ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0264.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Superhighway; Travel cost; Economic evaluation; Use cost; Price analysis
Online: 21 December 2018 (15:28:11 CET)
In order to evaluate the economy of superhighway, on the basis of the analysis of the cost of the ordinary expressway and high speed railway, the cost of superhighway is estimated. On this basis, the standard of the toll of superhighway at all levels is determined by reference to the standard of the construction cost and the toll collection standard of the ordinary expressway. According to the toll collection standard of superhighway and the fuel consumption cost of superhighway at all levels, the cost of single car and the single person cost of superhighway are calculated. Based on the analysis of highway passenger transport, railway passenger transport and civil aviation ticket price, the single person cost per kilometer of the above travel modes is calculated and compared with the single person travel cost per kilometer of superhighway. The results show that the single person cost of superhighway is between 0.29 and 0.47 yuan /km, which is 0.28 yuan /km higher than the highway bus, 0.18 yuan /km higher than the ordinary expressway self driving and 0.23 yuan /km higher than the express train, but 0.78 yuan/km lower than that of the first class seat of high-speed train, and is 0.92 yuan/km far lower than that of civil aviation flight economy class and 2.42 yuan/km lower than the business class. Therefore, the superhighway trip has certain advantages in economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0099.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: residential energy use; energy management; residential building costs; exponential smoothing method; ARIMA model
Online: 12 June 2019 (03:40:57 CEST)
Over the last two decades, residential buildings have accounted for nearly 50 percent of total energy use in New Zealand. In order to reduce household energy use, the factors that influence energy use should be continuously monitored and managed. Building researchers and professionals have made efforts to investigate the factors that affect energy use. However, few have concentrated on the association between household energy use and the cost of residential buildings. This study examined the correlation between household energy use and residential building cost. Analysis of the correlation between energy use data and residential building cost indicated that residential building cost in the construction phase and energy use in the operation stage were significantly correlated. These findings suggest that correct monitoring of building costs can help to identify trends in energy use. Therefore, this study proposes a time series model for forecasting residential building costs of five categories of residential building (one-story house, two-story house, townhouse, apartment, retirement village) in New Zealand. The primary contribution of this paper is the identification of the close correlation between household energy use and residential building costs and provide a new area for optimize energy management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: behaviour change technique; medicine use optimisation; nudge; prescribing behaviour
Online: 15 April 2022 (14:27:22 CEST)
Providing healthcare workers with cost information about the medications they prescribe can influence their decisions, particularly when that information is provided at the very moment they are faced with a prescribing decision. The current study aimed to analyse the impact of nudges that presented cost information to prescribers through their organisation's electronic prescribing system. The nudges were co-created by the research team (composed of behavioural scientists) and the lead hospital pharmacist. One nudge provided simple cost information (percentage difference between two brands of Mesalazine – Asacol and Octasa). The second nudge provided the potential annual cost-saving that could result if the cheaper medication was selected across the organisation. While the statistical analyses revealed that these nudges were not effective, several administrative barriers were overcome, which may inform future research. For example, presenting aggregated cost information to the prescribers is possible even when the actual cost of medicine is confidential and can not be displaced. In addition, future research could reveal more behavioural factors that facilitate medication optimisation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0158.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: land use regression; low-cost sensors; machine learning; particulate matter; Africa
Online: 14 June 2020 (03:11:17 CEST)
Background: There are major air pollution monitoring gaps in sub-Saharan Africa. Developing capacity in the region to conduct air monitoring in the region can help estimate exposure to air pollution for epidemiology research. The purpose of our study is to develop a land use regression (LUR) model using low-cost air quality sensors developed by a research group in Uganda (AirQo). Methods: Using these low-cost sensors, we collected continuous measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) between May 1, 2019 and February 29, 2020 at 22 monitoring sites across urban municipalities of Uganda. We compared average monthly PM2.5 concentrations from the AirQo sensors with measurements from a BAM-1020 reference monitor operated at the US Embassy in Kampala. Monthly PM2.5 concentrations were used for LUR modeling. We used eight Machine Learning (ML) algorithms and ensemble modeling; using 10-fold cross validation and root mean squared error (RMSE) to evaluate model performance. Results: Monthly PM2.5 concentration was 60.2 µg/m3 (IQR: 45.4-73.0 µg/m3; median= 57.5 µg/m3). For the ML LUR models, RMSE values ranged between 5.43 µg/m3 - 15.43 µg/m3 and explained between 28% and 92% of monthly PM2.5 variability. Generalized additive models explained the largest amount of PM2.5 variability (R2=0.92) and produced the lowest RMSE (5.43 µg/m3) in the held-out test set. The most important predictors of monthly PM2.5 concentrations included monthly precipitation, major roadway density, population density, latitude, greenness, and percentage of households using solid fuels. Conclusion: To our knowledge, ours is the first study to model the spatial distribution of urban air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa using air monitors developed from the region itself. Non-parametric ML for LUR modeling performed with high accuracy for prediction of monthly PM2.5 levels. Our analysis suggests that locally produced low-cost air quality sensors can help build capacity to conduct air pollution epidemiology research in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0245.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: cannabis; tobacco; co-use; simultaneous use; mixing
Online: 14 December 2022 (06:30:42 CET)
Introduction: Increasing cannabis legalization raises concerns that tobacco use, frequently used with cannabis, will also increase. This study investigated the association between legal status of cannabis in place of residence and prevalence of cannabis and tobacco co-use, simultaneous use, and mixing by comparing the prevalence among adults in Canada (prior to cannabis legalization) vs. adults in US states that had legalized recreational cannabis vs. US states that had not as of September 2018. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2018 International Cannabis Policy Study, conducted with respondents aged 16-65 in Canada and the US recruited from non-probability consumer panels. Differences in the prevalence of co-use, simultaneous use, and mixing between tobacco and different cannabis products were examined using logistic regression models by legal status of place of residence among past 12-month cannabis consumers (N=6744). Results: Co-use and simultaneous use in the past 12 months were most common among respondents in US legal states. Among cannabis consumers, co-use and simultaneous use were less common in US legal states, while mixing was less frequent in US states with both legal and illegal cannabis compared to Canada. Use of edibles was associated with lower odds of all three outcomes, while smoking dried herb or hash was associated with higher odds. Conclusions: The proportion of cannabis consumers who used tobacco was lower in legal jurisdictions despite higher prevalence of cannabis use. Edible use was inversely associated with co-use suggesting that edible use does not appear to be associated with increased tobacco use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0448.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: automated vehicles; land use; potential implication; urban mobility; use cases
Online: 29 July 2022 (04:31:50 CEST)
Automated vehicles (AVs), which are expected to enter the market within the near future, represent the current frontiers in mobility and urban planning. AVs are assumed to bring substantial benefits to cities in many aspects. The present study attempts to investigate this broad assumption by conducting a literature review on the possible implications of AVs in cities as well as synthesizing the current state of practice of AV pilots to detect trends in their deployment. In this paper, literature findings on AVs’ implication on vehicle ownership, mobility, land use as well thirteen uses cases were synthesized to capture the big picture of them in cities. The findings showed that, in the AV pilots, the operation of AVs is limited to routes stretching less than 3.5km and an operation speed of less than 18km/h; low speed has been one of the main concerns of the participating passengers to use them for daily trips. The results also revealed that although shared AVs are expected in urban mobility, private ownership will stay competitive since vehicle ownership has been a socio-cultural identity in the history of automobiles. The findings also underlined that the potential influence of AVs on active mobility is still unclear as the AVs have not been introduced on a larger scale. Regarding AVs’ impact on land use, their introduction results in the effective use of space, but they will cause suburbanization in the long term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0431.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: alcohol use; drug use; adolescents; adults; health variables; South Africa
Online: 16 November 2020 (15:36:53 CET)
The study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol use (HHDA) and drug use among persons 15 years and older in South Africa. In a national cross-sectional 2017 survey, 39,210 persons 15 years and older (Median=34 years) responded to a questionnaire on substance and health variables. Logistic regression was used to assess the determinants of HHDA and any drug use. Results indicate that (10.3%) engaged HHDA, 16.5% among males and 4.6% among females, and past 3-month drug use was 8.6%, 13.3% among males and 4.1% among females. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, among men, middle age (25-34 year olds), higher education, urban residence, drug use, and psychological distress were positively and Indian or Asian and White population groups were negatively associated with HHDA. Among women, middle age (25-34 year olds), Coloureds, residing on rural farms and urban areas, drug use and psychological distress were positively and older age (55 years and older), and Indians or Asians were negatively associated with HHDA. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, among men, having Grade 8-11 education, Coloureds, being unemployed, and HHDA were positively and middle and older age (25 years and older) and being a student or learner were negatively associated with past 3-month any drug use. Among women, Coloureds, Indians or Asians, and HHDA were positively and older age (45 years and older) was negatively associated with past 3-month and drug use. About one in ten participants engaged HHDA and any drug use, and several sociodemographic and health indicators were identified associated with HHDA and any drug use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0247.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: artificial neural network; land use land cover; Indonesia; land use prediction
Online: 9 March 2021 (09:43:54 CET)
Great Malang region is developing rapidly with the population increase and inhabitant`s activity, like migration and urbanization. Other activities like agricultural expansion as well as an uncontrolled residential development need to be monitored to avoid any negative impact in the future. The availability of free and open-source software, spatial high-resolution satellite imagery datasets, and powerful algorithms open the possibilities to map, monitor, and predict the future trend of land use land cover (LULC) changes. However, the accuracy and precision of this model is still in doubt, especially in the Great Malang region. Research is needed to provide a foundational basis and documentation on how the changes occur, where did the changes occur, and the accuracy of the predicted model. This study tries to answer those questions using the high spatial resolution of Sentinel-2 imageries. Combination of the fuzzy algorithm, artificial neural network, and cellular automata was utilized to process the datasets. We analysed four different scenarios of simulation and the result then compared. The different number of hidden layers and iteration was used and evaluated to understand the effect of different parameters in the prediction result. The best scenario was then used to predict future land use changes. This study has successfully produced the future LULC model of Great Malang region with high accuracy level (87%). The study also found that the land use transformation from agriculture to urban built-up area is relatively low, where changes of the built-up area over three periods of analysis are below than 5%. This is due to the physical condition of Great Malang region where mountainous areas are dominated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: vancomycin; broad view; veterinary use at a glance; rational use; alternatives
Online: 12 November 2016 (11:09:37 CET)
Vancomycin is one of the ‘last-line’ classes of antibiotics used in the treatment of life-threatening infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Even though vancomycin was discovered in 1950s it was widely used after 1980s for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococci as prevalence of such strains were increased. However, currently it is evident that vancomycin resistant Staphylococcusaureusandvancomycin-resistant Enterococci have been developed as a result of various reasons including use of avaparcin, which is an analog of vancomycin, as feed additive in livestock. In present day context, more attention should be paid on prevention of emergence of resistance for the antibiotics in order to keep antibiotics effective. In order to prevent emergence of resistance, proper guidance for the responsible use of antimicrobials is indispensable. Therefore, almost all stakeholders who use antibiotics should have in depth understanding on the antibiotic they use. As such, it is imperative to be aware of the important aspects of vancomycin. In the present review, efforts have been made to discussthe pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, indications, emergence of resistance, control of resistance, adverse effects and alternative therapy for vancomycin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0226.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Biodiversity lossč driving forcesč land use intensityč fragmentationč Land Use Intensity index LUI
Online: 12 January 2023 (10:43:27 CET)
Biodiversity loss has been identified as the environmental impact where humankind has been trespassing planetary boundaries most ruthlessly. Going beyond the pressures causing damages and analysing their un-derlying driving forces, ipbes identified a series of drivers. The Montreal-Kunming Global Biodiversity Framework GBF is intended to and claims to be a policy response to such analyses. To enhance the resilience of ecological systems, to allow for their recovery and enable the restoration efforts foreseen in the GBF to be successful, the pressures/direct drivers have to be reduced and the drivers/indirect drivers of biodiversity loss have to be redirected. However, often the necessary (semi-)quantitative infor-mation needed to politically address the drivers is absent or patchy. The data collected under the United Nations System of Environmental-Economic Accounting—Ecosystem Accounting, to which the GBF is affiliated, monitors the state of ecosystems, with no priority for pressure/direct driver analysis. Hence we suggest LUI, a deliberately simple index designed for two purposes, as a tool for communicating where sophisticated statistics are available, and as an information collection tool elsewhere Its simple and intuitively understandable structure makes it suitable for citizens’ science applications, and thus for partici-pative monitoring when extensive statistical data gathering is not feasible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0036.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: opioid use disorder; chronic pain; medications for opioid use disorder; stigma; rural health
Online: 4 July 2022 (07:54:04 CEST)
Providing patient-centered care to manage chronic pain and opioid use disorder (OUD) is associated with improved health outcomes. However, adopting a holistic approach to providing care is often challenging in rural communities. This study aims to identify and contrast challenges to providing patient-centered care from the perspective of patients and providers. A participatory design approach was adopted to elicit the perceptions of providers and patients with lived experiences of chronic pain and OUD in Jefferson County, Wisconsin. Two focus groups were conducted with each stakeholder group to identify problems that participants face with respect to chronic pain management and OUD and possible solutions. Four interviews were conducted with providers experienced in chronic pain management. Analysis of focus group sessions and interviews show consensus among patients and providers that lack of behavioral health and recovery resources create barriers to effectively manage OUD and chronic pain. However, there was discordance among the two groups about other barriers such as patient and provider attitudes, tapering approach, and access to medications for OUD. This tension among patients and providers can influence patients’ retention in therapy. More efforts are needed to mitigate stigma among providers in rural communities and support psychosocial needs of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0337.v1
