REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0013.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Telework; hybrid work; working from home; sustainability; UN Sustainable Development Goals; policy coherence
Online: 2 August 2021 (10:09:08 CEST)
With increased participation in telework expected to continue, to support emerging hybrid work models in the aftermath of the Covid-19, it is important to consider the long-term impact this practice could have on sustainability outcomes. This paper describes a systematic review of 113 academic journal articles and identifies associations between telework and sustainability, explored by previous researchers. Those associations were categorized and discussed, based on their contributions to different United Nations Social Development Goals. Most of research was found to focus on countries classified as having a very high human development index status, and regions with a low, medium or high human development index, largely ignored. The SWOT matrix technique was used to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses identified in the current literature as well as threats and opportunities for future work. This can help to ensure policy coherence and that strategies to promote one outcome, such as economic productivity improvements, does not undermine another, such as improved health. Practical implications and potential research opportunities were identified across a range of SDG impact areas, including good health and well-being, gender equality, reduced inequality, climate mitigation, sustainable cities and resilient communities. On the whole, our impression is that increased rates of telework present an important opportunity to improve sustainability outcomes, however, it will be important that integrated and holistic policy is developed that mitigates key risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0272.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: circular array; current measurement; un-center; un-perpendicular; Tunnel Magnetoresistance sensors
Online: 15 February 2018 (16:32:12 CET)
This paper analyzes the measurement error, caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor, of circular array of magnetic sensors for current measurement. The circular array of magnetic sensors is an effective approach for AC or DC non-contact measurement, as its low cost, large linear range, wide bandwidth, light weight and low noise. Especially it has claimed that such structure has the excellent reduction ability for the errors caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor, crosstalk current interference, shape of the conduction cross section and the earth magnetic field. However, the positions of the current-carrying conductor, including un-center and un-perpendicularity, has not analyzed in detail until now. In this paper, the theoretical analysis has been proposed based on vector inner and exterior product. In the presented mathematical model of relative error, the un-center offset distance, the un-perpendicular angle, the radius of the circle and the number of the magnetic sensor are expressed in one equation. The comparison of the relative error caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor between four and eight sensors is conducted. The Tunnel Magnetoresistance (TMR) sensors are used in the experimental prototype to verify the mathematical model. The analysis results can be the reference to design the detail of circular array of magnetic sensors for current measurement in practical situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0216.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Fusion Energy; UN Global Compact; UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:12:34 CEST)
Although the fusion energy sector is at a nascent stage, the private fusion energy market has grown. There are currently 38 private fusion energy companies around the world aiming to commercialise fusion energy in early 2030s and 2040s. Given the capability of fusion energy in transforming today’s energy paradigm and the global character of the market, it is important to analyse how these companies are interacting with international human rights standards. Therefore, this work investigates the involvement of the private fusion energy sector with two voluntary international initiatives in particular: the UN Global Compact and the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGP). This study attempts to answer two research questions: (i) Are private fusion energy companies participating in the UN Global Compact? (ii) How are private fusion energy companies publicly implementing the UNGP? Content analysis of secondary data collected from the UN Global Compact, Fusion Industry Association, ITER and companies’ official website as well as published reports is adopted. In summary, this work finds that private fusion energy companies are neither participants nor signatories of the UN Global Compact. Their observance of the UNGP is also very poor. This study contributes to the field by highlighting this gap which the private fusion energy companies need to consider and take measures in order to create a salutary human rights sector.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: oral dysbiosis; human oral microbiome; yet-un cultivable organisms; systemic diseases
Online: 20 March 2018 (07:06:45 CET)
