ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0565.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Unsteady Exact analytical solutions; Partial differential equations system; Travelling wave method; Moment method; Boltzmann kinetic equation; Neutral non-homogenous gas; Thermal radiation force; Non-equilibrium irreversible thermodynamics; Internal energy.
Online: 23 July 2020 (12:53:22 CEST)
In the present paper, the effect of the non-linear thermal radiation on the neutral gas mixture in the unsteady state is investigated for the first time. The unsteady BGK technique of the Boltzmann kinetic equations for a neutral non-homogenous gas is solved. The solution of the unsteady case makes the problem more general significance than the stationary one. For this purpose, the moments' method, together with the traveling wave method, is applied. The temperature and concentration are calculated for each gas component and mixture for the first time.Furthermore, the study is held for aboard range of temperatures ratio parameter and a wide range of the molar fraction. The distribution functions are calculated for each gas component and the gas mixture. The significant non-equilibrium irreversible thermodynamic characteristics the entire system is acquired analytically. That technic allows us to investigate the consistency of Boltzmann's H-theorem, Le Chatelier principle, and thermodynamics laws. Moreover, the ratios among the different participation of the internal energy alteration are evaluated via the Gibbs formula of total energy. The final results are utilized to the argon-helium non-homogenous gas at different magnitudes of radiation force strength and molar fraction parameters. 3D-graphics are presented to predict the behavior of the calculated variables, and the obtained results are theoretically discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0626.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: unsteady flow; dynamic wave; finite differences method; Muskingum-Cunge
Online: 31 July 2018 (14:27:25 CEST)
Comparison between hydraulic and hydrologic computational methods is conducted in this study, regarding prismatic open channels under unsteady subcritical flow conditions. One-dimensional unsteady flow continuity and momentum equations are solved using explicit and implicit finite difference schemes for a symmetrical trapezoidal cross section, where the flow discharge and depth are the dependent variables. The results have been compared to those derived from Muskingum-Cunge hydraulic/hydrologic method as well as the commercial software HEC-RAS. The results from explicit and implicit code compare well to those from commercial software and hydraulic/hydrologic methods for long prismatic channels, thus directing the hydraulic engineer to quick preliminary design of prismatic open channels for unsteady flow with satisfactory accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0569.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: centrifugal fan; unsteady flow; vibroacoustics; fluid-structure-acoustic coupling; optimization
Online: 24 October 2018 (11:14:57 CEST)
Concerning fan systems with an air pipe connecting air intake and a closed outlet, aerodynamic noise cannot be directly transmitted from the fan inlet and outlet to the outside. At this moment, the volute vibrational radiation noise induced casing surface vibration is the major noise component. The main factors affecting the fan vibrational noise are analyzed through theoretical derivation, then a vibrational noise optimization control method for the volute casing is proposed that considered the influence of vibro-acoustic coupling, taking the panel thickness of the volute (front-panel thickness [FT], side-panel thickness [ST], and back-panel thickness [BT]) as design variables, and the acoustical power of the volute surface and the total mass of the volute as the optimal target function. The optimization method is mainly divided into three main parts: the first was based on the simulation of unsteady flow of the fan to obtain the vibrational noise source; the second, using the design of experimental (DOE) method and the proposed numerical simulation of fluid-structure-acoustic coupling method to obtain the designing space, then the radical-based function (RBF) method is used to construct the approximate surrogate model instead of the simulation model previously mentioned, which was used to provide the basic mathematical model for the optimization of the next part; the third part, implementing the low vibrational noise optimization for the fan volute, applied the single-target (taking volute radiated acoustical power as the target function) and the multi-target (taking the volute radiated acoustical power and volute total mass as the target function) methods. In addition, the fan aerodynamic performance, volute casing surface fluctuations, and vibration response were validated by experiments, showing good agreement. It is of utmost importance that the dynamic pressure measurements and vibrational tests on the volute casing verify the accuracy of the numerical calculation. The optimization results showed that the vibrational noise optimization method proposed in this study can effectively reduce the vibration noise of the fan, obtaining a maximum value of noise reduction of 7.3 dB. The optimization identified in this paper provides a significant reference for the design of a low-vibrational-noise volute.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0484.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: CFD; unsteady BEM; floating offshore wind turbine; scaled wind turbine rotor
Online: 29 August 2018 (06:43:56 CEST)
Aerodynamic performance of a floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) is significantly influenced by platform surging motions. Accurate prediction of the unsteady aerodynamic loads is imperative for determining the fatigue life, ultimate loads on key components such as FOWT rotor blades, gearbox and power converter. The current study examines the predictions of numerical codes by comparing with unsteady experimental results of a scaled floating wind turbine rotor. The influence of platform surge amplitude together with the tip speed ratio on the unsteady aerodynamic loading has been simulated through unsteady CFD. It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamic loads of FOWT are highly sensitive to the changes in frequency and amplitude of the platform motion. Also, the surging motion significantly influences the windmill operating state due to strong flow interaction between the rotating blades and generated blade-tip vortices. Almost in all frequencies and amplitudes, CFD, LR-BEM and LR-uBEM predictions of mean thrust shows a good correlation with experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0138.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Unsteady 3-D axisymmetric nanofluid; Entropy generation; Spectral quasi-linearization method.