Online: 12 November 2020 (09:49:51 CET)
The study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of heavy episodic drinking (HED) among adults in Ecuador. In the national cross-sectional 2018 Ecuador STEPS survey, 4,638 persons (median age=39 years, range 18-69 years) responded to a questionnaire, physical measures, and biomedical tests. Results indicate that 24.1% had past month HED, 36.7% among men, and 12.0% of women; 40.6% past month HED among past 12-month drinkers. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, male sex (Adjusted Odds Ratio=AOR: 3.12, 95% Confidence Interval=CI: 2.50-3.89), past smoking (AOR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.09-1.76), and current smoking (AOR: 2.83, 95% CI: 2.15-3.83) were positively and persons aged 50-69 years (AOR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.38-0.66) and having underweight (AOR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.09-0.89) were negatively associated with HED. In addition, in sex-stratified analyses, among men, being African Ecuadorean or Mulato (AOR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.10-2.91), and high physical activity (AOR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.01-1.99) were positively associated with HED, and among women, being Montubia (AOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.17-0.93) was negatively and obesity (AOR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.44) was positively associated with HED. Almost one in four participants engaged in HED, and several sociodemographic and health indicators were identified that may facilitate public health interventions for reducing HED.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0752.v1
Online: 31 October 2018 (11:13:37 CET)
Objective: To evaluate the status of receiving education on rational drug use, the criteria in medical drug selection, and level of knowledge of dentists working in a dentistry faculty in Turkey. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive study based on a questionnaire. One hundred seventeen (74%) dentists volunteered to participate in the study. The questionnaire consisted of 20 questions investigating sociodemographic features and rational drug use. Results: The mean age of the dentists was 30.8 ± 7.2 years, and 62.4% were men. The mean period of professional experience was 8.9±7.1 years. The most frequently used resources of references while prescribing medicine were Vademecum (medical drug guide) (61.5%), the internet (59.0%), and colleagues (49.6%). The most frequently reported condition described as ‘good’ was drug indications (43.6%). The dentists had a moderate level of information about posology, and administration route (48.7%), pharmacologic features (48.7%), and contraindications (46.2%). The number of dentists who stated that they considered cost while prescribing was low [always (6%), and frequently (15.4%)]. Rational drug use education had been received by 23.9% of the dentists. Conclusions: The dentists were found to have a lack of adequate and effective education on rational use of drugs. Regular and continuous education before and after graduation is a necessity for dentists and for their patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0505.v1
Online: 29 August 2018 (15:52:44 CEST)
Background: Alcohol is a psychoactive substance that leads to dependence and harmful drinking in worldwide. Alcohol use is the most prevalent among age from 13 to 29 year particularly in high school, college, and university students. It affected students mentally, physically, economically and their social issues. In low and middle-income countries particularly in Ethiopia, there is lack of data in systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors among students. Methods: We will search studies using computerized search engine, main electronic databases and other applicable sources. PubMed/Medline, Global Health, Africa-wides, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and direct Google search will be searched to retrieve studies written in English language from 2010 to 2017. Observational studies (case control, cross-sectional, cohort or longitudinal survey, and surveillance reports) on the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors among students in Ethiopia will be eligible. Data will be extracted by two authors independently. Data synthesis and statistical analysis will be carried out. Pooled estimate will be done to determine the prevalence of alcohol use by using comprehensive meta-analysis software. Protocol registration PROSPERO: 2017: CRD42018083222.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0406.v1
Online: 30 May 2018 (17:21:00 CEST)
The natural and man-made landscape settings in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Northern Pakistan have significantly changed in the last decade due to increasing demands of urbanized populace, migration, two major natural disasters, and climate change. The aim of this study is to analyze land possession, income and land-use diversification of KPK administered Charsadda district. Field data is collected through a sample survey. Furthermore, freely available Landsat 7 satellite images are used to classify land-use classes (e.g. vegetation, built-up) for two different years (e.g. 2005 and 2017) for cross-verification and comparison. The highest 45% of 80% land-owners occupy land-area between 1-10 hectares. Annually, the highest 57.5% of the total farmers / employed in-habitants of surveyed regions earn more than Rs. 100,000 or ~ $ 970 from agriculture activities. About 41.9% land-area covered by agricultural-land is transformed into built-up area since 2007, which is attributed to the increasing demand for buildings and commercial markets. The highest diversification is reported in Naguman area of Charsadda district followed by Rajjar and Niami. Population growth and huge migration of displaced persons from neighboring tribal areas are likely to be few factors which contributed to such a drastic change in land-use pattern since 2007 to 2017. Urgent attention of the policy makers, agricultural experts and society is required to minimize land degradation and to thwart further agricultural-land loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0383.v1
Online: 28 May 2018 (05:20:28 CEST)
The natural and man-made landscape settings in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Northern Pakistan have significantly changed in the last decade due to increasing demands of urbanized populace, migration, two major natural disasters, and climate change. The aim of this study is to analyze land possession, income and land-use diversification of KPK administered Charsadda district. Field data is collected through a sample survey. Furthermore, freely available Landsat 7 satellite images are used to classify land-use classes (e.g., vegetation, built-up) for two different years (e.g., 2005 and 2017) for cross-verification and comparison. The highest 45% of 80% land-owners occupy land-area between 1–10 hectares. Annually, the highest 57.5% of the total farmers / employed in-habitants of surveyed regions earn more than Rs. 100,000 or ~$970 from agriculture activities. About 41.9% land-area covered by agricultural-land is transformed into built-up area since 2007, which is attributed to the increasing demand for buildings and commercial markets. The highest diversification is reported in Naguman area of Charsadda district followed by Rajjar and Niami. Population growth and huge migration of displaced persons from neighboring tribal areas are likely to be few factors which contributed to such a drastic change in land-use pattern since 2007 to 2017. Urgent attention of the policy makers, agricultural experts and society is required to minimize land degradation and to thwart further agricultural-land loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0213.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: copper; in-use stock; average age; average use life method; fixed assets depreciation method
Online: 2 June 2017 (07:36:06 CEST)
With the increasing of copper consumption, the in-use stock of copper tends to increase. This paper used the “average use life method” to quantify the amount of copper in-use stock, and calculated the average age of in-use stock. It was indicated that the total in-use stock had an overall smooth trends, and reached its peak in 2007 was about 68.9 Mt (million tons), in addition, in-use stock per capita reached its peak ,234 kg/capita in 2001. The results demonstrated that during the period 1992-2002, the average age of copper in-use stock was continually decreased, but gradually increased since the year 2003. The fixed assets depreciation method used in this paper is applied to analyze depreciated copper in-use stock, and to analyze the relationship with economic indicator (GDP). It is demonstrated that it was inconsistent with the theory of Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) before 2000, this might be the demand for copper in the service sector is greater than the reduced strength of alternatives. Finally, scenario analysis of future copper in-use stock and depreciated copper in-use stock per capita in the U.S. were presented. The corresponding average age of the in-use stock will have a slight rise in the next decade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0709.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: drugs; perception of controlling drug use; drug use control strategies; risk and harm reduction approach
Online: 29 June 2021 (13:23:18 CEST)
Background: This article evaluates the perception of drug use control and strategies in Valencia City (Spain) in a general and clinical population, in two independent studies. Material and Methods: 1071 people participated. In the Study 1 (n= 924) the entire sample came from general population (GP), and in the Study 2 (n=147), 68 were drug users being treated in an Addictive Behaviors Unit (ABU), and 79 people of the GP. The drug use control perception and strategies in both subgroups were compared. The participants filled in the Drug Use Strategies Scale and a Drug Use Survey. Results: A high level of perception of drug control in GP was obtained (72,7% in the Study 1 and 67,5% in the Study 2), and 32.5% in ABU subgroup. People in the PG and drug users in treatment differ in some control strategies. A predictive profile of the perception of control was obtained for the Study 2. Conclusion: The high degree of perception of controlling drug use in the GP, and partially in drug users being treated, and the specific control strategies reported suggests that moderate use and drug control strategies are a great value alternative to bear in mind compared to abstinence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0575.v1
Online: 30 December 2022 (08:34:09 CET)
Forests are a large reservoir of biodiversity on which riparian populations frequently rely. Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are an important source of income for millions of people living in forest-adjacent communities. This study aims at characterizing the types and uses of NTFPs in order to determine whether their exploitation in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo is sustainable. Interviews and direct observation were carried out with NTFP stakeholders (harvesters, sellers, and consumers) in Kalonge, near the Kahuzi-Biega National Park. The results showed that 40 NTFPs of plant origin and 10 NTFPs of animal origin are commonly exploited and used in food and traditional medicine. The most common NTFP harvesting techniques are debarking, picking, digging up, felling, and wine extraction, which are all tailored to the plant part. A significant relationship (p-value< 0.001) has been established between the types of NTFPs used and harvesting methods as well as between the types of NTFPs used and organs retrieved. NTFP products are mainly obtained from the natural forest KBNP but also in the woodland, trees grown outside of forest or through domestication. Their abundance, however, is hampered by the extraction of wood for charcoal, energy, and timber, as well as agricultural expansion. The supply of NTFPs is determined by the market demand for the products, the nature of the product, and the ease of disposal. The NTFPs value chain in Kalonge is important to the local economy, however exploitation of NTFP products remains uncontrolled and should be well managed to ensure sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0715.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: energy crops; land use; biomass; bioenergy
Online: 27 April 2021 (12:38:38 CEST)
Research Highlights: (1) Reed canary grass (RCG) is analysed in Sweden compared to willow and poplar for 2001-2020 (2) Each crop presents a different land-use and climatic profile (3) Average yield records of reed canary grass are similar to willow and poplar (4) There are divergences between trial-based and commercial yields (5) Existing LUC patterns suggest meadow>RCG and RCG>cereal (6) RCG land area is very sensitive to policy incentives. Background and objectives: RCG is an alternative crop for biomass-to-energy due to high yield and frost tolerance. We assess the cultivation in Sweden by using an extensive compilation of data, with emphasis on the extension of the cultivation, areas planted, climatic profile, land use patterns and yield levels. Material and methods: All RCG plantations are analysed for 2001-2020. A geostatistical analysis is performed to characterize where is cultivated and the land uses associated. Climatic, productivity and yield profiles are compared to willow and poplar plantations, from experiments and from commercial plantations. Results: The results show that the cultivation of reed canary grass expanded after 2005, with a maximum of 800 ha in 2009 to then decrease to the current levels of about 550 ha. It is mainly grown in colder climatic areas, with lower agricultural productivity than willow and poplar. Mean yields from trials are 6 odt ha-1 yr-1; commercial yields are 3.5 odt ha-1 yr-1. RCG replace meadow land and is replaced by cereals, when abandoned. Conclusions: Reed canary grass is an interesting alternative, growing on colder areas but on similar yield levels than other energy crops. The cultivation is more sensitive to policy incentives
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0509.v1
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:05:04 CET)
Otodus megalodon is known as the biggest shark ever alive and recent records show this species was only existed in America, Africa and Europe continents in the last Miocene period 20 million years ago (Ma). Recently, megalodon teeth have been discovered in South coast of West Java. Here this study aims to present and model the presence of O. megalodon. The length of the excavated tooth was ranging from 13 to 19 cm. The lithological analysis shows that the tooth was found in Miocene rock layers. Paleogeographic model shows that during Miocene southern parts of Java island were submerged including the recent locations where the megalodon tooth have been found. Half parts of the modeled West Java were an ocean with depth ranging from 0 to 200 m. High habitat use preferences by juvenile megalodon were estimated in the shelf (depth 0-40 m) with the size of 1365 km2 . Whereas habitat use preference by adult megalodon was low at this depth. Both juvenile and adult habitat use frequencies were low at a depth of between 80 m and 160 m. Habitat use preferences were increasing at a depth of > 200 m. After Miocene, the paleoclimate records show a decline in temperature and lead to the decline of whale population in ocean. The declining of megalodon’s prey explains the declining of this giant shark especially in post Miocene and early Pliocene periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0407.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Substance use disorders; primary care; Thailand
Online: 16 November 2020 (09:17:22 CET)
Background: Monk healers provide an accessible and popular service in Southeast Asia, but little is known on the substance use status of their clients. This investigation intended to assess and compare the rate and correlates of substance use disorders in two different treatment settings (monk healers=MH and primary health care=PHC) in Thailand. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 1024 patients (591 of MH and 613 of PHC) responded to screening measures of the “World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test Lite”, and two common mental disorders (major depression and generalized anxiety disorder) from November 2018 to February 2019. Logistic regression was used to estimate the determinants of any substance use disorder in the MH and PHC setting. Results: The prevalence of substance use disorder was higher in MH clients than PHC patients: any substance use disorder 11.7% (95% Confidence Interval-CI: 9.3%-14.5%) vs 5.4% (95% CI: 3.9%-7.5%), tobacco use disorder 7.6% (95% CI: 5.7%-9.9%) vs 2.5% (95% CI: 1.5%-4.0%), alcohol use disorder 10.0% (95% CI: 8.4%-13.6%) vs 4.3% (95% CI: 3.0%-6.3%), any drug use disorder 4.2% (95% CI: 2.8%-6.1%) vs 0.3% (95% CI: 0.08%-1.3%), and any past three months drug use 8.2% (95% CI: 6.2%-10.7%) vs 1.5%, 95% CI: 0.8%-2.8%). In adjusted logistic regression analysis, among MH clients, male sex (Adjusted Odds Ratio-AOR: 9.52, 95% Confidence Interval-CI: 5.06-17.92) was positively, and were married (AOR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.16-0.61) and high social support (AOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.16-0.99) were negatively associated with any substance use disorder. Among PHC patients, male sex (AOR: 7.05, 95% CI: 2.99-16.63) was positively and age (AOR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92-0.98) was negatively associated with any substance use disorder. Conclusion: The proportion of substance use disorders among MH attendees was more than twice that of PHC attenders in Thailand, calling for collaboration in controlling substance use disorders between the two treatment systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0047.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Anthropization; Environmental impact; Water resource; Land-use.
