDR application at the full demand level when the market penetration of connected vehicles exceeds 25%. This degradation, however is minimal (less than a 2.5% reduction in fuel savings).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0647.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: global navigation satellite system (GNSS); simulator; collaborative positioning; Vehicle-to-everything (V2X); 3D building model; urban canyon
Online: 25 December 2020 (08:53:54 CET)
Accurate localization of road agents is the basis of intelligent transportation systems, which is still difficult to achieve for GNSS positioning in urban areas due to the signal interferences from buildings. Various collaborative positioning techniques are recently developed to improve the positioning performance by the aid from neighboring agents. However, it is still challenging to study their performances comprehensively. The GNSS measurement error behavior is complicated in urban areas and unable to be represented by naive models. On the other hand, real experiment requiring numbers of devices is hard to be conducted, especially for a large-scale test. Therefore, a GNSS realistic urban measurement simulator is developed to provide measurements for collaborative positioning studies. The proposed simulator employs a ray-tracing technique searching for all possible interferences in the urban area. Then, it categorizes them into direct, reflected, diffracted, and multipath signal to simulate the pseudorange, carrier-phase, 〖C/N〗_0, and Doppler shift measurements correspondingly. The performance of the proposed simulator is validated through real experimental comparisons with different scenarios. The proposed simulator is also applied with different positioning algorithms, which verifies it is sophisticated enough for the collaborative positioning studies in the urban area.