BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0063.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Placental Pathology; Apgar Scores; Gestational Age; Under-resourced Patient Population
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:17:10 CEST)
Abstract. Babies born to severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected mothers are at greater risk for perinatal morbidity and more likely to receive a neurodevelopmental diagnosis in the first year of life. However, the effect of maternal infection on placental function and neonatal outcomes varies depending upon the patient population. We set out to test our hypothesis that maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in our underserved, socioeconomically disadvantaged, predominantly African American and Latina population in the Bronx, NY would have effects evident at birth. Fifty-five SARS-CoV-2 positive and 61 negative third trimester patients were randomly selected from Montefiore Medical Center (MMC), Bronx, NY. In addition, two positive cases from Yale New Haven Hospital, CT were included as controls. All 55 placentas delivered by SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers were uninfected by the virus, based on immunohistochemistry, in-situ hybridization, and qPCR analysis. However, placental villous infarcts, mild preeclampsia, shortened gestational periods and lower Apgar scores were observed in the infected cases. These findings suggest that even without entering the placenta, SARS-CoV-2 can affect various systemic pathways culminating in altered placental development and function, which may adversely affect the fetus, especially in a high-risk patient population such as ours. These results underline the importance of vaccination among pregnant women, particularly in low resource areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0113.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: endangered languages, low-resourced languages, NLP, criticism of science
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:15:25 CEST)
The term low-resourced has been tossed around in the field of natural language processing to a degree that almost any language that is not English can be called "low-resourced"; sometimes even just for the sake of making a mundane or mediocre paper appear more interesting and insightful. In a field where English is a synonym for language and low-resourced is a synonym for anything not English, calling endangered languages low-resourced is a bit of an overstatement. In this paper, I inspect the relation of the endangered with the low-resourced from my own experiences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0528.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Robust Optimization; Optimization Under Uncertainty; Robustness; Stochastic
Online: 26 October 2020 (14:04:54 CET)
A Robust Optimization framework with original concepts and fundamentals also admitting a fusion of ideals from relative regret models and static robust optimization, containing conservatism concepts is disclosed. The algorithm uses a fine-tune strategy to tune the model so the robustness and a target ideality can be mutually achieved with a specified risk. The framework comprises original concepts, a mathematical approach and an algorithm. The statistical treatment of the data with the original concepts from the framework make it able to make short, middle or long-term decision-making setting. The framework has high tractability since the algorithm forces the creation of a setting that makes a robust optimization with the specified risk. The framework can be applied in linear and nonlinear mathematical models since that the objective function is monotonic in the domain of the active convex region. Several examples are solved to best understand the framework and all results demonstrated high tractability and performance. There is a wide range of applications. Along all the text, there is a profound discussion about its philosophy, objective, original concepts, fields of application, statistical and probabilistic fundamentals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0582.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: under-five; mortality; demographic health survey data; Ethiopia
Online: 24 May 2021 (15:12:13 CEST)
Introduction: Over decades, much have been said and done regarding under-five mortality in Ethiopia. The country has been following the lead of sustainable development goals and UNICEF with its transformation plan targets. However, unless the efforts supported by status assessing studies, it might be difficult for the country to progress. Thus, the current study was directed to identify the prevalence and associated factors of under-five mortality in 2019. Methods: According to the study criteria, we extract and cleaned data in STATA v. 15.0. The data then weighted as per the sampling weight, primary sampling unit, and strata before analyzing in STATA 15.0. Data management consisted of descriptive (mean, standard deviation, and proportion or percent) and association statistics. We deliberated binary logistic regression for this analysis and we checked each variable at 0.25 p-values to include in the model. The final p-value to declare association was p <0.05 and AOR with 95% CI was also applied to describe the results. The data source was the Ethiopian Mini Demographic Health Survey (EMDHS) 2019. EMDHS collected the data from 8,885 in a face-to-face manner with a 99% response rate. Results: From 5,527 numbers of weighted women with under-five analysed in this study, the proportion of under-five mortality was 277.23(5.02%). Factors like 2nd birth order 0.52(0.35, 0.79), 3rd-4th 0.49(0.28, 0.84), 1-2 ANC visits 0.24(0.12, 0.49, ANC visit three’ 0.14(0.07, 0.28), ANC visit four and above 0.22(0.14, 0.36), in marriage mother 0.43(0.19, 0.96), ‘1-2 under-five children 0.02(0.011, 0.03), and greater than three under-five children 0.007(0.0007, 0.004) were all negatively associated with under-five mortality rate. Conclusion: To obtain the exalted outcome out of this study, the government might need to increase antenatal care, women education, institutional delivery, and the modern contraceptive methods use through enhanced community mobilization, health education using community health workers, increasing access to essential cares of mothers and children, and the policy commitment for the issues related to family size, birth order, and birth interval.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Vitamin D; under five; healthy; sick; sub-Saharan