Online: 2 December 2022 (10:28:44 CET)
The suppression of natural spaces due to the urban sprawl and increase of the built and agricultural environments has impacted the water resources quality, especially in areas with high population density, as the metropolitan regions. Considering the advance in Brazilian environmental legal framework, the present study aims to verify whether land use has still significantly affected water quality, through a case study in the Stones River watershed, a peri-urban river basin at a metropolitan region, Brazil. Analysis of physical-chemical indicators, collected at several sample points with different land-use (urban areas, commercial forestry, riparian forestry, mixed vegetation, pasture, and sugar cane plantation) at different seasons of the year (dry and rainy) were carried out. As a result, it was verified some statistically significant spatiotemporal effects on the of water quality caused associated to the land-use. In conclusion, in spite of the advances in the Brazilian law, land-use has still significantly affected the water quality, demanding public policies and decisions, so that effective compliance with legal guidelines is ensured.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0312.v1
Online: 20 October 2022 (13:31:37 CEST)
Land includes vegetation and water bodies and provides the basis for human livelihoods through primary production, the supply of food, freshwater, and multiple other ecosystem goods and services. The last three decades have recorded frequent drought events as well as rapid population growth, which has resulted in often negative land use and land cover change (LULCC) in the Sahel of Sub-Saharan Africa. In order to propose sustainable land management strategies, it is important to investigate the rate of LULCC and its driving factors in specific locations. This study investigated the case of Wocoro municipality in Mali using a combined approach of remote sensing, Geographical Information System, and focus group discussions. Satellite images and local people's perceptions on LULCC and drivers were collected and analyzed for the years 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020. We found that the study area faced a severe decrease in wooded savannah with an increase in farmland and settlement directly or indirectly related to the rapid population growth, high cotton price (which encouraged cropland expansion), drought, firewood extraction, and charcoal production, which was exacerbated by poverty. There is a need to promote integrated land management strategies that consider current and future livelihoods needs and preserve the health of the environment for the benefits of future generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0130.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: rural aquaculture; water use; emergy; fish production
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:21:43 CET)
Freshwater pond aquaculture is the prevailing fish culture system worldwide, especially in developing countries. Climate change outcomes and inadequate environmental practices challenge its sustainability. This study applies emergy synthesis to assess the environmental performance of freshwater pond aquaculture in Brazil, aiming to identify and propose practices towards sustainability. As a study model, nine semi-intensive lambari farms operating at three levels of management were evaluated: low (LC), moderate (MC) and high (HC) control. Results showed that the main inputs for LC were services (27-46%), feed (7-39%), and water (15-21%), while for the MC and HC farms, they were feed (35-49% and 17-48%, respectively) and services (33-39% and 26-36%, respectively). All farms required more than 60% of their emergy from purchased inputs, resulting in low emergy sustainability index (ESI = 0.1-0.5). Replacing animal protein and oil on diet composition by vegetal sources, using superficial water instead of springwater, increasing juvenile productivity, and controlling pond fertilization can lead all systems to higher efficiency and resilience, increasing sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0287.v1
Online: 13 May 2021 (12:49:40 CEST)
Quantity-intensity characteristics are among conventional approaches for studying potassium dynamics and its availability; this was assessed to determine availability in four districts: namely, Sodo Zuria, Damot Gale, Damot Sore, and Boloso Sore at three different land use type viz., enset-coffee, crop land, and grazing land. There was water soluble, ammonium acetate, nitric acid extractable potassium, exchangeable potassium, and non-exchangeable potassium studied in soil samples, which were collected from 0-20 cm depth of each land type. The study revealed that water soluble and ammonium acetate extractable potassium concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 0.42 cmolKg-1 soils enset-coffee and grazing land use types, respectively. The study showed that exchangeable potassium constituted the highest proportion of available potassium, while the proportion of water soluble potassium was found to be the lowest. In this study, non-exchangeable potassium concentrations varied from 0.10 to 0.04cmolKg-1soils for enset-coffee, and crop and grazing land use type. Furthermore, available potassium and exchangeable potassium concentrations were positively correlated with OC(r=0.95***), cation exchange capacity, and sand and clay(r=0.98***). In addition, the K dynamics as impacted by land use types found that the highest change in exchangeable potassium (0.31cmolkg-1soils) and potential buffering capacity (1.79cmolkg-1soils) were noted in crop land use types, whereas the lowest change(1.26cmolkg-1 soils) was observed in the enset-coffee system, The varying properties, potassium status, dynamic and land use type of soils identified in the study areas provided adequate information to design soil potassium management options and further research about the soil in each site. Therefore, application of site specific soil fertility management practices and research can improve soil potassium status and quantity intensity parameters to sustain crop productive soils.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0020.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Ehretia laevis; Pharmacological Activities; Phytochemistry; Traditional Use
Online: 4 May 2021 (13:59:18 CEST)
Ehretia laevis Roxb. (Boraginaceae) has been extensively used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of a diverse range of ailments related to the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal tract, the reproductive system, and against several infections. This review critically assesses and documents, for the ﬁrst time, the fragmented information on E. laevis, including its botanical description, folklore uses, bioactive phytometabolites and pharmacological activities. The goal is to explore this plant therapeutically. Ethnomedicinal surveys reveal that E. laevis has been used by tribal communities in Asian countries for the treatment of various disorders. Quantitative and qualitative phytochemical investigations of E. laevis showed the presence of important phytoconstituents such as pentacyclic triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, fatty acids, steroids, alkaloids, aliphatic alcohols, hydrocarbons, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Fresh plant parts, crude extracts, fractions and isolated compounds have been reported to exhibit broad spectrum of therapeutic activities viz., antioxidant, antiarthritic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric, wound healing and anti-infective activities. E. laevis is shown to be an excellent potential source of drugs for the mitigation of jaundice, asthma, dysentery, ulcers, diarrhea, ringworm, eczema, diabetes, fissure, syphilis, cuts and wounds, inflammation, liver problems, venereal and infectious disorders. Although few investigations authenticated its traditional uses but employed uncharacterized crude extracts of the plant, the major concerns raised are reproducibility of therapeutic efficacy and safety of plant material. The outcomes of limited pharmacological screening and reported bioactive compounds of E. laevis suggest that there is an urgent need for in-depth pharmacological investigations of the plant.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0187.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Antibiotic use, Neonatal Units, EpicLatino, Latin America.
Online: 9 April 2021 (13:24:43 CEST)
Background: Recent years have seen chaos in the neonatology use of antibiotics with diverse opinions and recommendations in international guidelines and societies. This has created great uncertainty in which cases to use, for how long, and which tests apply to make these decisions. We conducted a retrospective cohort study about the use of antibiotics in the EpicLatino neonatal units and a Latin American network database, after noting these variations in the 2019 report. Methods: For the year 2019 using the EpicLatino database, we included cases (only first admission) ≤32 weeks gestational age at birth, excluding one unit that did not accept to participate. The number of cases and days receiving antibiotics were recorded as well as the progression for each unit. Inappropriate use of antibiotics was defined as greater than 3 days in patients with negative cultures (blood/CSF cultures) excluding: major malformations, urinary tract infections, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and cases with suspected chorioamnionitis in the mother (the latter two only during the course of diagnosis of NEC or chorioamnionitis). This study was approved by the EpicLatino board of directors and by the participating units. Results: A total of 6,543 days of antibiotics were observed, 49.5% of cases had at least one positive blood/CSF culture. A total of595 days of antibiotics without justification were found in 72 courses in 61 cases; 14/72(19.4%) had no diagnosis of infection in the database, 7/72(9.7%) did not document any culture throughout their stay, and 37/72(51,4%) obtained only one blood/CSF culture during their entire stay. Most diagnosis were clinical sepsis and in 24/58(41%) curses, a diagnosis of pneumonia with a poor positive culture correlation was found. Furthermore, 74% of the units didn´t use pneumonia as a justification to use antibiotics. Other diagnosis found: Conjunctivitis, NEC 1A and rotavirus NEC. Conclusions: Although the method of reviewing the use of antibiotics in a database has a number of limitations, especially the cause that motivated the use of antibiotics and other tools used for diagnosis of infections, the notable differences between units is striking. Although it is difficult to make recommendations to all units, it is important to control infections in some units and in others to reduce the excessive use of antibiotics, especially with diagnosis of pneumonia in neonates and negative blood/CSF cultures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0051.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: problematic smartphone use; adolescence; marketing; unhook; gamification
Online: 27 May 2020 (04:59:36 CEST)
Background: Smartphones have become an indispensable part of the daily lives of adolescents in the 21st century, which is characterized by a highly digitized modern world. Besides their many advantages, smartphones might pave the way to compulsive usage and addictive experiences. To remedy this problem, this study proposes an authentic approach which integrates consumer behavior theories and techniques such as unhook and gamification. An education program has been designed based on these approaches to decrease the problematic smartphone use. Method: The participants of the education program consisted of 305 students (48.2% girls and 51.8% boys) with a mean age of 14.57 (SD = 0.74). The Demographic Form and Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SASA) were conducted before the education program and three weeks after the education. Results: The results of the paired sample t-test analysis before and after the education program revealed that the SASA total scores decreased significantly (p < 0.01). There are significant differences in terms of gender, mothers’ education and class levels. Conclusion: This research emphasizes the role of an interdisciplinary approach to the addiction problem. The content used in the education program includes strategies that originally aimed at increasing consumption. The effectiveness of the program can be enhanced further in the future along with self-regulatory additions.
Online: 10 December 2019 (16:07:24 CET)
Recombinant laboratory plasmids (RLPs) are common in biological research and freely shared among academic research laboratories (ARLs), a practice required by many research funding agencies. However, the generation of accurate, reproducible results in experiments utilizing RLPs can be hampered by a lack of accompanying sequence information and metadata. This culture of RLP sharing without knowledge of sequence or etiology is accepted by publishers, not regulated by governments, and outside the realm of bio-industry. In addition, no centralized infrastructure currently exists to collate such data, which at the moment is fragmented across companies, non-profits, and governments and thus is not easily accessed or enacted toward threat assessment. The ubiquity, free exchange, and dual-use risk of RLPs exemplifies a biosecurity threat and elevates the need to characterize their composition to facilitate improved biorisk management by the academic community. A number of common sense solutions are available to create a culture that addresses the biosecurity gap posed by RLP sharing. Culture shift in RLP management will require new norms, effective data management for collation of RLP sequences and metadata, and an incentive structure that encourages sequencing by stakeholders. The next generation of researchers must initiate and champion this shift with support from funding agencies and endorsement from governments and international organizations. Coordination of efforts and stakeholders will require international public/private collaboration, a structure that will be critical to ensure widespread utility as well as the ability of lower-resourced partners to participate, contribute, and benefit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: water–energy nexus; energy use; energy intensity
Online: 27 November 2019 (03:44:36 CET)
The water and wastewater sectors are energy-intensive, and so a growing number of utility companies are seeking to identify opportunities to reduce energy use. Though England’s water sector is of international interest, in particular due to the early experience with privatisation, for the time being very little published data on energy usage exists. We analyse telemetry data from Thames Water Utilities Ltd. (TWUL), which is the largest water and wastewater company in the UK and serves one of the largest mega-cities in the world, London. In our analysis, we (1) break down sectoral energy use into their components, (2) present a statistical method to analyse the long-term trends in use, as well as the seasonality and irregular effects in the data, (3) derive energy-intensity (kWh m3) figures for the system, and (4) compare the energy-intensity of the network against other regions in the world. Our results show that electricity use grew during the period 2009 to 2014 due to capacity expansions to deal with growing water demand and storm water flooding. The energy-intensity of the system is within the range of reported figures for systems in other OECD countries. Plans to improve the efficiency of the system could yield benefits in lower the energy-intensity, but the overall energy saving would be temporary as external pressures from population and climate change are driving up water and energy use.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0031.v1
Online: 4 June 2018 (10:23:46 CEST)
Background: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among youth in Poland has become very popular. The aim of this study was to identify potential points of access to these products among students aged 16-17 before implementation of sales restrictions to minors in Poland in November 2016. Methods: A school-based, cross-sectional survey was administered in 2015-2016 in 21 secondary/technical schools across two regions of Poland. Analyses focused on 341 students aged 16-17 who reported past 30-day use of e-cigarettes. Pearson chi-square analyses were utilized to examine associations between access-related items, e-cigarette use, and demographics. Results: Among youth e-cigarette users, the most common access to their first e-cigarette was from a friend (38%), followed by purchasing from vape shops (26%). Similar patterns emerged when students were asked about the access to their currently used e-cigarette. Most youth reported no difficulty purchasing cartridges/e-liquid containing nicotine (90%); the majority of users (52%) reported buying such products in vape shops. Conclusions: Prior to implementing age-related sales restrictions, youth access to e-cigarettes and paraphernalia did not pose any significant barriers. Poland’s introduction of a new age limit on e-cigarette sales may help limit the number of youth who purchase e-cigarettes from vape shops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0119.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: land use preference; ecosystem service; natural conservation
Online: 23 November 2016 (18:08:51 CET)
This paper aims to build up a preference function to evaluate the public benefits of the type of agricultural farming, biodiversity, water provisions, land use type, ecotourism modes, and a monetary attribute (environmental trust fund and willingness to contribute) associated with an ecosystem service and land use program in a forest park. This study used the choice experiments to build a random utility model, analyze the average preference for the above land use attributes based on the conditional logit and used a latent class model to test the resident’s heterogeneous preferences for land use planning in the forest park. We also estimated the welfare derived from various land use programs. The empirical result had shown that: (1) increasing organic farming area, maintaining the status quo of species biodiversity, increasing the surface water provision, increasing the area of custom flora, increasing the wetland area, and setting up an integrated framework for ecotourism increase the public’s preference for the land use program; (2) we found that farmer and non-farmer haven’t the same land use preferences; (3) the ecotourism development program incorporating biodiversity, organic farming, ethnobotany, and wetland area with integrated ecotourism are more preferred than other land use program scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0232.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Drug use review; Outpatients; Ghana; SORT IT; Quality indicators; Electronic Medical Records; Operational research; Rational use of medicines
Online: 15 September 2022 (13:39:06 CEST)
(1) Background: Rational use of medicines (RUM) and their assessment is important to ensure optimal use of resources and patient care in hospitals. These assessments are essential to identifying practice gaps for quality improvement. (2) Methods: Assessment of adherence to WHO/ International Network for Rational Use of Drugs core prescribing indicators among out-patients in 2021 was conducted at the University Hospital of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in the Ashanti region of Ghana. We reviewed electronic medical records (EMR) of 110,280 patient encounters in the year which resulted in 336,087 medicines prescribed. (3) Results: The average number of medicines prescribed per encounter was 3 with generics being prescribed in 76% of prescriptions. Injections were prescribed in 7% of encounters while 90% of medicines were from Ghana’s Essential Medicines List 2017. (4) Conclusions: With the exception of patient encounters with injections, all prescribing indicators assessed in this study did not meet WHO optimum levels providing targets for quality improvement in RUM. Implementing prescribing guides and policies, regular audits and feedback as well as continuous professional development training may help to improve prescribing practices in the hospital.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: adolescence; substance use; cannabis use; ordered logistic regression; fuzzy set theory; fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis; Boolean functions.
Online: 18 February 2022 (11:49:13 CET)
The literature on substance use usually extracts conclusions from data with correlational methods. Our study shows the usefulness of complementing ordered logistic regression (OLR) and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to assess factors inducing cannabis consumption in a sample of 1,935 teenagers. OLR showed a significant influence of gender (odd ratio (OR) =0.383, p<0.0001), parental monitoring (OR=0.587, p=0.0201); religiousness (OR=0.476, p=0.006); parental tolerance to substance use (OR=42.01, p<0.0001) and having close peers that consume substances (OR=5.60, p<0.0001). FsQCA has allowed fitting linkages between factors from a complementary perspective. (1) Coverage (cov) and consistency (cons) attained by solutions explaining use (cons=0.808, cov=0.357) are clearly lower than by recipes of non-use (cons=0.952, cov=0.869) (2) The interaction of gender, a tolerant family to use and the attitude toward substances by peers is very consistent to explain cannabis use. (3) The most important recipe explaining resistance to cannabis is simply parental disagreement with substance consumption (cons=0.956, cov=0.861) (4) Factors as gender, religiosity, parental monitoring and age show also a relevant impact on attitude toward cannabis use. However, whereas some of them impact symmetrically on use and non-use this does not follow in factors such as parental monitoring or age.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0070.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Circular Economy; Water; Wastewater; Resource Use; Latin America
Online: 4 January 2023 (06:39:53 CET)
Circular Economy (CE) is noted as an emerging tool or framework to support sustainable production and consumption agenda. In addition, CE is aiming to be a trigger for redefining economic growth pathways to be sustainable, inclusive, and sensitive to ecological and environmental agendas and to focus its operational standards on co-creating societal benefits. Concerning the guiding principles and the standards of practice applied to implement and scale circular economy, this study will provide an overview of the water sector-specific circularity roadmaps and strategies in the Latin American Region. By using a semi-systematic review, document analysis, and qualitative assessment approach, we highlight framings and operational pathways, gaps, and needs within existing practices of circularity in the water sector. The results provide an overview of CE pathways at the national level of selected countries in LAR iterating those nations reflect various levels of advancement (low to high) with CE-focused innovations and policy support structures specific to the water and wastewater sectors. Towards the closing, the study is pointing to the ‘call for action’ to integrate outstanding advances and innovations in the circular economy within sectoral mandates for water and wastewater management, making an argument that circularity in the water sector could serve as an accelerator toward implementing the agenda outlined in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and in particular for SDG 6 (water security for all).
