ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1448.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Rwanda; Unpaid care work; Critical realism; Cluster randomised control trial; Gender transformative change; Gender equality and women’s empowermenttransformative change, Gender equality and women’s empowerment
Online: 19 May 2023 (16:02:23 CEST)
Background: Globally, women’s responsibility for unpaid care work (UCW) remains a barrier to gender equality and women’s empowerment. Rwanda, a low-income country, has a legal and policy framework for promoting gender equality but remains a patriarchal society with women responsible for UCW. Reseaux des Femmes, a local NGO, has been delivering a programme targeted at reducing and redistributing the UCW of women with the objective of gender transformational change. However, there has been no impact evaluation of their intervention to date. Methods/Design: The impact evaluation will be a proof-of-concept critical realist cluster control trial (CRcCT) to evaluate for which women, how and under what circumstances the intervention reduces and redistributes women’s UCW, promote gender equality and women’s empowerment, and improves women’s quality of life. Four clusters of villages in each of five districts in Rwanda will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control arms, and all eligible households, those headed by a couple with at least one child under 12 years, will be recruited. This will yield a sample of around 550 intervention households and 550 control. Discussion: This protocol describes the design of mixed-methods research to evaluate an intervention in Rwanda aimed at reducing and redistributing the time women spend on UCW, thereby promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment. This paper will contribute to our understanding of interventions for transforming gender relations from a scholarly perspective. From a policy perspective, it will act as a proof of concept of Reseaux des Femmes’ Programme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0430.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: informal caregiving; unpaid family caregivers; labour force participation; income; labour supply
Online: 19 February 2021 (09:58:39 CET)
Unpaid family caregivers might suffer losses in income as a result of care provision. Here we used data from the baseline survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study to assess the relationship between hours of weekly caregiving provided to grandchildren/parents/parents-in-law and individual’s monthly employment income. Our study sample comprised 3,718 middle-aged Chinese adults who were of working age (45-60 years). For women and men separately, we used a likelihood-based method to determine a caregiving threshold in a two-stage Heckman selection procedure. Instrumental variables were used to rule out the endogeneity of caregiving hours. Our analysis revealed a negative association between caregiving and income for women that depended on a caregiving threshold of 63-hours per week. There was an absence of caregiving-income relationship among men. These results offer new insights into the opportunity costs of unpaid caregiving and support tailored policies to protect the financial well-being of female caregivers.