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:42:07 CET)
Studies shows that, normal to high serum 25(OH)D status appears to have some beneficial influence on the incidence and severity of some, though not all, types of infections. However, studies with vitamin D supplementation on young children produced conflicting results with respect to the level of vitamin D deficiency among common medical illnesses among children. Method: A systematic review of literatures from PubMed, CINAHL, Web of science, global health and Google scholar electronic databases was conducted to assess the pooled prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy and sick children in sub-Saharan Africa. The data was extracted by two authors independently using standard data extraction format and STATA Version 14 was used for analysis. The heterogeneity of the studies was assessed by using I2 test. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence among both healthy and sick children. Presence of publication bias was checked using Funnel plot and Egger's test. Result: A total of 1212 articles were identified by the total search of utilized data bases of which 13 papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria and accessible with full document. The meta-analysis revealed that the pooled prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy children in this study was 50.06% (95%CI 33.46%, 66.67%) with mean serum vitamin D level of 41.06 nm/L (CI range from 23.82nm/L to 58.31nm/L). The pooled prevalence among the sick children was 39.36% (CI 20.57%, 57.96%) with 66.96nm/L (95% CI 54.81nm/L, 79.11nm/L) mean concentration of vitamin D. Comparing the two level of the pooled prevalence, the prevalence among the healthy children was significantly higher compared to those who have common medical illnesses and the pooled mean concentration among the sick was much higher than the mean concentration among healthy children. Conclusion: The level of pooled prevalence among both group of population was significantly of public health concern and the prevalence among the healthy children was much higher among the sick children implying the need for reconsideration of available recommendations for the prevention of vitamin D deficiency
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: WASH; Hygiene; Sanitation; Under-five children; Nutrition status; Bangladesh
Online: 13 January 2022 (11:04:48 CET)
This study aimed to assess knowledge and practice of caregivers and its relationship to the disease and nutritional status of children under five years of age in rural areas of Sylhet, Bangladesh. A total of 110 households having 6 to 59 months aged children was selected by simple random method from ten rural communities of three Upazila of Sylhet during September 2019 to February 2020. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the WASH knowledge & practice and multivariate chi-square analyses were performed to assess associations among diseases & nutritional status with WASH following a structured questionnaire. The study found a significant association of WASH with childhood disease and nutritional status, and 65% of children were found to be in a diseased state and 35% of children were found to be in a disease-free state within the last six months. The findings sketched that mother with poor wash knowledge and practice was at greater risk for disease outbreaks, disease frequency and duration. The highest incidence of diarrhea was 17% in children aged 12 to 23 months. Significant effect of WASH was also found in children nutrition status, that was reflected in the ratio of stunted, underweight and wasted children. Integrated convergent work focusing on the provision of clean water within the household, stop open defecation, promotion of hand washing, behavior change and poverty alleviation is needed to improve the situation. Health, nutrition and livelihood programs should be uninterrupted, and mothers or caregivers should be encouraged to participate in these programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0022.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: under-potential deposition; bismuth sub-layer; lead ions; DPV
Online: 4 April 2017 (10:43:35 CEST)
The accumulation of high levels of lead or lead ions in a human body is harmful, particularly to children. Its neurotoxic effect is profound, damaging the central and peripheral nervous systems, resulting in stunted growth, behavioral problems and learning disabilities. The major source of lead or lead ions comes from the drinking water and tap water. The assessment of the water quality, including lead or lead ion content, is usually completed by a regional water department professional. This assessment is time-consuming and requires expensive instruments and skilled operators. Therefore, there is a need to produce a simple-use and relatively inexpensive method to detect lead or lead ions in water samples. This research has developed a simple-use, cost effective sensor system for the detection of lead ions in tap water. An under-potential deposited bismuth sub-layer on a thin gold film based electrochemical sensor was designed, manufactured and evaluated. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurement technique was employed in this detection. Tap water from the Cleveland, Ohio, USA regional water district was the test medium. Concentrations of lead ion in the range of 8 X 10-8 M to 8 x 10-4 M were evaluated. This DPV detection system required 3 -6 minutes to complete the detection measurement. A longer measurement time of 6 minutes was used for the lower lead ion concentration. The selectivity of this lead ion sensor was very good, and Fe III, Cu II, Ni II and Mg II at a concentration level of 5×10-4 M did not interfere with the lead ion measurement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0028.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA); decision making under uncertainty; deep learning