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0497.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; intensive care unit; resource use; vaccination
Online: 28 November 2022 (06:38:08 CET)
We aim to use a recently published research study as an example in order to demonstrate how data can be misinterpreted and result in deriving misleading policy implications. Bagshaw et al wrote that unvaccinated patients with COVID-19 in Alberta, Canada “had substantially greater rates of ICU admissions, ICU bed days, and ICU related costs than vaccinated patients did. This increased resource use would have been potentially avoidable had these unvaccinated patients been vaccinated.” The authors in Bagshaw et al then concluded that their findings “have important implications for discourse on the relative balance of increasingly stringent public health protection (restrictions), including mandatory vaccination policies, and the sustainability and function of health system infrastructure and capacity during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.” Here we show the following. First, the effect of vaccination on intensive care admissions were grossly over-estimated. Second, an effect of vaccination on access to acute care and on all-cause excess deaths was grossly over-stated. Third, policy implications were overstated and at best unclear. Overall, the data cannot support what Bagshaw et al called “increasingly stringent public health protection (restrictions), including mandatory vaccination policies”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0469.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Escapism; addiction; excessive behaviors; internet use; gambling; gaming
Online: 29 August 2022 (07:16:59 CEST)
Excessive online behaviors refer to harmful or disproportionate use of digital network applications. Such behaviors are likely to be associated with escapist motives. Our aim was to analyze whether escapism predicts excessive gambling, excessive gaming, and excessive internet use over time. A longitudinal sample of Finnish residents aged 18–75 years (N = 1,022, 51.27% male) was surveyed at three time points in 6-month intervals: April 2021 (Time 1), October–November 2021 (Time 2), April–May 2022 (Time 3). Of the original Time 1 respondents, 66.80% took part in the surveys at both Time 2 and Time 3. All surveys included measures for excessive gambling (Problem Gambling Severity Index), excessive gaming (Internet Gaming Disorder Test), and excessive internet use (Compulsive Internet Use Scale). Three escapism-specific questions were used to construct a dedicated escapism variable. Socio-demographic variables, alcohol consumption, and psychological distress were used as controls. The study was conducted with multilevel regression analyses using hybrid models. Our research showed that escapism had strong within-person effects on excessive gambling, B = 0.18, p = .003; excessive gaming, B = 0.50, p < .001; and excessive internet use, B = 0.77, p < .001 over time. The between-person effect of escapism was demonstrated on excessive gaming B = 0.91, p <.001; and excessive internet use B = 0.61, p = .036. Adverse societal events and uncertain times can manifest in excessive online behaviors motivated by escapism, highlighting a need to focus prevention efforts on healthy coping methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0473.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Cultural Use; Squirrel; gliding squirrel; tribes; Arunachal Pradesh
Online: 28 September 2021 (13:32:46 CEST)
Based on an ethnozoological study carried out from December 2018 to November 2019, this paper attempts to document the usage of squirrel species for various purposes by the Adi, Idu Mishmi, Miju Mishmi, Tangsa, Chakma and Monpa tribe living near the villages adjoining the protected areas located in the districts of East Siang, Lower Dibang Valley, Dibang Valley, Lohit, Changlang and West Kameng of Arunachal Pradesh, India. The paper also describes the use of certain squirrel species as a part of their traditional culture and lists their names in English, Vernacular and Latin names. The study has led to an understanding that eight squirrel species are used by the tribes for cultural, food and medicinal purposes. This work contributes to ethnozoological research by describing a knowledge system of squirrel species use and the association of squirrel species with the cultural believes of the tribes.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0326.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Agency, Transition, Cognition, Land-use change, Games, Democracy
Online: 16 August 2021 (17:09:08 CEST)
While the scientific community has focused on documenting environmental degradation and developing scenarios that help identify the operational margins for system Earth, less attention has been given to the mental models of decision-makers that underpin environmental policies. We suggest that global efforts to stop deforestation and biodiversity loss are failing in part due to a critical blind spot in the analysis—human agency. To address this weakness, we propose to formulate mental models and translate them into strategy games. This will increase the representation of agency in scenario development and create spaces for deliberation between different worldviews. We claim that personal transformation can be achieved through transparent democratic dialogues that identify, challenge, and respond to the human and social limitations inherent to decision-making and we present empirical examples that validate that claim. Their transformation through gaming gives decision-makers access to the experience of consciousness: “what is it like being a stakeholder?”. Such experience will help to break free of established norms in science and political processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0588.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Antimicrobial use; knowledge; farmer-attitude; dairy-farmer; sheep
Online: 23 June 2021 (13:26:05 CEST)
This work examines dairy and sheep farmer attitudes toward antimicrobial use (AMU) in New Zealand. There is increasing public demand on livestock producers to reduce AMU in livestock. The demand stems from concerns about potential antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that could originate from food animals. There is limited practical data on farmer knowledge of AMU. An electronic survey was sent to dairy (n= 378) and sheep farmers (n= 551). Seventy-six dairy farmers (20%, n=76/378) returned the survey. Dairy farmers (69%) showed low levels of concern about antimicrobial resistance and awareness of the need to reduce AMU. Additionally, 76% of dairy farmers didn’t think it was possible to reduce AMU. Thirty-nine sheep farmers (7%, 39/551) returned the survey. 76% of sheep farmers were supportive of restricted use of AMU. The dairy and sheep farmers sourced most of the advice from veterinarians (>90%), the livestock industry (>80%) and their colleagues (>70%). This study shows that farmers showed varied concerns about AMR and AMU. Moreover, sheep farmers were more amenable to increased restriction on AMU than dairy farmers. This study suggests that knowledge gaps in farmers may best be filled by veterinarian input.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Antibiotics; antibiotic resistance; rational drug use; community pharmacist
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:58:43 CET)
Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is an emerging global threat to public health. Substantial evidence has indicated that community pharmacists (CPs) can play a critical role in managing the ever-increasing threat of antibiotic resistance. The study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practices of CPs (n=180) towards antibiotics and antibiotic resistance as well as to improve the rational use of antibiotics. Two phases of mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) online study were conducted in Pakistan from August 2019 to March 2020 by using validated questionnaires and semi-structured interview data. Different statistical methods were used to tabulate the quantitative data whereas inductive thematic analysis was conducted to categorize themes from the qualitative data and draw conclusions. Approximately 64.4% were male (mean: 29-33 years old). Overall, CPs had good knowledge of and were familiar with superbugs and their roles in ABR (65.6%, Median=1, IQR=1) although they were poor in differentiating some antibiotic groups with their respective ABR patterns (31.1%, Median=1, IQR=1). Most CPs have a positive attitude towards antibiotics with most (90.0%) having identified ABR as a critical issue in public health (Median=1, IQR=0). Overall, CPs' practices towards antibiotics were reasonable where they tend to educate patients about the rational use of antibiotics (52.8%, Median=1, IQR=1). Two main themes (antibiotics and counseling of patients) were related to self-medication with while educational interventions are the sub-theme. ABR is multifactorial where the subthemes related to budget, time constraints incompetent staff, the absence of CPs, the lack of training, enforcement of laws and regulations are the need of the hour in Pakistan. Effective antibiotic stewardship programs, patient education, and awareness campaigns about antibiotics and ABR along with training of the CPs are important factors that have to be addressed in a timely manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0510.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Brexit; land use change; Wales; agricultural policies; forestry
Online: 19 November 2020 (12:24:39 CET)
Changes in agricultural policy may have rapid impact even on landscapes which have taken millennia to form. Here we explore the potential of UK leaving the EU as a catalyst for profound changes in pastoral landscapes in Wales. Impending change of the trading regime governing agricultural produce, concurrent to public pressure to use agricultural subsidies for environmental goals, may lead to unforeseen consequences for Welsh natural environment. We employ a combination of change demand modelling and ‘story and simulation approach’ to predict the effect of five hypothetical scenarios on land use and land use change in Wales by 2030. We show that the most extreme trade scenario would result in a near-uniform distribution of broadleaf woodland across most of Wales. Abandonment of marginal and low productivity grazing would likely give way to afforestation, initiating a return to forested landscapes not seen in Wales for several thousands of years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0609.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: agency; transition; cognition; land-use change; games; democracy
Online: 29 October 2020 (11:24:42 CET)
Leclère et al.1 have outlined the possibility of a biodiversity transition for the 21st century, a line of thinking equivalent to the Forest Transition theory and what it says about forest cover globally2. The authors use a suite of global models to explore the impacts on global biodiversity of interventions on land-use, consumption and production patterns. They outline six strategies that have the potential to stop the downfall of global terrestrial biodiversity by 2050 and redress it to a pre-1970 level by 2100. Although robust, sophisticated and well-illustrated, the conclusions of this paper cannot alone be used to frame a post-2020 biodiversity strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0251.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: sustainability development; land use change; Corine Land Cover
Online: 19 December 2019 (07:21:51 CET)
The article presents the author's method of land use change assessment in the context of sustainable development and the results of its application based on the transformations that occurred in individual areas of Europe in the years 2012–2018. This method is based on data from the CORINE Land Cover program and local government units presenting the degree of urbanization (DEGURBA). The authors evaluate the transformations taking place in space, reducing them to economic, social and environmental dimensions. They then analyse the results in terms of space (covering the entire Europe) and in terms of division into: large cities, small towns as well as suburbs and rural areas. It has been shown that: development of the economic dimension most often takes place at the expense of natural resources; the higher the population density and more important function in the functional system of a given country, the greater the sustainable development differentiation level in the analysed dimensions, of which the social dimension is characterized by the lowest differentiation and the economic dimension is the highest; development of rural areas is less sustainable than in case of large urban centres. The result interpretation also leads to the conclusion that the areas of Europe are very diverse in terms of sustainable development. However, the method itself, despite the imperfections observed by the authors, may be used in further or similar studies.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: substance use; emotional intelligence; resilience; family functioning; adolescents
Online: 22 April 2019 (10:48:50 CEST)
The use of alcohol and tobacco is related to several variables which act as risk or protective factors, depending on the circumstances. The objectives of this study were to analyze the relationship between emotional intelligence, resilience and family functioning in adolescent use of alcohol and tobacco and to find emotional profiles for their use considering self-concept. The sample was made up of 317 high school students aged 13 to 18 who filled out the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory, the Resilience Scale for Adolescents, the APGAR Scale, the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire - Adolescents and the Five-Factor Self-Concept Questionnaire. The results revealed that emotional intelligence and resilience, specifically, stress management and family cohesion were significant in the group of nonusers. Family functioning acts as a predictor factor for onset of use of tobacco and alcohol. Positive expectancies about drinking alcohol were found to be a risk factor and the intrapersonal factor to be protective. Both stress management and family cohesion were protective factors against smoking. Furthermore, cluster analysis revealed emotional profiles for users of both substances based on self-concept. Finally, the importance of the direction of the relationship between the variables studied for intervention in this problem should be mentioned. Responsible use by improving adolescent decision-making is one of the results expected from this type of intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0103.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: alcohol; biosensor; cartridge; disposable; transdermal; Alcohol Use Disorder
Online: 8 April 2019 (15:07:30 CEST)
Transdermal alcohol biosensors have the ability to detect the alcohol that emanates from the bloodstream and diffuses through the skin. However, they have suffered from long-term fouling of the sensor element and drift in the resulting sensor readings over time. Here, we report a disposable cartridge platform that solves the problem of sensor fouling, and an enzymatic detection pathway that minimizes baseline drift for sensitive detection. Laboratory characterization of the enzymatic alcohol sensor demonstrates a linear sensor range of between 0 and 50 mM. Further, we show continuous transdermal alcohol data recorded with a human subject over 48 hours.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0239.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Nitrogen, N accumulation, nitrogen use efficiency, variety, maize
Online: 26 February 2019 (12:26:08 CET)
Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most widely grown important crop in mid altitude areas of intensive maize-based cropping system of western Ethiopia. Agronomic management is the most important input for getting potential yield and high net returns in hybrid maize production. A field experiment was carried out on farmers’ field to find out the effect of varieties (four maize) and nitrogen fertilizer rate (55, 110 kg N ha-1) with one control on yield components and nitrogen use efficiency of different maize varieties in 2013 and 2014 cropping season. It was laid with randomized complete block design in factorial arrangement with three replications. Mean grain yield, thousand seed weight, dry biomass and harvest index of maize varieties were significantly differed among farms and varieties of maize. Application of nitrogen fertilizer rates was significantly increased mean grain yield maize varieties. Interaction of maize varieties with nitrogen fertilizer rates was significantly affected all yield components of maize varieties. Application half and full recommended nitrogen fertilizer gave mean grain yield advantages of 31 and 41 % over control maize varieties planted without nitrogen application. Maize varieties producing higher mean grain yield was also giving higher mean dry biomass. Mean nitrogen up take was varied from 225 to 357 kg ha-1 among varieties of maize. Higher agronomic efficiency of all maize varieties was obtained from maize planted with application half recommended nitrogen fertilizer compared to full recommend. Agronomic efficiency was ranged from 18 to 33 produced among maize varieties. Significantly higher nitrogen up take efficiency of maize varieties was achieved from maize planted with full recommended nitrogen fertilizer application. Considerably higher nitrogen use efficiency of maize varieties was realized from all maize varieties planted with application half recommended nitrogen fertilizer. Application of half recommended nitrogen fertilizer was gave 32 % fertilizer N use efficiency advantage as compared to full recommended nitrogen fertilizer. Maize varieties BH-661>BH-660> BH-543>BH-540>BH-140 were desirable varieties for further promotion work and use by smallholder farmers in mid altitude area of western Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Mangals, Sustainability, Vegetation Indices, Land Use, Environmental Management
Online: 14 February 2019 (10:57:58 CET)
The aim of this paper is to study changes in land use and the evolution of vegetation in Cacheu River Mangroves Natural Park in the Republic of Guinea-Bissau. To do this, we will study variations in the NDVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. In order to perform the calculations and subsequent analysis, images from three years— 2010, and 2017—were used, all corresponding to the same time of year so that the phenological stage is the same. To perform a more reliable analysis, the park was divided into five classes based on the main use of the land: mangals, palm forest, paddy fields, savannahs and others. Using a statistical sample, same areas were selected for each class and the corresponding NDVIs were calculated for the years in which ASTER images were available. The study made it possible to conclude that at present, management of the park is not the most suitable, given that the changes in land use observed represent a decrease in mangrove swamps, despite the fact that these forests constitute the most important ecological area of all those that make up the park. Mangals are being replaced by other land uses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0174.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: secondary macronutrients; micronutrients; maize; use efficiency; nutrient uptake
Online: 17 December 2018 (05:23:39 CET)