Online: 17 March 2017 (15:10:32 CET)
We investigate entropy generation in unsteady three-dimensional axisymmetric MHD nanofluid flow over a non-linearly stretching sheet. The flow is subject to thermal radiation and a chemical reaction. The conservation equations were solved using the spectral quasi-linearization method. The novelty of the work is in the study of entropy generation in three-dimensional axisymmetric MHD nanofluid and the choice of the spectral quasilinearization method as the solution method. The effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis are also taken into account when the nanofluid particle volume fraction on the boundary in passively controlled. The results show that as the Hartman number increases, both the Nusselt number and the Sherwood number decrease whereas the skin friction increases. It is further shown that an increase in the thermal radiation parameter corresponds to a decrease in the Nusselt number. Moreover, entropy generation increases with the physical parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0042.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: inhalation exposure assessment; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); biocides; spray model; unsteady RANS
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:17:30 CET)
Consumer products contain the chemical substances that threaten human health. The modeling methods and experimental methods have been used to estimate the inhalation exposure concentration by the consumer products. The model and measurement methods have the spatial property problem and time/cost consuming problem, respectively. For solving the problems due to the conventional methodology, this study performed the feasibility of applying CFD for evaluation of inhalation exposure by comparing the experiment results and the zero-dimensional results with CFD results. To calculate the aerosol concentration, the CFD was performed by combined the 3D Reynolds averaged Navier Stoke’s equation and discrete phased model using ANSYS FLUENT. As a result of comparing the three methodologies performed under the same simulation/experimental conditions, we found the zero-dimensional spray model shows approximately 5 times underestimated inhalation exposure concentration when compared with the CFD results and measurement results in near field. Also, the results of the measured concentration of aerosols at five locations and the CFD results at the same location were compared to show the possibility of evaluating inhalation exposure at various locations using CFD instead of experimental method. The CFD results according to measurement positions can predict rationally the measurement results with low error. In conclusion, in the field of exposure science, a guideline for exposure evaluation using CFD was found that complements the shortcomings of the conventional methodology, the zero-dimensional spray model and measurement method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0187.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Cyclone separator; Computational fluid dynamics (CFD); Machine learning; Unsteady RANS; Critical Diameter
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:11:58 CET)
This paper deals with the characteristics of the cyclone separator from the Lagrangian perspective to design important dependent variables, develops a neural network model for predicting the separation performance parameter, and compares the predictive performance between the traditional surrogate model and the neural network model. In order to design the important parameters of the cyclone separator based on the particle separation theory, the force acting until the particles are separated was calculated using the Lagrangian-based CFD methodology. As a result, it was proved that the centrifugal force and drag acting on the critical diameter having a separation efficiency of 50% were similar, and the particle separation phenomenon in the cyclone occurred from the critical diameter, and it was set as an important dependent variable. For developing a critical diameter prediction model based on machine learning and multiple regression methods, Unsteady-RANS analyzes according to shape dimensions were performed. The input design variables for predicting the critical diameter were selected as four geometry parameters that affect the turbulent flow inside the cyclone. As a result of comparing the model prediction performances, the ML model showed the 32.5 % of improvement rate of R2 compared to the traditional MLR considering the nonlinear relationship between the cyclone design variable and the critical diameter. The proposed techniques have proven to be fast and practical tools for cyclone design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0112.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: marginal bank; unsteady flow; different slopes; water flow structure; experimentation; Yangtze River