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:29:33 CET)
Among many research areas to which Ron Yager contributed are decision making under uncertainty (in particular, under interval and fuzzy uncertainty) and aggregation – where he proposed, analyzed, and utilized the use of Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA). The OWA algorithm itself provides only a specific type of data aggregation. However, it turns out that if we allows several OWA stages one after another, we get a scheme with a universal approximation property – moreover, a scheme which is perfectly equivalent to deep neural networks. In this sense, Ron Yager can be viewed as a (grand)father of deep learning. We also show that the existing schemes for decision making under uncertainty are also naturally interpretable in OWA terms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0168.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: malaria; fever; Plasmodium falciparum; Falciparum vivax; under-five; determinants; risk factors
Online: 6 August 2021 (14:09:07 CEST)
Background/Purpose: Over the last two decades, malaria has remained a major worldwide public health concern, especially in the developing countries leading to high morbidity and mortality among children. Nigeria is the world most burdened malaria endemic nation, contributing more than a quarter of global malaria cases. This study determined the prevalence of malaria among children 6-59 months in Nigeria, and the effects of individual and contextual factors. Methods: The study utilized data from 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) involving a weighted sample size of 10,185 children who were tested for malaria using rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Given the hierarchical structure of the data set, such that children at level-1 are nested in community at level-2, and nested in states and Federal Capital Territory (FCT) at level-3, multilevel mixed effect logistic regression models were used for the analysis. Results: The proportion of children 6-59 months of age in Nigeria that had malaria fever positive as assessed by RDTs was 35.5% (3,418/10185), (CI: 33.9-37.1). Kebbi State had the highest proportion of children 6-59 months who were malaria positive, 77.6%, (CI: 70.2-83.5), followed by Katsina State, 55.5%, (CI: 47.7-63.1). The Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja had the proportion of 29.6%, (CI: 21.6-39.0), malaria positive children of 6-59 months of age. Children between the age of 48 and 59 months were 2.68 times more likely to have malaria fever than children 6-11 months of age (AOR=2.68, 95% CI: 2.03-3.54). Also, children from the rural area (AOR= 2.12, 95% CI: 1.75-2.57), were more likely to suffer from malaria infection compare with children from urban area. Conclusion: The study identified some individual and contextual predictors of malaria among children in Nigeria. These factors are areas that need to be considered for policy designs and implementations toward control and total elimination of malaria-related morbidity and mortality among children in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0665.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: engineering education; choice characteristics; institutional characteristics; students’ characteristics; suitability under COVID-19
Online: 26 March 2021 (12:54:00 CET)
Background: COVID-19 has impacted Indian engineering institutions (EIs) enormously. It has tightened its knot around EIs that forced their previous half-shut shades completely down to prevent the risk of spreading COVID-19. In such a situation, fetching new enrollments on EI campuses is a difficult and challenging task, as students’ behavior and family preferences have changed drastically due to mental stress and emotions attached to them. Historically, during crisis situations, institutions have struggled to return to the normal track. Consequently, it becomes a prerequisite to examine the choice characteristics influencing the selection of EI during the COVID-19 pandemic to make it ‘normal’ for ‘new’ enrollments. The purpose of this study is to critically examine choice characteristics that affect students’ choice for EI and consequently to explore relationships between institutions’ characteristics and the suitability of EI during the COVID-19 pandemic across students’ characteristics. Quantitative research, conducted through a self-reported survey composed of a closed-ended structured questionnaire, was purposefully incorporated into the students who recently were enrolled in EIs (batch years 2020-2021) belonging to the North Maharashtra region of India. Results:The findings of this study revealed dissimilarities across students’ characteristics regarding the suitability of EIs under pandemic conditions. Regression analysis revealed that EI characteristics such as proximity, image and reputation, quality education and curriculum delivery have significantly contributed to suitability under COVID-19. At the micro level, multiple relationships were noted between EI characteristics and the suitability of EI under the pandemic across students’ characteristics. Conclusion:Bringing ‘normality’ to ‘new’ enrollments totally depends on EI’s resilience in meeting the needs of diversity in the COVID-19 pandemic situation, which repositions themselves to govern student-centric strategies instituted for the overall suitability of EI under pandemic conditions. The study has successfully demonstrated how choice characteristics can be executed to regulate the ‘suitability’ of EI under the COVID-19 pandemic for the inclusion of diversity. It is useful for policy makers and academicians to reposition EIs that fetch diversity during the pandemic. This study is the first to provide insights into the performance of choice characteristics and their relationship with the suitability of EIs under a pandemic and can be a yardstick in administering new enrollments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Malaria, Fever, Plasmodium falciparum, falciparum vivax, under-five, determinants, risk factors, review