To close the nutrient-related yield gaps in maize, balanced nutrition using primary and secondary macronutrients as well as micronutrients is recommended. Multi-nutrient diagnostic field trials were conducted in Guinea Savanna of Nigeria to assess the interactive effects of macronutrients and micronutrients on maize grain yields, nutrient uptake as well as N, P and K use efficiencies. The treatments consisted of a control (zero fertilizer applied), an NPK treatment and 10 other treatments in which macronutrient (Mg, S) and/or micronutrients (B, and Zn) were added to the NPK. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replications. Data collected were subjected to mixed model with nutrient management strategy as fixed effects while replication nested in location and interaction between location and nutrient management strategy as random effects. The results revealed significant effects (P < 0.05) of nutrient management strategy on maize yield, nutrient uptake and nutrient use efficiencies of N, P and K. The study revealed that yield advantage over the recommended NPK fertilizer as a result of application macronutrients and micronutrients were highest with Mg in Lere (2.4 t ha−1), S + B + Zn in Faskari (2.8 t ha−1), S + B in Doguwa (1.5 t ha−1) and S + Zn in Toro (2.4 t ha−1). Addition of Mg, S and B significantly increases macronutrient uptakes over the recommended NPK only. Agronomic use efficiency, internal utilization efficiency, apparent recovery efficiency and partial factor productivity were significantly increased with the addition of S, Mg, and B but were not improved with Zn application. It was concluded that nutrient limitations to maize in the Guinea Savanna go beyond N, P and K. This study recommends that S, Mg, and B are needed to improve maize productivity and engender improve the use efficiency of NPK fertilizers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0579.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Problematic Internet use, sleep disturbance, sex difference, adolescents
Online: 24 October 2018 (14:15:09 CEST)
The Internet use has become an integral part of daily life, adolescents are especially at a higher risk to develop problematic Internet use (PIU). Although one of the most well-known comorbid conditions of PIU is sleep disturbance, little is known about the sex disparity in this association. This school-based survey in students of grades 7-9 was conducted to estimate the prevalence of PIU and sleep disturbance among Chinese adolescents, to test the association between PIU and sleep disturbance, and to investigate the role of the child’s sex in this association. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit participants, and a two-level logistic regression models were fitted. The mean Internet addiction test scores was 37.2 (SD: 13.2), and 15.5% (736) met the criteria for PIU. After adjusting for control variables, problematic Internet users were at a higher risk of sleep disturbance (adjusted odds ratio=2.41, 95% CI=2.07-3.19). Sex-stratified analyses also demonstrated that association was greater in girls than boys. In this respect, paying more attention to the sleep patterns of adolescents who report excessive Internet use is recommended, and this early identification may be of practical importance for schools, parents, and adolescents themselves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0348.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: exercise; cigarette; smokeless tobacco; substance use; health behavior
Online: 16 October 2018 (09:49:28 CEST)
Background: Exercise is increasingly understood as an important resource for people with harmful substance use, including those in prison. Little is known about how inmates adopt various health behaviors during incarceration, without interventions. Methods: This study analyzed self-reports from 1468 inmates in Norwegian prisons, compared them according to harmful substance use pre-incarceration, and explored changes in exercise and nicotine use during incarceration. Results were presented in accordance with the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. Results: Inmates with harmful substance use reported higher rates of smoking, smokeless tobacco, and physical inactivity pre-incarceration than inmates without harmful use. However, inmates with harmful use also exhibited more behavioral changes: they adopted exercise, ceased smoking, and adopted smokeless tobacco at higher rates during incarceration than the non-harmful group. Conclusions: Exercise is being taken up by a significant proportion of inmates, and may in particular be a replacement behavior for substance use. However, unhealthy behaviors are also begun or maintained. If prisons were used as an arena to facilitate healthy behaviors, the public health benefits to a marginalized group such as substance-using inmates could be substantial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0409.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Nitrogen; transfer; transformation; N uptake; nitrogen use efficiency
Online: 20 September 2018 (13:09:32 CEST)
A field experiment was conducted in Ninghe, Tianjin, China, using 15N isotope method to evaluate the application of organic fertilizer on N distribution patterns of labelled and unlabeled N fertilizer, ammonium sulfate -15N uptake by rice, N use efficiency (NUE), and the fate of (15NH4)2SO4 applied. The experiment included eight treatments: CK-N (control + no-duck), CK-D (control + ducks), CF-N (chemical fertilizer + no-ducks), CF-D (chemical fertilizer + ducks), CM-N (chemical fertilizer + organic fertilizer + no-ducks), CM-D (chemical fertilizer + organic fertilizer + ducks), CD-N (chemical fertilizer 30% off + organic fertilizer + no-ducks), and CD-D (chemical fertilizer 30% off + organic fertilizer + ducks). The results showed that the application of organic fertilizer whether CM or CD significantly increased N and P concentrations over control (CK) and chemical fertilizer (CF). Moreover, no-significant differences were found in 15N fresh grain and husk concentration. Both organs ranged of 14.2-14.4 g kg-1 and 6.2-6.3 g kg-1, respectively. N derived from the fertilizer and soil significantly affected fresh grain compared to fresh husk. However, N uptake and N use efficiency did not show any differences. We concluded that organic fertilizer has a significant influence on rice growth and promote crop productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0211.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: contamination; domestic use; Nandoni dam; salinity; water analysis
Online: 12 July 2018 (07:48:10 CEST)
The problem of limited water supply in the Vhembe District (Limpopo Province, South Africa) is exacerbated by a preponderance of dissolved salts, which cause disagreeable taste and odour in the water as reported by the communities using this water for drinking. The water treatment plant that supplies the treated water to the communities in the District sources this raw water from the Nandoni Dam at the Livhuvu river catchment. However, there are no scientific studies that have been reported in the literature which focused on determining the levels of water salinity from various water sources in the municipalities of the District. Water samples from various sites across the Nandoni Dam, a primary source of domestic water supply in the region, were collected during all the seasons basis over a period of twelve months in order to ascertain the concentrations of dissolved salts in the dam. Onsite analyses of the water samples were conducted using the YSI ProDSS multimeter, while the laboratory water analyses were conducted using the spectroquant and atomic absorption spectrometers. Although salinity tests seem to indicate that the water sampled across most of the Nandoni Dam is brackish during all seasons of the year with the highest being 750 mg/L, water samples from the dam mid-outlet and the treatment plant are slightly below the WHO brackish water bracket of 500 mg/L with unfavourable taste for drinking. Results from this study indicate that the water sourced from the Nandoni Dam is not suitable for human consumption and therefore requires integrated water resource management, as well as robust and cost-effective water desalination treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0483.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: System Dynamics; Land Use; Transportation Systems; Access Management
Online: 31 May 2018 (17:15:58 CEST)
The coordination planning between land use and transportation system is an important premise of solving urban transportation problems and realizing land use integration. This study investigates the interactive and feedback relationship between land use and transportation system from the perspective of access management. By integrating the land use and traffic data from Las Vegas Metropolitan area with the system dynamics model, the causal relationship and causal loop diagrams (CLDs) are introduced to analyze the cause-and-effect relationship and quantitative relationship between the factors of the combined system of land use and transportation, and then sub-models partition and system simulation are performed. The systems dynamics model is established by analyzing the relationship between a series of access management techniques, traffic characteristics, and land use features. The results show that system dynamics model can be used as an effective alternative to model the symbiosis relationship of land use and transportation system for urban planning and construction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0149.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Spatial Pattern; Land Use; Spatial Metric; Aggregation; Diversity
Online: 19 May 2017 (16:21:11 CEST)
Pekalongan is one of several cities that lies in the northern coast of Java island which is often flooded due to sea level rise. This condition impacted its urban development characteristic and increase in the future. In this research both Geographical Information System based and Spatial Metric approach are used. The spatial pattern is analyzed by using spatial metric based on the exploration of land use change that occurred. In this research, the spatial pattern is focused on aggregation pattern and diversity in coastal area. The result shows that the land use of coastal area are dominated with swamp, then followed by settlement and fishpond. It is also shown that the greatest land use change occurred on paddy field and swamp areas. Based on the spatial metric calculation, the aggregation level of land use decrease periodically and has a small growth level. It is indicated from its metric value aggregation and diversity from two periods: 2003-2009 and 2009-2016. Overall the land use of Pekalongan experienced large dynamics, especially in its coastal area. The spatial pattern trend in those area tend to be more sprawl as defined by the decrease of aggregation pattern and low level of land use growth pattern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0145.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: spatial pattern; land use; spatial metric; aggregation; diversity
Online: 19 May 2017 (08:43:14 CEST)
Pekalongan is one of several cities that lies in the northern coast of Java island which is often flooded due to sea level rise. This condition impacted its urban development characteristic and increase in the future. In this research both Geographical Information System based and Spatial Metric approach are used. The spatial pattern is analyzed by using spatial metric based on the exploration of land use change that occurred. In this research, the spatial pattern is focused on aggregation pattern and diversity in coastal area. The result shows that the land use of coastal area are dominated with swamp, then followed by settlement and fishpond. It is also shown that the greatest land use change occurred on paddy field and swamp areas. Based on the spatial metric calculation, the aggregation level of land use decrease periodically and has a small growth level. It is indicated from its metric value aggregation and diversity from two periods: 2003-2009 and 2009-2016. Overall the land use of Pekalongan experienced large dynamics, especially in its coastal area. The spatial pattern trend in those area tend to be more sprawl as defined by the decrease of aggregation pattern and low level of land use growth pattern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Regulation Effectiveness; Land Use Plan; Construction Land; China
Online: 20 March 2017 (18:42:46 CET)
Nowadays the relationship between planning land use and actual land use is not so clear in general. A lot of efforts have been put in the failures of regulation for the expansion of construction land. However, it still lacks an integrated approach to study the effectiveness of land use regulation in terms of different land use types. Furthermore, the existing evaluation of land use plan mainly focuses on a general level, a detailed research on the regulation effectiveness of each construction land use type is absent. Therefore, this research tries to evaluate regulation effectiveness of land use plan, which takes Cangwu country, Guangxi Province as an example. The finding by analysis is that the total area of construction land expansion was about 3494.73 ha, nearly 1.1 times of the plan quota. Moreover, the effectiveness differs greatly in various construction land use types. Town, industrial/mining sites can be well regulated through the quota of land use plan. While, the quota regulation system is not as effective for other type of construction land. Thus, we suggest to improve the regulation effectiveness of construction land through different plan instruments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: acute pharyngitis; rational use of drugs; incidence; prevalence
Online: 30 December 2016 (07:37:07 CET)
According to Indonesia’s result of Basic Health Research of 2013, prevalence of acute respiratory infection in 2007 and 2013 were not different (25.5% and 25.0%, respectively). Identifying the cause of acute pharyngitis is a key point in determining the optimal treatment. The main purpose is to evaluate the rational use of drugs and its irrational impact as well as the correlation of the drug use with the incidence and prevalence of acute pharyngitis. This study was a descriptive and observational study, carried out retrospectively and concurrently at two community health centers located in Bandung and Cimahi, Indonesia. There were 80.01% over prescription of antibiotics, with a total of 8.98% is non-treatment option, and 62.43% irrational used of corticosteroids. The incidence and prevalence of acute pharyngitis at one health center in Bandung were 2.45% and 2.31%, respectively, with irrationality rate of 83.82%. Those recorded at one health center in Cimahi were 2.11% of incidence and 2.00% of prevalence with irrational rate of 91.29%. It can be concluded that there were still irrational use of medicines in the treatment of acute pharyngitis in community health center. The higher incidence and prevalence might indicate the declining health services quality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0359.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Core set; Climate change; Nitrogen use efficiency; Omic approaches; Plant genetic resources; Stress; Systems biology; Water use efficiency
Online: 15 July 2021 (13:28:14 CEST)
Germplasm is a long-term resource management mission and investment for civilization. For both food and nutritional health, the present changing environmental scenario has become an urgent universal concern. Multiple excellent studies have been previously performed, although the advancement and innovation of practices will require the exploration of the potentiality of crop germplasm. In this study, we emphasized (i) germplasm activates, current challenges and ongoing trends of the crop germplasm, and (ii) how the system biology will be helpful to understand the complex traits such as water use efficiency (WUE), and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) to mitigate challenges for sustainable development under growing food requirement and climate change conditions. We focused on a vision for transforming PGR into a bio-digital resource system, for the development of climate-smart crops for sustainable food production. Moreover, this review attempted to address current challenges, research gaps and describe the advanced integrated strategies that could provide a platform for future crop improvement research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Substance Use Disorder; Attitudes; Medical Students; Education; Assessment; Stigma
Online: 10 January 2023 (11:40:26 CET)
To evaluate the impact of a new Substance Use Disorder (SUD) education program on medical students' representations, we selected the Substance Abuse Attitude Survey (SAAS) questionnaire, which we adapted to our curriculum and cultural context. To validate this adapted version, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis following the administration of our 29-items bSAAS questionnaire to 657 medical students in Belgium (response rate: 71,1%). 23 items correlated to 3 factors namely "Stereotypes and moralism", "Treatment optimism" and "Specialised treatment" were retained (70% of total variance explained, Cronbach's alpha= 0.80) and constituted the new questionnaire called beSAAS. The factor "Specialised treatment", stood out from previous studies which could be explained by our target population and the impact of the formal, informal, and hidden curriculum in medical education. This study highlighted certain factors influencing stereotypical representations such as age, gender, origin, and personal or professional experience with substance use. Our study allowed us to retain the beSAAS as a good questionnaire to evaluate SUD stigma and highlighted interesting findings to improve SUD training in medicine. Further studies are needed to complete its validity and reliability.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0201.v5
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Carbon sequestration; Elemental stoichiometry; Energy use efficiency; First principles; Sequestration scale; Sequestration time
Online: 9 January 2023 (01:14:28 CET)
Although several carbon sequestration methods have been proposed according to theories from various disciplines, it is not known which method is the best. This study evaluated and summarized the advantage and disadvantages of several major carbon sequestration methods, including carbon capture and sequestration, ocean alkalinization, algal cultivation, and wood burial, based on the first principles, namely, sequestration scale and time, elemental stoichiometry, and energy use efficiency. This study suggested that, at present, wood burial may be a leading candidate for carbon sequestration because it can be implemented immediately on a large scale, is cost-effective and efficient, has a long sequestration time, has low technical requirements, and has a relatively low impact on agriculture. This study also discussed the implementation of wood burial from the perspective of nutrient requirements. To achieve carbon neutrality by 2050, the present study proposed a 25-year project starting in 2025 with an average sequestration rate of 3 Pg C per year, which includes burying 1.5 Pg of dead wood carbon and the creation of 9.7 × 106 ha woodland.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0010.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Tuberculosis; Alcoholism; Illicit drugs; Tobacco use disorder; Spatial analysis
Online: 4 April 2022 (07:22:45 CEST)
(1) Background: tuberculosis (TB) is considered one of the leading causes of death by a single in-fectious agent worldwide. This study aimed to identify hotspots of people diagnosed with tu-berculosis and abusive use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs in communities through a geo-spatial intelligence application; (2) Methods: ecological study with a spatio-temporal approach. We considered tuberculosis cases diagnosed and registered in the Notifiable Diseases Information System, which presented information on alcoholism, smoking, and other drugs. Spatial Variations in Temporal Trends (SVTT) and scan statistics were applied for the identification of Hotspots; (3) Results: of 29.499 cases of tuberculosis were identified. And when we applied the STTT for al-coholism, three Hotspots were detected, one of which was protective (RR: 0.08 – CI95%: 0.02 – 0.32) and two at risk (RR:1.42 – CI95%: 1.11 – 1.73; RR: 1.39 - CI95%: 1.28 – 1.50). Regarding smoking, two risk clusters were identified (RR: 1.15 - CI95%: 1.01 – 1.30; RR: 1.68 - CI95%: 1.54 – 1.83). For other drugs, a risk cluster was found (RR: 1.13 - CI95%: 0.99 – 1.29) and two protections (RR: 0.70 - CI95%: 0.63 – 0.77; RR: 0.76 – CI95%: 0.65 – 0.89); (4) Conclusions: it was evidenced in the communities a problem of TB and drug addiction. Use disorder perhaps in a person's brain and behavior and leads to an inability to continue their treatment, putting the community at risk for TB.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0031.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: forestry; forest management; forest products; land-use; West Africa.