Online: 10 December 2018 (16:42:41 CET)
Unsteady flow is the most common and complicated form of fluid motion in nature. This paper takes the beaches of key waterways in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River as the research object, analyzes the water surface distribution and average flow velocity distribution near the beach, and analyzes the differences. The relationship between the flow pattern of the steep slope and the water flow pattern of the entire survey area and the steep slope of the beach and its nearby water flow structure. The water flow near the beach is divided into four major blocks: the swelling water area, the falling water area, the backwater area and the maximum flow rate area. The water flow structure characteristics and the cause of each block are analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0232.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Darcy-Forchheimer; Surface stretch; Unsteady boundary layer; MHD flow; Nanofluid; Heat generation / absorption and entropy analysis
Online: 8 March 2021 (15:57:01 CET)
The aim of this articles is to investigate the entropy optimization in unsteady MHD flow Darcy-Forchheimer nanofluids towards a stretchable sheet. The surface we tend to think about is porous and stretchy under acceleration. Flow occurs due to the stretching of the surface. Four distinct types of aqueous nanostructures are taken in this examination where copper oxide ( ), copper ( ), titanium dioxide ( ) and aluminum oxide ( ) are the nanoparticles. Irreversibility analysis are discussed through second law of thermodynamics. The expression of energy is mathematically designed and discussed according to heat generation / absorption, dissipation, thermal radiation, and joule heating. The nonlinear PDE (partial differential conditions) is first changed to ODE (normal differential conditions) through appropriate similarity variables. Here we used the numerically embedded solution technique to develop a numerical result for the obtained nonlinear flow expression. Influence of various flow parameter velocity temperature distribution and entropy generation are discussed. Reduction occurs in velocity profile for larger porosity and magnetic parameters. An enhancement in entropy generation and temperature distribution is seen for Brinkman number. An opposite effect is noticed in velocity and temperature through solid volume friction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0384.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: sweeping jet actuator; jet oscillation frequency; compressibility effect; unsteady Reynolds–Averaged Navier–Stokes; mass flow rate
Online: 26 February 2020 (02:17:51 CET)
The time-resolved flowfield of a spatially oscillating jet emitted by a Sweeping Jet (SWJ) actuator is investigated numerically using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (3D-URANS) equations. Numerical simulations are performed for a practical range of mass flow rates providing flow conditions ranging from incompressible to subsonic compressible flows. A linear relationship between the mass flow rate and the jet oscillation frequency is found. The results of the numerical model are compared with the experimental data in the literature, and good agreement is found. Additionally, it is observed that the SWJ actuator frequency response switches from one linear mode to another linear mode when the compressibility effects become important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0224.v2
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: propeller; cavitation pattern; unsteady cavitation; induced pressure fluctuations; high-speed visualization; volume acceleration; cavitation-pressure correlations
Online: 5 September 2016 (09:37:05 CEST)
An experimental study is carried out in a cavitation tunnel on a propeller operating downstream of a non-uniform wake. The goal of this work is to establish quantitative correlations between the near pressure field and the cavitation pattern that takes place on the propeller blades. The pressure field is measured at the walls of the test section and in the near wake of the propeller, and is combined with quantitative high-speed image recording of the cavitation pattern. Through simple harmonic analysis of the pressure data and image processing techniques that allow to retrieve the cavitation extension and volume, we discuss the potential sources that generate the pressure fluctuations. Time correlations are unambiguously established between pressure peak fluctuations and cavitation collapse events, based upon the Rayleigh collapse time. Finally, we design a model to predict the cavitation-induced pressure fluctuations from the derivation of the cavitation volume acceleration. This simple model demonstrates a remarkable agreement with the actual pressure field.