Online: 22 January 2021 (13:08:29 CET)
Background/Purpose: In recent times, Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) had been rated by the World Health Organization, (WHO), as the most malaria endemic region in the world. Evidence synthesis of the risk factors associated with malaria among children aged under-five in SSA is urgently needed. This would help to inform decisions that policy makers and executors in the region need to make for the effective distribution of scare palliative resources to curb the spread of the illness. This scoping review is aimed to identify studies that have used multivariate classical regression analysis to determine risk factors associated with malaria among children under-five years old in SSA. Methods/Design: The search terms followed PICOTS, (Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome, Timing, Setting), and were used in searching through the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, and MeasureDHS. The databases were searched for published articles from January 1990 to December 2020. Results: Among the 1154 studies identified, only thirteen (13) studies met the study’s inclusion/exclusion criteria. Narrative syntheses were performed on the selected papers to synchronise the various risk factors identified. Factors ranging from child-related, (age, birth order and use of bed net), parental/household-related, (maternal age and education status, household wealth index) and community-related variables, (community wealth status, free bed net distribution), were some of the identified significant risk factors. Conclusion: It is timely to have a synthesis of risk factors that influence the malaria status of children under-five in SSA. The outcome of the review will increase the knowledge of the epidemiology of morbidity that will form the basis for designing efficient and cost-effective distribution of palliatives and controls of malaria in SSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0550.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Basmati rice; QTL introgression; near isogenic lines; yield under drought; climate resilience
Online: 20 November 2020 (20:45:02 CET)
Drought stress at the reproductive stage in rice is one of the most important cause for yield reduction, affecting both productivity and quality. All Basmati rice varieties, including the popular cultivar ‘Pusa Basmati 1 (PB1)’ is highly sensitive to reproductive stage drought stress (RSDS). We report for the first time, improvement of a Basmati cultivar for RSDS tolerance, with the introgression of a major quantitative trait locus (QTL), ‘qDTY1.1’ into PB1. The QTL donor was sourced from an aus variety, Nagina 22 (N22). A QTL linked microsatellite (SSR) marker ‘RM 431’ was employed for foreground selection for qDTY1.1 in the marker assisted backcross breeding process. A set of 113 SSR markers polymorphic between N22 and PB1 were utilized for background selection to ensure higher genome recovery. After three backcrosses followed by five generations of selfing, eighteen near isogenic lines (NILs) were developed, through combinatory selection for agro-morphological, grain and cooking superiority traits. The NILs were evaluated for three consecutive Kharif seasons, 2017, 2018 and 2019 under well-watered and drought stress conditions. RSDS tolerance and yield stability indicated that NIL3, NIL5, NIL6, NIL7, NIL12, NIL15 and NIL17 were best in terms of overall agronomic and grain quality under RSDS. Additionally, NILs exhibited high yield potential under normal condition as well. The RSDS tolerant Basmati NILs with high resilience to water stress, is a valuable resource for sustaining Basmati rice production under water limiting production environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0095.v1
Subject: Keywords: covariance selection; model approximation; detection problem; area under the curve; information divergences
Online: 15 November 2017 (05:15:43 CET)
This paper considers the problem of quantifying the quality of a model selection problem for a graphical model. The model selection problem often uses a distance measure such as the Kulback-Leibler (KL) distance to quantify the quality of the approximation between the original distribution and the model distribution. We extend this work by formulating the problem as a detection problem between the original distribution and the model distribution. In particular, we focus on the covariance selection problem by Dempster, , and consider the cases where the distributions are Gaussian distributions. Previous work showed that if the approximation model is a tree, that the optimal tree that minimizes the KL divergence can be found by using the Chow-Liu algorithm . While the algorithm minimizes the KL divergence it does not minimize other measures such as other divergences and the area under the curve (AUC). These measures all depend on the eigenvalues of the correlation approximation measure (CAM). We find expressions for KL divergence, log-likelihood ratio, and AUC as a function of the CAM. Easily computable upper and lower bounds are also found for the AUC. The paper concludes by computing these measures for real and synthetic simulation data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0110.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: X-ray; arylhydrazones; 2-amino-1,1,3-propenetricarbonitrile; pyridazines; rate enhance under pressure