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:43:27 CET)
According to this study, approximately half of Africa's forests are utilized primarily or partially for the production of wood and non-wood commodities. Aims to evaluate Africa's forestry and forest products, namely Wood Forest Products (WFPs) and Non-wood Forest Products (NWFPs) in the sixteen (16) West African countries. While adhering to the following guidelines: wood extraction and preparation, analyzing wood primarily used as an energy source in Africa, identifying non-wood forest products in Africa, the state of export, trade, and customs procedures in West Africa, and examining the role of forests and forest stakeholders in Africa's low-carbon economy transition. An exploratory literature review of selected wood forest products and non-wood forest products (plants and animals) in West Africa identifying the country, the natural land area with the natural habitat issues of the forest, the species most harvested and traded in the West African sub-region. The study reemphasized some government legislation, policies, and market trade failures and limitations while also stating that trees may help in the low-carbon revolution through interventions aimed at maintaining, improving, and restoring natural capital have demonstrated that high environmental requirements of sustainable forest management (SFM) may be met in both natural and planted forests. The study identified a systematic assessment of the most common forest products (wood and non-wood forest products) considering the available data on the national forest reserves of the selected countries in West Africa. The study also revealed the need for biodiversity conservation of the available forest reserves to help mitigate the impact of global warming targeting the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goal 13- Climate Action. Which is focused on integrating climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction, and early warning signs into the national policies, improving forest planning and management education, awareness-raising, and institutional capacity within the sub-region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0356.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Land-use change; forest conversion; species loss; fragmentation; deforestation
Online: 17 August 2021 (10:10:09 CEST)
Remote sensing/GIS techniques are a versatile tool for x-raying serial forest structural changes in retrospect. It would be impossible to evaluate past occurrences and changes in forest extents in past decades at Effan Forest Reserve without non-conventional means. Therefore, we adopted remote sensing technology using Landsat images to evaluate land-use change and degradation rates in the area with a view to ascertaining causal factors for possible minimization of forest degradation in Effan Forest Reserve. Land-use/land-cover changes were analyzed using USGS-Landsat TM and ETM images of 1987, 2002, 2014 and 2019. Field-data were collected using handheld GPS receiver and spatial statistical analyses were conducted using the ground control points (GCPs). For inventory data, a systematic sampling technique was adopted using ten 1.05 km-transects at 500 m intervals. A total of 50 sample plots of 50 × 50 m were used. All tree species with Dbh ≥10 cm were enumerated. Nineteen tree species in ten families were encountered with Vitellaria paradoxa as the most-frequently occurring species in the area. IUCN-listed endangered Pterocarpus erinaceus, hitherto abundant in the area, was rarely encountered during the survey, while Vitellaria paradoxa is gradually shrinking, going the relative abundance in the area. The result further showed that primary and secondary forests decreased considerably by 258.03 ha (46.72%) and 9.18 ha (3.63%), respectively, with a total forest loss of 50.3% in 32 years (8.4 hayr-1, 1.6% per annum). While forest plantation size doubled by 369.72 ha within the period. This is worrisome as the remaining fragmented forests appeared to be on the decline, except the riparian vegetation, due to inaccessibility to the riparian by loggers. It thus appeared that forest protection approaches were ineffective. Increased protection efforts could save this forest reserve, and the concerned authority should consider a focused-enrichment planting involving indigenous species for ecosystem-repair.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0201.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Internet use; social capital; income gap between farmers; mechanism
Online: 8 July 2021 (13:26:17 CEST)
Based on 2010, 2013 and 2015 CGSS data, the impact of Internet use and social capital on the income gap among farmers in the past five years is assessed at three time points using the OLS method and a quantile regression method. The study finds that (1) the income gap among farmers increases continuously in the five-year period, while Internet use plays a positive impact on farmers’ income growth in all five quartiles; the coefficient differences are all significantly negative, indicating that Internet use plays a positive role in alleviating the income gap between high-income and low-income farmer subgroups, and (2) social capital plays a positive role in moderating the income gap among farmers and that Internet use by farmers expands the boundary of social capital, which in turn increases the income level of and alleviates the income gap among farmers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0146.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Food Marketplace; User Interest; Ease of Use; User Security
Online: 7 May 2021 (14:47:21 CEST)
The obligation to keep a distance from other people due to the pandemic has changed the pattern of human life, especially in shopping for their primary needs, namely food. The food marketplace's presence presents new hope in maintaining health and food availability without having to crowd with other people while shopping. The main problem that is often a concern for shopping online is the security of transactions and the ease of using this food marketplace application. This research is the intensity of using the Food Marketplace in terms of interest, transaction security, and ease of use of this application. Researchers analyzed the relationship between variables with the Structural equation model. Respondents who became this sample were 300 application users spread across various major cities in Indonesia. This study's results provide a view that the intensity of the use of the food marketplace has increased significantly during the new normal life. This paper's main value lies in providing a better understanding of consumer behavior in the Indonesian food marketplace that has not been previously researched. By investigating the factors that influence the intensity of use of the food marketplace, it is hoped that it will provide a basis for further research
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0547.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Efficacy, Health Belief Model, Substance use, Intervention, University student
Online: 20 April 2021 (13:21:28 CEST)
Abstract Aim: To determine the efficacy of health beliefs model –based intervention in changing the belief related to substance use among university student in Mosul city-Iraq. Design: A randomized controlled trial. Methods: A probability (simple random sample) of (N=80) undergraduate student in different specialties would be selected. The study sample will be recruited from (4) colleges in the University of Mosul's Engineering, Sciences, Medicine and Education Colleges. The sample will be randomly assigned into experimental and control groups of (40) undergraduate student for each group. Such chosen is employed of pool of topics that have the criteria contain students who have using on (Smoking, Hookah, Drug abuse and Alcohol).For during from 25of October / 2019 till 1 of February/2021. Data is analyzed using the "Statistical Package for Social Science" (SPSS) software for Windows (V:26). Results: This finding indicated that before the intervention, mean scores for all concepts of HBM, add to Motivation, Control, and behaviors intensions of students they were almost equal. However, after the intervention were significantly different in the study group, while it was not significant in the control group. Conclusion:This study concluded that designing an HBM-based study could affect students' understanding and their behaviors in the field of substance abuse. Considering the positive correlation between construct of HBM, particularly in "perceived benefits and perceived severity" related to students’ beliefs. These beliefs implied a significant correlation with each other and with the attention to the prevention of addiction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0393.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: streamflow; dynamic land-use change; ANN; SWAT; Dabus river
Online: 14 April 2021 (17:40:27 CEST)
Based on the recorded watershed characteristics, the future conditions on the basin system can be predicted using a different method. In this study, dynamic land-use change and its impacts on the streamflow for the Dabus watershed were predicted using ANN-CA based method. The model performance for accurate prediction of the future land-use change on the Dabus River watershed has been checked by validation of the simulated value with the actual value, hence the overall kappa value (k) = 0.83 for the simulated 2016-LULC validated with actual 2016-LULC. Then, 2026-LULC was predicted based on the 2004 and 2009-LULC. The streamflow for the case of 2004 and 2009-LULC has been simulated using the SWAT model. The value of NSE = 0.87 and 0.90 was attained during validation of simulated streamflow for 2004 and 2009-LULC data cases, respectively. The agreement of simulated value of streamflow with the observed data is indicated as R2 = 0.91 and 0.96 for 2004-LULC and 2009-LULC. The effects of the dynamic land-use change on streamflow for the predicted land use(2026-LULC) catchment were evaluated by T-test analysis. Hence, T-stat =0.04 and -0.002 in the case of simulated streamflow used 2004-LULC and 2009-LULC, respectively compared with simulated value using 2026-LULC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: information media; video; patient’ knowledge; antibiotic use; antibiotic resistance
Online: 9 April 2021 (10:23:20 CEST)
Irrational use or misuse of antibiotics, particularly by outpatients, increases antibiotic resistance. A lack of public knowledge about ‘Responsible use of antibiotics’ and ‘How to obtain antibiotics’ is a major cause of this. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational video about antibiotics and antibiotics use to increase outpatient's knowledge in two public hospitals in East Java, Indonesia. A quasi-experimental research setting was used with a one-group pretest-posttest design, carried out from November 2018 to January 2019. The study population consisted of outpatients, to whom antibiotics were prescribed, in two public hospitals in East Java, Indonesia. Participants were selected using a purposive sampling technique; 98 outpatients at MZ General Hospital in S regency and 96 at SG General Hospital in L regency were included. A questionnaire was used to measure the respondents’ knowledge and consisted of five domains, i.e. definition of infections and antibiotics, obtaining the antibiotics, directions of use, storage instructions, antibiotic resistance. The knowledge test score was the total score of the Guttman scale (a dichotomy of ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answers). To determine the significance of the difference in knowledge before and after providing the educational video and in the knowledge score between hospitals, the (paired) Student’s t-test was applied. The educational videos significantly improved outpatients' knowledge, which increased with 41% in MZ General Hospital and 42% in SG General Hospital. An educational video is a useful method to improve the knowledge of the outpatients regarding antibiotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0713.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Economic output; Energy use; Institutional quality; cultural diversity; FMOLS
Online: 29 December 2020 (07:44:08 CET)
Energy and institutional quality are two factors that determine economic output, but these two factors are often neglected in the search for economic output. Therefore, this study examines the relative importance of energy use and its interaction with institutional quality for economic output. We employ a robust econometric estimation technique on a panel sample of 21 African countries between 2002-2019. Our results show that energy use is significant and negatively related to economic output while moderating terms of institutional quality are significantly associated with economic output, but the direction of the association depends on the specific quality. We find the moderating term control of corruption and government effectiveness to be negative and significantly associated with economic output, whilst political stability, regulatory quality, rule of laws, voice, and accountability positively impact. Our results imply that improved economic output is possible when there are specific institutional strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0221.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: appropriate antibiotics use; primary care; quality improvement; mixed-methods
Online: 5 November 2020 (18:11:28 CET)
The cluster randomized trial ARena (Sustainable reduction of antibiotic-induced antimicrobial resistance, 2017-2020) promoted the appropriate use of antibiotics for acute non-complicated infections in primary care networks (PCNs) in Germany. A process evaluation aimed to provide insights into determinants of practice and explored factors associated with antibiotic prescribing patterns. In a nested mixed-methods approach, a three-waves survey used study-specific questionnaires for participating physicians and medical assistants to assess potential impacts and uptake of the complex intervention program. Stakeholders received a one-time online questionnaire to reflect on network-related aspects. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews with a purposive sample of physicians, medical assistants and stakeholders explored aspects regarding the acceptance of the program components for daily practice and the perceived sustainability of intervention component effects. The intervention components were perceived to be smoothly integrable into practice routines. The highest uptake was reported for the educational components: feedback reports, background information, e-learning modules, and disease specific quality circles. Participation in PCNs was seen as motivational factor for guideline-oriented patient care and the adoption of new routines Future approaches to fostering appropriate use of antibiotics by targeting health literacy competencies and clinician’s therapy decisions should combine evidence-based information sources, audit and feedback reports and QCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0385.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Internet use; Participation in international trade; Tax revenue instability
Online: 19 October 2020 (14:36:10 CEST)
This paper investigates the effect of the Internet on tax revenue instability, notably through the international trade channel. It has used a sample of 142 countries over the period 1995-2017, and relied primarily on the two-step system Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) estimators (but also incidentally on the Error Component Two-Stage Least Squares estimator). Tax revenue instability is primarily measured by the instability of non-resource tax revenue, but also by the instability of total tax revenue (for robustness check). The findings indicate that the Internet exerts a negative effect on tax revenue instability. Interestingly, this effect genuinely translates through the international trade channel, regardless of the measure of tax revenue instability considered. Countries enjoy a higher negative effect of the Internet on tax revenue instability as they enjoy a greater participation in international trade. These findings, therefore, add to the potential benefits of the Internet adoption (e.g., strengthening countries' participation in international trade, enhance their tax revenue performance and promote tax reform, including in developing countries) by showing that it could also help to stabilize tax revenue, particularly through the degree of countries' participation in international trade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0194.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: urban drainage; SWMM5.1; land use; hydraulic performance; Shire Endaslasse
Online: 9 October 2020 (10:26:40 CEST)
The stormwater drainage problem is one of the major challenges facing in Shire Endaslasse town, Ethiopia. In a town, Street flooding and overtopping drainage system problems are occurring during the rainy season. This causes ponding which poses difficulties in ease of transportation and it hinders the day-to-day activity of the people. So, the study focuses on the performance of the stormwater drainage system in Shire Endaslasse town using Arc GIS and SWMM5.1. For this study, the primary data were collected by field surveys and interviews with the council body. Simulation results for storm events show that in some of the drainage systems in different regions of Shire Endaslasse town have flooded. During the field observation, the drainage structures are filled with solid wastes, inadequate inlet and outlet structures and some of the top element of the manhole have been broken this may cause a problem of aesthetic and healthy at large it may increase flood risk. The flooding risk in the drainage systems is very high due to the drainage system is undersized to cope with the current rainfall rates, but also is very limited to face the upcoming predicted rainfall.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0542.v1
Subject: Keywords: climate change； vegetables； crop wild relatives； nitrogen use efficiency
Online: 23 September 2020 (07:51:18 CEST)
Climate variation and change are an unavoidable phenomenon faced by the natural habitat of this planet. For getting potential yield from vegetable crops under the changing climate conditions, the practical strategies at field level can serve as a guideline for the farmers. Moreover, there are several strategies available for mitigating the harmful effects of climate change. In this manuscript, efforts have been made for reviewing the mitigating strategies against the impact of climate change in vegetable crops via conventional approaches. Considering the situation, the information reviewed revealed that significant result of conventional approaches with climate-smart adoptions strategies has a direct bearing on vegetable production for the increasing population in frenziedly changing climate scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0131.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Wind Energy; Heterogeneous Land Use; Icing; Cold Climate; Forests
Online: 7 July 2020 (16:41:02 CEST)
In-cloud ice mass accretion on wind turbines is a common challenge faced by energy companies operating in cold climates. On-shore wind farms in Scandinavia are often located in regions near patches of forest, the heterogeneity length scales of which are often less than the resolution of many numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. The representation of these forests--including the cloud water response to surface roughness and albedo effects related to them--must therefore be parameterized in NWP models used as meteorological input in ice prediction systems, resulting in an uncertainty that is poorly understood and to present date not quantified. The sensitivity of ice accretion forecasts to the subgrid representation of forests is examined in this study. A single column version of the HARMONIE-AROME 3D NWP model is used to determine the sensitivity of the forecast of ice accretion on wind turbines to the subgrid forest fraction. Single column simulations of a variety of icing cases at a location in northern Sweden were examined in order to investigate the impact of vegetation cover on ice accretion in varying levels of solar insulation and wind magnitudes. In mid-winter cases, the wind speed response to surface roughness was the primary driver of the vegetation effect on ice accretion. In early season cases, the cloud water response to surface albedo effects plays a secondary role in the impact of in-cloud ice accretion, with the wind response to surface roughness remaining the primary driver for the surface vegetation impact on icing. Two different surface boundary layer (SBL) forest canopy subgrid parameterizations were tested in this study that feature different methods for calculating near-surface profiles of wind, temperature, and moisture, with the ice mass accretion again following the wind response to surface vegetation between both of these schemes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0362.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: cross-sectional survey; antibiotic use; antimicrobial resistance; knowledge; brunei
Online: 23 May 2020 (05:54:43 CEST)
Background: Public misconception and demand for the indication of antibiotics could lead to inappropriate prescribing and consumption. Successful treatment can only be achieved when the public and industrial users have knowledge on antibiotic use and resistance. This survey is aimed to assess antibiotic usage and knowledge regarding antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among undergraduate students of Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD), public university located in Brunei Darussalam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was adapted from the World Health Organization (WHO) Antibiotic Resistance, Multi-country public awareness survey distributed online. Students at UBD were invited to participate in the online survey through internal email. The questionnaire consisted of 5 sections: demographic information, antibiotic usage, knowledge on antibiotics, antibiotic resistance (AMR) and use of antibiotics in agriculture. Data were analyzed descriptively and appropriate inferential statistics was used accordingly. Cronbach’s alpha was also done to determine the internal consistency. The section on antibiotic use and knowledge showed good internal consistency of Cronbach’s alpha 0.66 and 0.86 respectively. Research ethics approval was obtained from the PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD). Results: A total of 145 students returned the complete questionnaire. The result of the study found that 50% of the students had good level of knowledge of antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance with a mean total knowledge score of 11.4 out of 14. Respondents reported the use of antibiotic in the past (69%). Many of the students could identify the use of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infection. However, there were also students who incorrectly thought that antibiotics can be used for cold and flu (43%) and fever (41%). Moreover, 76% of the respondents mistakenly believed that antibiotic resistance is the result of the body becoming resistant to antibiotics. Only 12% of the respondents were found to have poor knowledge in the study. Conclusions: Misconceptions in regards to the use of antibiotics for conditions related to viral illnesses was noticed among the respondents in our study. Thus, improving knowledge on antibiotics is crucial to address those beliefs.
