REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: V2X; Connected Vehicles; Communication; Environmental; Safety; Transportation
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:08:32 CET)
With the rapid development of communication technology, connected vehicles (CV) have the potential, through the sharing of data, to enhance vehicle safety and reduce vehicle energy consumption and emissions. Numerous research efforts have been conducted to quantify the impacts of CV applications, assuming instant and accurate communication among vehicles, devices, pedestrians, infrastructure, the network, the cloud, and the grid, collectively known as V2X (vehicle-to-everything). The use of cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X), to share data is emerging as an efficient means to achieve this objective. C-V2X releases 14 and 15 utilize the 4G LTE technology and release 16 utilizes the new 5G new radio (NR) technology. C-V2X can function without network infrastructure coverage and has a better communication range, improved latency, and greater data rates compared to older technologies. Such highly efficient interchange of information among all participating parts in a CV environment will not only provide timely data to enhance the capacity of the transportation system but can also be used to develop applications that enhance vehicle safety and minimize negative environmental impacts. However, before the full benefits of CV can be achieved, there is a need to thoroughly investigate the effectiveness, strengths, and weaknesses of different CV applications, the communication protocols, the varied results with different CV market penetration rates (MPRs), the interaction of CVs and human driven vehicles, the integration of multiple applications, and the errors and latencies associated with data communication. This paper reviews existing literature on the environmental, mobility and safety impacts of CV applications, identifies the gaps in our current research of CVs and recommends future research directions. The results of this paper will help shape the future research direction for CV applications to realize their full potential benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0535.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Connected vehicles; C-V2X; V2V; INTEGRATION software; traffic simulation; communication modeling
Online: 23 February 2021 (19:38:56 CET)
The transportation system has evolved into a complex cyber-physical system with the introduction of wireless communication and the emergence of connected travelers and connected automated vehicles. Such applications create an urgent need to develop high-fidelity transportation modeling tools that capture the mutual interaction of the communication and transportation systems. This paper addresses this need by developing a high-fidelity, large-scale dynamic and integrated traffic and direct cellullar vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (collectively known as V2X) modeling tool. The unique contributions of this work are (1) we developed a scalable analytical communication model that captures packet movement at the millisecond level; (2) we coupled the communication and traffic simulation models in real-time to develop a fully integrated dynamic connected vehicle modeling tool; and (3) we developed scalable approaches that adjust the frequency of model coupling depending on the number of concurrent vehicles in the network. The proposed scalable modeling framework is demonstrated by running on the Los Angeles downtown network considering the morning peak hour traffic demand (145,000 vehicles), running faster than real-time on a regular personal computer (1.5 hours to run 1.86 hours of simulation time). Spatiotemporal estimates of packet delivery ratios for downtown Los Angeles are presented. This novel modeling framework provides a breakthrough in the development of urgently needed tools for large-scale testing of Direct C-V2X enabled applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0193.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: location-based services; Vehicle-to-Everything(V2X); publish-subscribe; application protocol
Online: 20 January 2019 (09:43:11 CET)
Location-Based Services (LBS) have been widely deployed for the connected vehicle (CV) applications such as vehicle navigation,vehicle tracking and location-based augmented reality. The current LBS deployments have limitations in supporting time-critical CV use cases, including vehicle to vehicle (V2V), vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-people (V2P) safety applications. The paper presents the new LBS framework based on the publish-subscribe communication paradigm, to enable device-to-device (D2D) connections through use of selected application protocols in the application layer of the TCP/IP layered protocol model. Two publish-subscribe application protocols, Distributed Data Service (DDS) real-time publish and subscribe (DDS-RTPS) and Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT), are introduced to support the LBS D2D applications. A number of test scenarios with Mosquitto MQTT and OpenDDS under 4G-mobile broadband (MBB) services are designed to assess the transmit/receive round-trip time (RTT) and packet-loss rate (PLR) with settings of a publisher to multiple subscribers, to simulate the connections to multiple vehicles. The transmission frequency is set for 10 Hz and the message sizes vary from 100 to 2000 Bytes. The PLRs are defined as the percentages of the delayed messages beyond a delay limit. Static test results with OpenDDS show that for the RTT delay beyond the limit of 100 ms, the total PLRs range between 5.25% and 8.76% for the message size of 50 to 2000 Bytes. Vehicle testing results with Mosquitto show that PLRs for the RTT delays between 200 ms and 1000 ms are 0.63%, 3.58% and 5.77%, for connections with 1, 4 and 10 vehicles, respectively. The results demonstrate the potential of the D2D LBS framework for medium-demanding CV safety applications such as V2P and V2I use cases, taking advantages of the 4G-MBB services and 5G extreme mobile broadband (eMBB) services and mobile devices generally available with all road users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0132.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: V2X; vehicle-to-network; blockchain; distributed registry; data protection; network; decentralized systems
Online: 5 September 2020 (08:21:40 CEST)
Over the past decade, wireless communication technologies have developed significantly for intelligent applications in road transport. This paper provides an overview of telecommunications-based intelligent transport systems with a focus on ensuring system safety and resilience. In vehicle-to-everything, these problems are extremely acute due to the specifics of the operation of transport networks, which requires the use of special protection mechanisms. In this regard, it was decided to use blockchain as a system platform to support the needs of transport systems for secure information exchange. This paper describes the technological aspects of implementing blockchain technology in vehicle-to-network; the features of such technology are presented, as well as the features of their interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0647.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: global navigation satellite system (GNSS); simulator; collaborative positioning; Vehicle-to-everything (V2X); 3D building model; urban canyon
Online: 25 December 2020 (08:53:54 CET)
Accurate localization of road agents is the basis of intelligent transportation systems, which is still difficult to achieve for GNSS positioning in urban areas due to the signal interferences from buildings. Various collaborative positioning techniques are recently developed to improve the positioning performance by the aid from neighboring agents. However, it is still challenging to study their performances comprehensively. The GNSS measurement error behavior is complicated in urban areas and unable to be represented by naive models. On the other hand, real experiment requiring numbers of devices is hard to be conducted, especially for a large-scale test. Therefore, a GNSS realistic urban measurement simulator is developed to provide measurements for collaborative positioning studies. The proposed simulator employs a ray-tracing technique searching for all possible interferences in the urban area. Then, it categorizes them into direct, reflected, diffracted, and multipath signal to simulate the pseudorange, carrier-phase, 〖C/N〗_0, and Doppler shift measurements correspondingly. The performance of the proposed simulator is validated through real experimental comparisons with different scenarios. The proposed simulator is also applied with different positioning algorithms, which verifies it is sophisticated enough for the collaborative positioning studies in the urban area.