Online: 17 October 2017 (04:13:47 CEST)
The considerable biological and medicinal activities of pyridazines has stimulated considerable research on efficient syntheses of these derivatives. In the last decade, microwave irradiation has generally been used for the energy source. As demonstrated in recent studies, pressure reactor “Q-tubes” may be used to accelerate several of these reactions in a more optimal and safer manner (compared to microwaves). In these studies there has been postulated a pathway for the formation of pyridazino[5,4,3-de][1,6]naphthyridine derivatives . In this paper we consider this pathway, and an alternate pathway, for several reactions. Contrary to the suggestion in these studies the pathway in which initial dimerization of malononitrile was postulated could be excluded based on chemical evidence. The reactions performed were the reaction of arylhydrazonals 1a,b with benzylidinemalononitrile which afforded in Q-tube the 3-acyl-4-aryl-1-phenyl-6-amino-1,4-dihydropyridazines, and the reaction of arylhydrazonals 1a,b, malononitrile 9 and aromatic aldehydes 10a-g in Q-tubes which afforded the tricyclic systems 12a-n whose structure could be established by X-ray crystal structure determination. In conclusion, we have added to the work of the recent studies by excluding a reaction pathway for one of their reaction products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0240.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: openness under neoliberalism; open-access licensing in capitalism; the politics of open-licensing
Online: 21 January 2020 (11:00:41 CET)
The terms 'open' and 'openness' are widely used across the current higher education environment particularly in the areas of repository services and scholarly communications. Open-access licensing and open-source licensing are two prevalent manifestations of open culture within higher education research environments. As theoretical ideals, open-licensing models aim at openness and academic freedom. But operating as they do within the context of global neoliberalism, to what extent are these models constructed by, sustained by, and co-opted by neoliberalism? In this paper, we interrogate the use of open-licensing within scholarly communications and within the larger societal context of neoliberalism. Through synthesis of various sources, we will examine how open access licensing models have been constrained by neoliberal or otherwise corporate agendas, how open access and open scholarship have been reframed within discourses of compliance, how open-source software models and software are co-opted by politico-economic forces, and how the language of 'openness' is widely misused in higher education and repository services circles to drive agendas that run counter to actually increasing openness. We will finish by suggesting ways to resist this trend and use open-licensing models to resist neoliberal agendas in open scholarship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0250.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: socioeconomic status; indoor air pollution; acute respiratory infection; cooking fuel; under-five children
Online: 23 July 2019 (07:45:08 CEST)
Background: Low-income families often depend on fuels such as wood, coal, and animal dung for cooking. Such solid fuels are highly polluting and are a primary source of indoor air pollutants (IAP). We examined the association between solid fuel use (SFU) and acute respiratory infection (ARI) among under-five children in Afghanistan and the extent to which this association varies by socioeconomic status (SES) and gender. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study based on de-identified data from Afghanistan’s first standard Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2015. The sample consists of ever-married mothers with under-five children in the household (n=27,565). We used mixed-effect Poisson regression models with robust error variance accounting for clustering to examine the associations between SFU and ARI among under-five children after adjusting for potential confounders. We also investigated potential effect modification by SES and sex. Additional analyses were conducted using an augmented measure of the exposure to IAP accounting for both SFU and the location of cooking/kitchen (High Exposure, Moderate, and No Exposure). Results: Around 70% of households reported SFU, whereas the prevalence of ARI was 17.6%. The prevalence of ARI was higher in children living in households with SFU compared to children living in households with no SFU (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]= 1.10; 95%CI: 0.98, 1.23). We did not observe any effect modification by SES or child sex. When using the augmented measure of exposure incorporating the kitchen’s location, children highly exposed to IAP had a higher prevalence of ARI compared to unexposed children (aPR 1.17; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.32). SES modified this association with the strongest associations observed among children from the middle wealth quintile. Conclusion: The findings have significant policy implications and suggest that ARI risk in children may be reduced by ensuring clean cookstove as well as clean fuels and acting on the socio-environmental pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0239.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Theory Of Art Keywords: Urban grey space; Space under bridge; Public Art; Micro-transformation; Regional culture; Art for all
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:55:46 CEST)