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: water use efficiency; soybean; stomatal conductance; photosynthesis; carbon isotope
Online: 1 April 2019 (13:39:46 CEST)
High intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi), the ratio of leaf photosynthesis to stomatal conductance, may be a useful trait in adapting crops to water-limited environments. Carbon isotope ratios can be a useful indicator of WUEi, but might not be well correlated with it if the plants compared differ substantially in mesophyll conductance. In this study, six cultivars of soybeans previously shown to differ in WUEi in indoor experiments were grown in the field in Beltsville, Maryland, and mid-day WUEi was measured on nine clear days during mid-seasons of two years. Measurement dates were chosen for diverse temperatures, and air temperatures ranged from 21 to 34 oC on the different dates. Corrected carbon isotope delta values for 13C (CID) were determined on mature, upper canopy leaves harvested during early pod filling each year. WUEi differed among cultivars both years and the differences were consistent across measurement dates. Correlations between mean WUEi and CID were not significant in either year. It is concluded that consistent cultivar differences in WUEi exist in these soybean cultivars under field conditions, but that carbon isotope ratios may not be useful in identifying them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0173.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: land use; management; woody cover determinants; human-environment; Sahel
Online: 22 March 2017 (15:55:14 CET)
Woody vegetation in farmland acts as a carbon sink and provides ecosystem services for local people, but no macro-scale assessments of the impact of management and climate on woody cover exists for drylands. Here we make use of very high spatial resolution satellite imagery to derive wall-to-wall woody cover patterns in tropical West African drylands. In arid and semi-arid Sahel, areas of more people are associated with more trees: mean woody cover is greater in farmlands (12%) than in savannas (6%), and likewise it is higher close to villages than further away. In sub-humid savannas of West Africa, woody cover is generally above 20% and decreases with increasing population density, but remains around 15% in farmlands, independent of rainfall. In the region as a whole, rainfall, terrain and soil are the most important (80%) determinants of woody cover, while management factors play a smaller (20%) role. We conclude that agricultural expansion cannot generally be claimed to cause woody cover losses, and that observations in Sahel contradict simplistic ideas of a high negative correlation between population density and woody cover.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0233.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: primate hand use; primate grooming; manual grooming; object manipulation; primate evolution; oral grooming; object play; tool use; Machiavellian Intelligence; Bayesian decision theory
Online: 20 September 2019 (06:39:59 CEST)
The evolution of manual grooming and its implications have received little attention in the quest to understand the origins of simian primates and their social and technical intelligence. All simians groom manually, whereas prosimians groom orally despite comparable manual dexterity between some members of the two groups. Simians also exhibit a variable propensity for the manipulation of inanimate, non-food objects, which has culminated in tool making and tool use in some species. However, lemuriform primates also seem capable of tool use with training. Furthermore, lemuriforms appear to understand the concept of a tool and use their own body parts as “tools”, despite not using inanimate objects. This suggests that prosimian primates are pre-adapted for proprioceptive object manipulation and tool use, but do not express these cognitive abilities by default. This essay explores the paleontological, anatomical, cognitive, ethological, and neurological roots of these abilities and attempts to explain this behavioural divide between simians and prosimians. Common misconceptions about early primate evolution and captive behaviours are addressed, and chronological inconsistencies with Machiavellian Intelligence are examined. A “licking to picking” hypothesis is also proposed to explain a potential link between manual grooming and object manipulation, and to reconcile the inconsistencies of Machiavellian Intelligence. Bayesian decision theory, the evolution of the parietal cortex and enhanced proprioception, and analogies with behavioural changes resulting from artificial selection may help provide new insights into the minds of both our primate kin and ourselves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0041.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: Land use; landscape; climate change; Carbon; sub-humid tropic; Himalayas
Online: 2 February 2023 (09:35:57 CET)
Land resources have been under tremendous anthropogenic pressure with the consequence of their degradation. It is therefore necessary that the land resources must be managed effectively for sustainable development. Different from the developed countries, carbon inventories and data bank to monitor carbon sequestration potential of different ecosystems are unavailable in India. Micro-level studies are essential for sustainable land use management for a land scarce nation like India. To achieve the desirable goal of the present study, a total of 33 tree-based land uses were identified from forested and agricultural landscapes. Of these total land uses, five were in forest landscapes and rest in agricultural landscapes categorized into forest tree plantations (8 land uses), agroforestry (nine land uses), commercial crop plantations (six land uses) and fruit orchards (five land uses). A stratified random nested quadrate sampling method was adopted for vegetation analysis of the different land uses. The SOC, biomass and carbon accumulation in the tree-based land uses were significantly different from each other. Mixed forest soil had the highest amount of SOC, primary nutrients, standing biomass carbon, and ecosystem carbon. Positive correlations were observed between SOC, total standing biomass, litter production, and ecosystem carbon. The sequence of best tree based land uses in terms of total SOC (up to 60 cm depth), total plant biomass, total plant biomass carbon and ecosystem carbon was mixed species forest (126.67, 781.21, 390.61 and 517.27) > sole tree species stands in forest landscape (109.71, 192.56, 96.28 and 205.98) > tea plantations (103.19, 77.07, 38.54 and 141.74) > homegardens (90.34, 97.38, 48.69 and 139.02) > mixed plantation of Anthocephalus cadamba + Swietenia macrophylla (60.07, 111.86, 55.93 and 116.02) > Swietenia macrophylla based agroforestry (62.49, 83.82, 41.91 and 104.40) > mixed plantation of Tectona grandis + Milvus migrans (60.0, 85.97, 42.99 and 102.90). Similarly, the order of the major land uses was forest > commercial crop plantation > forest tree plantations > agroforestry > fruit orchards. The overall average ecosystem carbon accumulation in forests was 3.24 times more than the land uses in agricultural landscapes. The ecosystem carbon accumulation in the tree-based land uses in both forest and agricultural landscape was highly variable and was significantly different from each other. Land use conversion from forest to agriculture can reduce more than half of the carbon stock, but converting into homegardens, tree plantations or agroforestry enhanced carbon storage of the land use systems. The present findings can be used as baseline information for developing prediction models for probable effects of different land use, future intervention and sustainable management of land use systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0405.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: sustainability; solar energy; land-use; Taxonomy regulation; territorial planning; biodiversity
Online: 22 November 2022 (04:05:51 CET)
Solar energy (SE) is essential for decarbonization of our economy and for energetic transition. Solar energy can be a sustainable economic activity as long as a balance is struck between the benefits it brings to climate change mitigation and the damage it can cause to biodiversity and ecosystems. Here we study this balance in an area with high biodiversity under pressure for installation of numerous photovoltaic plants (PPs). Our results show that developers give priority to the cheapest land close to connection points, while other values (e.g., environmental, landscape) are secondary. The regulatory process carried out by the Administration does not ensure the preservation of natural values, as several PPs with a high impact on important conservation areas have been approved. Experts' allegations provide quality information to the Administration to evaluate and demand changes to the projects presented. Such demands show that companies are willing to relocate plants to land occupied by olive groves. In this way, greater efficiency is achieved in land occupation, as well as shorter evacuation lines, water savings and less environmental impact. Prior strategic territorial planning could have avoided the impact of PPs already built, made the deployment of new PPs compatible with biodiversity conservation, and contributed to improving the management of key resources, such as subway aquifers. The proposed regulatory changes to the environmental assessment procedure (exclusion of renewables and public participation from the procedure) are detrimental, as they will make SE unable to meet the requirements of the Taxonomy Regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0402.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; One Health; poultry; poultry farmers; antibiotic use; Pakistan
Online: 26 July 2022 (10:33:42 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) due to community carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is highly prevalent in the WHO South-East Asia region. One of the major reasons is the misuse of antibiotics in animal farming practices and at community level, which threatens both human and animal health. However, this multifaceted One Health (OH) problem of antibiotic use (ABU) in poultry farms and respective farmers is not well studied in countries like Pakistan. Therefore, we conducted n OH cross-sectional study in rural Punjab to explore the current practices of ABU in poultry and poultry farmers, associated factors, their healthcare-seeking behaviour and biosecurity practices. We found all the participating farmers using antibiotics for poultry, 60% of which were Colistin sulphate and Amoxicillin trihydrate. The significant consumption of antibiotics in poultry farms (60%) and poultry farmers (50%) was without prescription. Most of the farms (85%) had no wastewater drainage system, causing direct shedding of poultry waste and antibiotic residue in the surrounding environment. Lack of farmers’ education, professional farm training and duration of farming experience were the significantly associated factors with ABU and knowledge of AMR. Our study implies the necessity of an integrated OH-AMR policy with the inclusion of farmers’ education, mass awareness, and strict antibiotic usage guidelines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0057.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: impacts; microplastics; marine environment; single-use plastics; co-management initiatives
Online: 4 October 2021 (12:23:39 CEST)
Threats emerging from microplastics pollution in the marine environment have received much global attention. This review assessed sources, fate, and impacts of microplastics in marine ecosystems and identified gaps. Most studies document ubiquity of microplastics and associated environmental effects. Effects include impacts to marine ecosystems, risks to biodiversity, and threats to human health. Microplastic leakage into marine ecosystems arises from plastic waste mismanagement and a lack of effective mitigative strategies. This review identified a scarcity of microplastics mitigation strategies across different stakeholders. Lack of community involvement in microplastic monitoring or ecosystem conservation exists due to limited existence of stakeholder co-management initiatives. Although some management strategies exist for controlling the effects of microplastics (often implemented by local and global environmental groups); a standardized management strategy to mitigate microplastics in coastal areas is urgently required. There is a need to identify focal causes of microplastic pollution in the marine environment through further environmental research. This would extend to creating more effective policies as well as harmonized and extended efforts of educational campaigns and incentives for counteraction and plastic waste reduction, while mandating stringent penalties for polluting the marine environment. This will help reduce microplastic leakage into the environment.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0709.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Water shortages; Irrigation Water; water Use; Water Harvesting; Aquifers storage
Online: 30 July 2021 (23:38:55 CEST)
Water scarcity is a significant challenge facing Jordan today. It is a challenge in all areas that use water, and it has become certain that water is the critical factor in the population/resources equation. The water resources in Jordan have become limited with the noticeable increase in the population, mostly resulting from forced migrations in neighboring countries because of the wars and until our time. The rising natural population growth rate, along with the massive influx of refugees, has turned into a state of disproportion between the daily consumption of the population and the amount of water available. That Jordan shares most of its surface water resources with neighboring countries has exacerbated the situation. The current use of water already exceeds its renewable supply. Excessive withdrawal from aquifers, which leads to a lowering of the water table and deterioration in water quality, covered the deficit. This paper focuses on assessing the water situation in Jordan, mainly evaluating this problem and the solution being considered, the true basis for a sustainable water solution requires awareness by the population, and several governmental and non-governmental organizations are actively involved in educating residents about water shortages. The most important and 'actionable' elements of comprehensive water solutions are discussed in this paper, and these elements exist, develop extra water supplies, water harvesting, water desalination, proper wastewater reuse in the agricultural sector, and reduce the demand for drinking water. This research provides specific recommendations to address the shortage of water resources in the Kingdom and highlights the importance of water conservation and optimal use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0337.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: participatory research; pre-intervention; community-based intervention; alcohol use; adolescents
Online: 14 July 2021 (14:04:01 CEST)
This study explores the impact of the ‘pre-intervention effects’ of a community-based interventions. This refers to participatory research processes and parallel publicity in the media on changes in alcohol use and relevant mechanisms (rules and norms about alcohol, accessibility of alcohol in a formal setting) among adolescents before any intervention is implemented. In a quasi-experimental study, adolescent data were collected twice by means of self-report among adolescents living in two municipalities (control and experimental condition). Regression analysis showed pre-intervention main effects on adolescents’ perceived accessibility of alcohol in a formal setting. Moreover, among adolescents aged 15 years and older, the normative decline in strictness of rules and norms was less steep in the experimental condition compared to the control condition. Also, adolescents aged 14 years and younger in the experimental condition reported more weekly drinking compared to their peers in the control condition. No differential effects across gender were found. To conclude, applying a co-creational approach in the development of an intervention, not only contributes to more effective interventions in the end, but involvement of and discussions in the community at the start of intervention planning are contributing to changes in targeted factors. This implies that public discussions about the development of intervention strategies should be considered as an essential feature of co-creation in community-based interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0734.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Land use change; soil quality; Lowland bamboo; Cultivation periods; Ethiopia
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:37:49 CEST)
In Ethiopia, bamboo thickets and woodlands play an important role in soil-water conservation and climate change mitigation in arid and semi-arid regions. However, bamboo mass flower-ing, rapid demographic changes and expansion of agricultural investments to bamboo domi-nated areas have led to deforestation and land degradation. In this study, we determined the effects of deforestation and subsequent cultivation on soil physical and chemical properties along a chronosequence of closely located agricultural lands with different ages (1, 3, 5 and 7 years) since converted from natural lowland bamboo forest. Hence, soil samples (n = 90) have been taken from both natural bamboo forests and adjacent agricultural lands at two soil depths (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm). Our result showed that CEC, K+, Ca+, Mg+ and available P were varied significantly with respect to cultivation periods and soil depth, while soil pH and Na+ varied with soil depth (P < 0.001). Soil C and total N contents (g/kg) in 0-20 cm soil layer declined significantly and exponentially with increasing years under cultivation. Conversion of natural bamboo forest to cropland during the past seven-year period significantly increased soil pH with soil depths, while CEC was declined throughout the cultivation period and soil depth. In general, the result revealed that conversion of natural lowland bamboo and subsequent cultivation of soil had negative effects on measured soil physicochemical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0718.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: marketplace platform; consumer interest; ease of use; security; online shopping
Online: 31 May 2021 (09:09:38 CEST)