Since the 21st century, China's urbanization process has been rapid development, the concept and function of urban public space in the city has been gradually paid attention to. In order to guarantee life and water, most urban construction relies on rivers, and Bridges are the most important way to communicate between urban areas. The main functional part of the bridge is the span structure, that is, the bearing structure of the bridge, and the lower part of the "gray" space formed by the bridge structure. Considering the social level, with the economic growth and urbanization development, people have brought a better living environment and quality of life, and also improved the requirements for urban public environment. In the increasingly tense urban space, how to use and transform the space under the bridge is a problem that needs to be considered and solved. In view of this problem, in this study, we try to solve the micro-transformation of space under Bridges in cities through public art from the perspective of "regional culture" and "art for all". This paper analyzes the micro-transformation of space art under Bridges in two large cities of Shanghai and Foshan, namely, the space under Bridges under Songhong Road in Shanghai, the space under Bridges under Central Of Suzhou River and the space under Bridges under Pingsheng Bridge in Foshan. This paper discusses the cultural intervention of "regional culture" in the micro-transformation of the space under the bridge, and the influence and effect of "art for all" on the public art space under the bridge after the transformation to the community and the public.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0234.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: early initiation of breastfeeding; exclusive breastfeeding; anemia; nutritional status; infants under six months; Syrian refugees; Lebanon
Online: 16 September 2022 (02:01:22 CEST)
The objective is to describe infant feeding practices and the nutritional status of infants under six months among Syrian refugees in Greater Beirut, Lebanon. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Syrian refugee mothers with children under five years (July-October 2018), mothers with infants under six months were included in the analysis (n=114). Additionally, eleven focus groups discussions were conducted to explore supportive factors and barriers associated with early breastfeeding practices. The prevalence of pre-lacteal feeding was high (62.5%), whereas early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) was low (31%), and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) very low (24.6%). About one-fifth of the infants were suffering from anemia (20.5%) and 9.6% were wasted. Supporting factors of adequate infant feeding practices comprised knowledge on maternal nutrition and EBF, in addition to receiving support from healthcare professionals and family members. Identified barriers included preterm delivery, pre-lacteal feeding, an at-risk waist circumference and moderate to severe depression among mothers, bottle feeding, early introduction of food, maternal health reasons, breastmilk substitutes’ distribution, and misinformation offered by mothers-in-law. To address sub-optimal feeding practices documented among Syrian refugees in our study, existing infant and young child feeding policies and programs need to be strengthened and revised to tackle the identified gaps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0003.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: under-canopy surveys; UAV laser scanning; tree height; stem curve; stem volume; field reference; forest plot
Online: 1 April 2021 (09:53:15 CEST)
Automation of forest field reference data collection has been an intensive research objective for laser scanning scientists ever since the invention of terrestrial laser scanning more than two decades ago. Recently, it has been proposed that such automated data collection providing both the tree heights and stem curves would require a combination of above-canopy UAV point clouds and terrestrial point clouds. In this study, we demonstrate that an under-canopy UAV laser scanning system utilizing a rotating laser scanner can alone provide accurate estimates of the canopy height and the stem volume for the majority of the trees in a boreal forest. To this end, we mounted a rotating laser scanner based on a Velodyne VLP-16 sensor onboard a manually piloted UAV. The UAV was commanded with the help of a live video feed from the onboard camera of the UAV. Since the system was based on a rotating laser scanner providing varying view angles, all important elements such as treetops, branches, trunks, and ground could be recorded with laser hits. In an experiment including two different forest structures, namely sparse and obstructed canopy, we showed that our system can measure the heights of individual trees with a bias of -20 cm and a standard error of 40 cm in the sparse forest and with a bias of -65 cm and a standard error of 1 m in the obstructed forest. The accuracy of the obtained tree height estimates was equivalent to airborne above-canopy UAV surveys conducted in similar forest conditions. The higher underestimation and higher inaccuracy in the obstructed site can be attributed to three trees with a height exceeding 25 m and the applied laser scanning system VLP-16 that had a limited height measurement capacity when it comes to trees taller than 25 m. Additionally, we used our system to estimate the stem volumes of individual trees with a standard error at the level of 10%. This level of error is equivalent to the error obtained when merging above-canopy UAV laser scanner data with terrestrial point cloud data. Future research is needed for testing new sensors, for implementing autonomous operation inside canopies through collision avoidance and navigation through canopies, and for developing robust methods that work also with more complex forest structure. The results show that we do not necessarily need a combination of terrestrial point clouds and point clouds collected using above-canopy UAV systems in order to accurately estimate the heights and the volumes of individual trees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0047.v2
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: design for society; design for sustainability; design under uncertainty; circular design; donut economics; life cycle analysis
Online: 5 August 2020 (04:50:02 CEST)
Since the beginning, humans advanced their civilization by making better tools to improve their lives. Tools and products were designed for better living considering manufacturing issues, cost and time as predominant criteria. It has become clear that not considering environment and society, both at local/global levels, has now become a major impediment affecting living conditions on a large portion of the Earth and in many societies. Design methodologies should lead to creative solutions with consideration to engineering and economics for practicality but also to environmental and social constraints for sustainability. We propose a comprehensive design methodology based on multidisciplinary design to include the knowledge of humanities, environmentalists, science and engineering, and allowing for experts’ inputs from these areas to provide a holistic approach to engineering design . For example, experts in humanities are expected to interact with stakeholders to evaluate their value systems to provide guidance for the design. The methodology that we synthesize is new and combines (i) Societal level impacts at all scales, (ii) Environmental impacts and (iii) Engineering design with economic impacts, including uncertainty considerations. The proposed design methodology is called Social-Environmental-Economical-Engineering Framework (SEEEF). It can utilize concepts and tools such as Circular Design, Doughnut Economics, design based on environmental life cycle analysis, among others. SEEEF is quantity based and provides steps for evaluating any project or product in an objective manner and will help train engineers in design for sustainability. It also provides non-engineers with a significant role in design to increase their understanding of the hard constraints of engineering. Ultimately, SEEEF allows society to take an informed decision considering short/long term and local/global impacts of the design and the pertinent uncertainties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0291.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Effective Drought Index (EDI); meteorological drought; climate change; GCMs under RCP scenarios; future drought projections; Bangladesh
Online: 26 September 2019 (03:49:09 CEST)
The impacts of climate change on precipitation and drought characteristics over Bangladesh were examined by using the daily precipitation outputs from 29 bias-corrected general circulation models (GCMs) under the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. A precipitation-based drought estimator, namely, the Effective Drought Index (EDI), was applied to quantify the characteristics of drought events in terms of the severity and duration. The changes in drought characteristics were assessed for the beginning (2010–2039), middle (2040–2069), and end of this century (2070–2099) relative to the 1976–2005 baseline. The GCMs were limited in regard to forecasting the occurrence of future extreme droughts. Overall, the findings showed that the annual precipitation will increase in the 21st century over Bangladesh; the increasing rate was comparatively higher under the RCP8.5 scenario. The highest increase of rainfall is expected to happen over the drought-prone northern region. The general trends of drought frequency, duration, and intensity are likely to decrease in the 21st century over Bangladesh under both RCP scenarios, except for the maximum drought intensity during the beginning of the century, which is projected to increase over the country. The extreme and medium-term drought events did not show any significant changes in the future under both scenarios except for the medium-term droughts, which decreased by 55% compared to the base period during the 2070s under RCP8.5. However, extreme drought days will likely increase in most of the cropping seasons for the different future periods under both scenarios. The spatial distribution of changes in drought characteristics indicates that the drought-vulnerable areas are expected to shift from the northwestern region to the central and the southern region in the future under both scenarios due to the effects of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Stainless Steel ASTM A312 Grade 304L, Under Salt Vapor; Corrosion Rate, Welding Procedure Specification, CFD Modeling
Online: 12 December 2018 (12:17:36 CET)
This work studied the corrosion of welded pipes and how welding destroyed surface film of pipes. Surface reaction of a welded pipe is key to understanding phenomena and important factors during the corrosion. This paper presents experiment and CFD modeling approaches of a welded pipe corrosion under salt vapor condition. The pipes were welded at currents of 60 A,70 A and 80 A to observe the effect of welding current on corrosion. A welded pipe is a stainless-steel ASTM A312 grade 304L and period of experiment about 0-600 hours that they are tested in vertical and horizontal alignments. In CFD software, there is not direct model of corrosion but it can use surface reaction and create add-on species and chemical reaction technique for imitating the corrosion mechanism. The modeling approaches of corrosion have presented in 3-dimensional transient times in CFD simulation. Surface reactions were performed by Species Model which involve site species. Site species in Species Model took place at gas-solid interfaces and in this case are salt vapor and surface pipe. Chemical reaction rate on the surface controls lost weight of a welded pipe and the model can be validated with experiment. In conclusion, in period 0-600 hours error between CFD modeling and experiment have error trend decreased. The error at 600 hours is 6% both of vertical pipe and horizontal pipe test. The modeling approaches closely with the performed experiment and can be accepted. Moreover, the model is able to predict corrosion of a welded pipe of different sizes and their lost weight after 600 hours without experiment. Also the model can predict lifetime of pipe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0332.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Anthropometric deficit; infants under 6 months; malnutrition; weight-for-age; the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure; MAMI; Ethiopia