The obligation to keep a distance from other people due to the pandemic has changed human life patterns, especially in shopping for their primary needs, namely food. The presence of the food marketplace presents new hope in maintaining health and food availability without crowding with other people while shopping. The main problem that is often a concern of the public when shopping online is transaction security and the Ease of use of this food marketplace application. This research is the intensity of using the Food Marketplace in terms of Interest, transaction security, and Ease of use of this application. Researchers analyzed the relationship between variables with the Structural equation model. Respondents who became this sample were 300 application users spread across various major cities in Indonesia. This study's results provide a view that the intensity of the food marketplace's use has increased significantly during the new normal life. This paper's primary value lies in providing a better understanding of consumer behavior in the Indonesian food marketplace that has not been previously researched. By examining the determinants of the intensity of marketplace use in the food sector, it is hoped that this can become the basis for further research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0225.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Ethiopia; Geographic Information Systems; Land Use Land Cover; Remote Sensing
Online: 11 May 2021 (09:27:29 CEST)
Land Use Land Cover (LULC) changes analysis is one of the most useful methodologies to understand how the land was used in the past years, what types of detections are to be expected in the future, as well as the driving forces and processes behind these changes. In Ethiopia, the rapidly changing of LULC is mainly due to population pressure, resettlement programs, climate change, and other human and nature-induced driving forces. Anthropogenic activities are the most significant factors adversely changing the natural status of the landscape and resources, which exerts unfavourable and adverse impacts on the environment and livelihood. The main goal of the present work is to review previous studies, discussing the spatio-temporal LULC changes in Ethiopian basins, to find out common points and gaps that exist in the current literature, to be eventually addressed in the future. Seventeen articles, published from 2011 to 2020, were selected and reviewed, focusing on LULC classification using ArcGIS and ERDAS imagine software by unsupervised and maximum likelihood supervised classification methods. Key informant interview (KII), focal group discussions (FGDs) and collection of ground truth data using ground positioning systems (GPS) for data validation were the major approaches discussed in most of the studies. All the analysed research showed that, during the last decades, Ethiopian lands changed to agricultural land use, waterbody, commercial farmland and built-up/settlement. Some parts of forest land, grazing land, swamp/wetland, shrubland, rangeland and bare/ rock out cropland cover class were changed to other LULC class types, mainly as a consequence of increasing anthropogenic pressure. In summary, these articles confirmed that LULC changes are a direct result of both natural and human influences. However, most of the study provided details of LULC for the past decades within a specific spatial location, while they did not address the challenge of forecasting future LULC changes at the basin scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0723.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: drylands; land use; aridity index; ethnography; ethnoarchaeology; pastoralism; agriculture; LandCover6K
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:04:29 CEST)
The reconstruction of land use practices in hyper arid Saharan Africa is often hampered by the accuracy of the available tools and by unconscious biases that see these areas as marginal and inhospitable. Considered for a long time the living space of pastoral mobile communities, new research is showing of agriculture might have been more important in these areas than previously thought. In this paper, after a review of present-day land use strategies in Saharan Africa, we show how ethnographic and ethnoarchaeological data can offer us a different point of view and help in better defining land use and food production strategies in this area. Ultimately, these insights can be integrated into the ongoing effort of reconstructing past land use globally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: alcohol; coronavirus; COVID-19; drugs; pandemic; population survey; substance use
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:51:24 CET)
The outbreak of COVID-19 has had a major impact on people’s daily life. This study aimed to examine use of alcohol and addictive drugs during the COVID-19 outbreak and examine their association with mental health problems and problems related to the pandemic. A sample of 4527 persons responded to the survey. Use of alcohol and addictive drugs were cross-tabulated with sociodemographic variables, mental health problems and problems related to COVID-19. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the strength of the associations. Daily use of alcohol was associated with depression and expecting financial loss in relation to the COVID-19 outbreak. Use of cannabis was associated with expecting financial loss in relation to COVID-19. Use of sedatives was associated with anxiety, depression, and insomnia. Use of painkillers was associated with insomnia and self-reported risk of complications if contracting the coronavirus. We conclude that the occurrence of mental health problems is more important for an understanding of the use of alcohol and addictive drugs during the COVID-19 outbreak compared to specific pandemic-related worries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0034.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: long-term; sex ratio; action threshold; pest management; insecticide use
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:19:10 CEST)
A long-term investigation of D. suzukii dynamics in wild blueberry fields from 2012 - 2018 demonstrates relative abundance is still increasing seven years after initial invasion. Relative abundance is determined by physiological date of first detection and air temperatures the previous winter. Date of first detection of flies does not determine date of fruit infestation. The level of fruit infestation is determined by year, fly pressure, and insecticide application frequency. Frequency of insecticide application is determined by production system. Non-crop wild fruit and predation influences fly pressure; increased wild fruit abundance results in increased fly pressure. Increased predation rate reduces fly pressure, but only at high abundance of flies, or when high levels of wild fruit are present along field edges. Male sex ratio might be declining over the seven years. Action thresholds were developed from samples of 92 fields from 2012 - 2017 that related cumulative adult male trap capture to the following week likelihood of fruit infestation. A two-parameter gamma density function describing this probability was used to develop a risk-based gradient action threshold system. The action thresholds were validated from 2016-2018 in 35 fields and were shown to work well in two of three years (2016 and 2017).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0159.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Pollution dispersion; PM10; air quality; Land Use Regression; Symos’97
Online: 8 October 2018 (16:18:22 CEST)
Abstract: The air pollution dispersion modelling via spatial analyses (Land Use Regression – LUR) is an alternative approach to the air quality assessment to the standard air pollution dispersion modelling techniques. Its advantages are mainly much simpler mathematical apparatus, quicker and simpler calculations and a possibility to incorporate other factors affecting pollutant’s concentration. The goal of the study was to model the PM10 particles dispersion modelling via spatial analyses v in Czech-Polish border area of Upper Silesian industrial agglomeration and compare results with results of the standard Gaussian dispersion model SYMOS’97. Results show that standard Gaussian model with the same data as the LUR model gives better results (determination coefficient 71% for Gaussian model to 48% for LUR model). When factors of the land cover and were included into the LUR model, the LUR model results were significantly improved (65% determination coefficient) to the level comparable with Gaussian model. The hybrid approach combining the Gaussian model with the LUR gives superior quality of results (65% determination coefficient).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0344.v2
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Landsat8; multi-temporal; crops statistics; land use land cover; Pakistan
Online: 21 August 2018 (12:25:17 CEST)
Developing countries like Pakistan is among those where lack of adoption to science and technology advancement is a major constraint for Satellite Remote Sensing use in crops and land use land cover digital information generation. Exponential rise in country population, increased food demand, limiting natural resources coupled with migration of rural community to urban areas had further led to skewed official statistics. This study is an attempt to demonstrate the possible use of freely available satellite data like Landsat8 under complex cropping system of Okara district of Punjab, Pakistan. An Integrated approach has been developed for the satellite data based crops and land use/cover spatial area estimation. The resultant quality was found above 96% with Kappa statistics of 0.95. Land utilization statistics provided detail information about cropping patterns as well as land use land cover status. Rice was recorded as most dominating crop in term of cultivation area of around 0.165 million ha followed by autumn maize 0.074 million ha, Fallow crop fields 0.067 million ha and Sorghum 0.047 million ha. Other minor crops observed were potato, fodder and cotton being cultivated on less than 0.010 million ha. Population settlements were observed over an area of around 0.081 million ha of land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0162.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Population Distribution; Optimization; Hu Huanyong Line; Land Use Efficiency; China
Online: 8 August 2018 (08:46:57 CEST)
With the accelerating urbanization process, the population increasingly concentrates in urban areas. In view of the special situation in China and a series of problems in the process of rapid urbanization, there were no reasonable measures for optimizing the population pattern. This study explored the distribution pattern of the Chinese population and proposed an optimization plan for the population distribution using GIS analysis. The main findings were as follows. (1) From 2010 to 2015, the distribution of population density in China presented a pattern of high in the southeast and low in the northwest based on the county-level administrative regions. The population still showed a tendency to migrate to the southeast of the country based on the “Hu Huanyong Line”. (2) There was a great difference in the land use efficiency in terms of population and economic production in China. The economic concentration in China was higher than the population concentration. In the areas where population and economic production were aggregated, GDP per capita and land use efficiency were higher. (3) Based on the land use efficiency in terms of population and economic production, the optimized urbanization plan of “1+4+11” for China’s urbanization was put forward, namely, one national-level aggregated area of population and economic production, 4 regional-level aggregated areas of population and economic production, and 11 local regionally aggregated areas of population and economic production. This optimization plan for urbanization represents an attempt to explore the direction of China’s urbanization, and it can be used to optimize the spatial development pattern and provide scientific guidance for the new urbanization plan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0412.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: P.C. regression; AIC criterion; logit function; pearson's Chi-square use
Online: 23 July 2018 (10:58:36 CEST)
In this paper, we use the Principal Components Logistic Regression as a technique to reduce the variables being used in Credit Scoring Modeling. Specifically, we construct two models in which greek enterprises are classified, through their credit behavior and we evaluate them, relying on real data. In general, we propose a general way to use PC Regression, in case that we have high correlations and categorical variables in the sample.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0318.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: input efficiency use; Kosovar greenhouse vegetable industry; tomatoes and peppers
Online: 20 June 2018 (09:40:52 CEST)
This study evaluates the input efficiency of greenhouse tomato and pepper farms in Kosovo. Using data collected from farm surveys, we conduct an input-oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA) to empirically assess input efficiency. Secondly, linear regression analysis is used to investigate which farm variables predict greenhouse tomato and pepper technical efficiency (TE). The DEA results indicated that among the seven regions in Kosovo, Prizren emerged as the most efficient greenhouse tomato producing region with a mean efficiency of 0.83 (on a scale of 0 to 1). Prishtina followed with a mean efficiency of 0.80. In the production of greenhouse peppers, Prishtina was the most efficient region with a mean efficiency of 0.99. Ferizaj followed with a mean efficiency of 0.93. Conclusions about farm characteristics that explain differences in efficiency were sensitive to model specification. Nevertheless, depending on the structural and operational characteristics of the greenhouse tomato and pepper farms, there is an opportunity for the technically inefficient farms and regions to improve their use of inputs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: screen time; sleep duration; body mass index (BMI); time use
Online: 31 May 2018 (16:34:38 CEST)
Today, due to recent developments in technology, children devote plenty of time for screen viewing. However, its harmful effects are not yet clear. The purpose of present study was to examine the associations among screen viewing and sleep duration, and body mass index (BMI) in under-five years old children. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 322 under-five healthy children that were selected using multistage stratified cluster sampling method in 2017. The data that were gathered by time-use diary method were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman correlation tests, multiple linear regression analysis, one-way ANCOVA, two-way ANCOVA. There was a negative correlation between screen time and sleep duration (rs = -0.42, p = 0.00), positive correlation between screen time and BMI (rs = 0.38, p = 0.00) and sleep duration negatively correlated with BMI (rs = -0.22, p = 0.00). screen viewing was a predictive factor for both sleep duration (β = -0.26, p = 0.00) and BMI (β = -0.26, p = 0.00). screen viewing had a significant impact on sleep duration (4, 314) = 5.02, P = 0.001) and BMI (F (4, 314) = 1.16, P=0.298). Results of this study indicated that screen viewing is related to sleep duration and BMI in under-five children. furthermore, screen time has an impact on sleep duration and BMI scores of children. findings of our study suggest that sleep duration negatively is associated with BMI in under-five-year-old children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0045.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: adoption; land-use; degradation; ethnobotany; networking; agroforestry; dry semi-deciduous
Online: 7 November 2017 (04:06:23 CET)
Bamboo agroforestry is currently being promoted as a viable land use option to reduce dependence on natural forest for wood fuels in Ghana. To align the design and introduction of bamboo agroforestry in conformity with farmers’ needs, perceptions, skills and local cultural practices, information on its acceptability and adoption potential among farmers is necessary. It is therefore the objective of this study to (1) describe bamboo ethnobotany and (2) assess socioeconomic factors that affect the acceptability and adoption of bamboo and its integration into farming practices. Accordingly, information has been collected from 200 farmers in the dry semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana. The study identified the socioeconomic risks and uncertainties as well as biophysical factors that are likely to influence the potential adoption of bamboo agroforestry in the study region. Gender, age, farmers’ known uses of bamboo, the practice of leaving trees on farmlands, farmers’ networking and access to extension services, land availability and ownership by farmers were identified as suitable predictor variables for the adoption of bamboo agroforestry. It is envisaged that bamboo agroforestry is a good bet in the DSFZ though there is the need to explore domestic energy (fuelwood) provision and substitution potential in order to have a broader picture of the technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0045.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Interoceanic Canal; Nicaragua; environmental impact; water availability; land use classification
Online: 11 September 2017 (16:57:08 CEST)
Nicaragua is preparing the construction of an interoceanic canal that will be the longest and largest canal on earth. An environmental and social impact assessment has been published in 2014 supporting a general viability of the canal. Nonetheless, several scientist and societal actors raised serious concerns regarding the social, economic and ecological sustainability. Despite an open dispute within the Nicaraguan society, no independent, transparent and scientifically sound assessment has been carried out. Only the environmental and social impact assessment, charged by the canal constructor, has so far been realized. The aim of this study is to contribute to an open scientific debate through an objective and independent quantification of land use and hydrological impacts. This article presents a transparently documented and comprehensible impact assessment investigation of the West Canal Segment of the Nicaragua Canal. Based on publically available data and scientifically sound and recognized methods land use, hydrological (water availability) and socio-economic impacts (streets, population) are described, quantified and compared with official declarations in the impact assessment. While some results support official declarations other do not. The number of affected population and the water use of the Brito Lock resulted much higher in this study, for instance. Hence, society and water availability could be affected much higher than estimated in the impact assessment.