Online: 14 June 2021 (08:31:54 CEST)
Poor understanding of malnutrition burden is a common reason for not prioritizing the care of small and nutritionally at-risk infants aged under-six months (infants u6m). We aimed to estimate the anthropometric deficit prevalence in infants u6m attending health centres, using the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF); and to assess the overlap of different individual indicators. We undertook a two-week survey of all infants u6m visiting each of 18 health centres in two zones of the Oromia region, Ethiopia. We measured weight, length, and MUAC (Mid upper arm circumference); and calculated weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ). Overall, 21.7% (95% CI: 19.2; 24.3) of infants u6m presented CIAF and of these, 10.7% (95% CI: 8.93; 12.7) had multiple anthropometric deficits. Low MUAC overlapped with 47.5% (95% CI: 38.0; 57.3), 43.8% (95% CI: 34.9; 53.1), and 42.6% (95% CI: 36.3; 49.2) of the stunted, wasted and CIAF prevalence, respectively. Underweight overlapped with 63.4% (95% CI: 53.6; 72.2), 52.7% (95% CI: 43.4; 61.7), and 59.6% (95% CI: 53.1; 65.9) of the stunted, wasted and CIAF prevalence, respectively. Anthropometric deficits, single and multiple, are prevalent in infants attending health centres. WAZ overlaps more with other forms of anthropometric deficits than MUAC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0664.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Engineering education; choice characteristics; institutional influence; pandemic influence; suitability under the COVID-19 and COVID-19 pandemic situations
Online: 26 March 2021 (12:25:18 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has forced Indian engineering institutions (EIs) to bring their previous half-shut shades completely down. Fetching new admissions to EI campuses during the pandemic has become a ‘now or never’ situation for EIs. During crisis situations, institutions have struggled to return to the normal track. The pandemic has drastically changed students’ behavior and family preferences due to mental stress and the emotional life attached to it. Consequently, it becomes a prerequisite, and emergencies need to examine the choice characteristics influencing the selection of EI during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study is to critically examine institutional influence and pandemic influence due to COVID-19 that affects students’ choice about an engineering institution (EI) and consequently to explore relationships between institutional and pandemic influence. The findings of this quantitative research, conducted through a self-reported survey, have revealed that institutional and pandemic influence have governed EI choice under the COVID-19 pandemic. Second, pandemic influence is positively affected by institutional influence. The study demonstrated that EIs will have to reposition themselves to normalize pandemic influence by tuning institutional characteristics that regulate situational influence and new enrollments. It can be yardstick for policy makers to attract new enrollments under pandemic situations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0139.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: data logger; environmental monitoring network; open source; submersible; under-water; critical zone observatory; cave; Yucatan Peninsula, vadose hydrology; subterranean karst estuary
Online: 16 January 2018 (10:40:15 CET)
A low-cost data logging platform is presented for environmental monitoring projects that provides long-term operation in remote or submerged environments. Three premade “breakout boards” from the open-source Arduino ecosystem are assembled into the core of the platform. The components are selected based on low-cost and ready availability, making the loggers easy to build and modify without specialized tools, or a significant background in electronics. Power optimization techniques are explained. The platform has proven to be highly reliable, and capable of operating for more than a year on standard AA batteries. The flexibility of the system is illustrated with two ongoing field studies recording drip rates in a cave, and water flow in a flooded cave system.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: energy efficiency; building automatic control; energy use under field conditions; two-stage construction process; cost-benefit evaluation; deep retrofit of residential buildings
Online: 5 July 2020 (04:55:24 CEST)
Only now, four decades after passive houses were designed in the US and built in Canada, the authors are able to discuss the next generation of new and retrofitted buildings in the same way. This paper presents a universal system for different types of buildings and climates that includes construction experience and is reinforcing multi-disciplinary synergies. A next generation of technology uses adaptable indoor climate, integrates HVAC and building structure; applies field monitoring of energy and indoor environment and develops a performance model that is based on artificial neutral network. This approach, includes: 1. The self-learning ANN as a part of the building management system, 2. This management system guides energy optimization in a post-construction stage 3. A two-stage construction process for new and retrofits. The first stage prescribes investment level and optimizes performance; opposite in the second stage. This paper highlights that some elements of the proposed methodology have already been applied in the practice. It also underlines that this integrated multi-disciplinary system can be applied with a different combination of technological elements.