The human body supports the growth of a wide array of microbial communities in various niches, such as the oral cavity, gastro-intestinal and urogenital tracts and on the surface of the skin. These host associated microbial communities include yet-un-cultivable bacteria and are influenced by various factors. Together, these communities of bacteria are referred to as the human microbiome. Human oral microbiome consists of both symbionts and pathobionts. Deviation from symbiosis among the bacterial community leads to “dysbiosis”—a state of community disturbance. Dysbiosis occurs due to many confounding factors that predispose to a shift in the composition and relative abundance of microbial communities. Dysbiotic communities have been a major cause for many microbiomes related systemic infections. Such dysbiosis is directed by certain important pathogens called the “keystone pathogens” that could modulate community microbiome variations. One such persistent infection is oral infection, mainly periodontitis, where a wide array of causal organisms has been implied to systemic infections such as cardio vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer’s disease. The keystone pathogens co-occur with many yet-cultivable bacteria and their interactions lead to dysbiosis. This has been the focus of recent research. While immune evasion is one of the major modes that lead to dysbiosis, new processes and new virulence factors of bacteria have been shown to be involved in this important process of that determine disease or health state. This review focuses on such dysbiotic communities, their interactions and their virulence factors that predispose the host to other systemic implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0405.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: UN SDGs; urban agenda; goal 11; relative efficiency; data envelopment analysis (DEA)
Online: 27 October 2021 (12:30:11 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation level of urban Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the Republic of Korea and to measure the extent of internal and external impacts on the implementation level. An evaluation framework was established based on relative efficiency theory, and the implementation level of urban SDGs at the local government unit in the Republic of Korea was examined by performing an analysis of each stage. First, in reference to the 2018 cross-section, the implementation level of target 11.2 (public transportation) was assessed as excellent across the country, compared with the implementation level of targets 11.5 (disaster safety), 11.6 (environment), and 11.7 (public space), which were assessed as needing improvement. Second, the factors positively impacting the implementation level of target 11.2 were urban population, GRDP, financial independence, urbanization area, and bus-only lanes, whereas the factors positively impacting the implementation level of target 11.5 were population density and GRDP. The positive factors influencing the implementation level of target 11.6 (air quality sector) were found to be GRDP, financial independence, administrative area, and renewable energy generation, whereas the effective factors of the implementation level of target 11.6 (waste management sector) were analyzed as GRDP, financial independence, and the population density of households in the waste management area. The positive factors influencing the implementation level of target 11.7 were GRDP, financial independence, administrative area, and green area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0137.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Taihe silky fowl; metabolic components; un-targeted metabolome; breed and feed; biosynthesis of amino acids
Online: 15 April 2022 (05:47:06 CEST)
Chinese Taihe Black-bone silky fowl (TBsf) is the homology of medicine and food and has high nutritional and medical value all over the world. However, the nutritional compositions and specific metabolite advantages of Taihe silky fowl muscle are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the differences of nutritional components between TBsf and another similar breed (Black Feathered chicken and laid green-shelled eggs, BF-gsc). Meanwhile, we also explored the divergences in muscle characteristics of Taihe silky fowl fed with two different diets, that is normal chicken feed (TBsf-ncf) and Broussonetia papyrifera-fermented feed (TBsf-bpf). Firstly, the growth performance and biochemical index of Taihe silky fowl was significantly different compared with black-feathered chicken. Secondly, we identified the metabolic alterations in Taihe silky fowl by performing an un-targeted UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis. Our results suggested that the whole metabonomic characteristics had obvious separation between TBsf-ncf, TBsf-bpf and BF-gsc groups both in the positive and negative ion mode by PCA analysis. Next, OPLS-DA multivariate analysis revealed that 57 metabolites (in positive mode) and 49 metabolites (in negative mode) were identified as differential metabolites between TBsf-ncf and BF-gsc group. These differential metabolites were mainly enriched to ABC transporters, biosynthesis of amino acids and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis. Besides, there were 47 metabolites (in positive) and 13 metabolites (in negative) were differentially regulated between TBsf-ncf and TBsf-bpf group, which were majorly involved in histidine metabolism and linoleic metabolism. Furthermore, the integrated network analysis suggested that DL-arginine, DL-isoleucine, linoleoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine (positive) and ricionleic acid, D-proline, uric acid (negative) were the significantly metabolic biomarkers in Taihe silky fowl. Moreover, the metabolites of primaquine, ticlpoidine, riboflavin, acetylcarnitine (positive) and salicylic acid, acetaminophen sulfate, glutamic acid (negative) were markedly changed in the Taihe silky fowl fed with BP-fermented feed. In summary, a global survey of the nutritional components and metabolite differences were performed in muscle tissues of Taihe silky fowl between various breeds and feeds. The comprehensive expression profiles of the metabolites in Taihe silky fowl affected by genetic and environmental factors were acquired. This study provided valuable evidence fo breed and feed-induced putative biomarkers as well as improved the economic value of Taihe silky fowl through targeted metabolite regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0160.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Doppler-aided smoothed code; BDS-2; BDS-3; un-GEO; satellite code bias (SCB); multipath combination
Online: 2 June 2023 (08:51:35 CEST)
The extensive use of carrier-aided smoothing code (CSC) filter has led to reduce the noise level of raw code measurements in GNSS positioning and navigation applications. However, the existing CSC technique is sensitive to the changes of the integer ambiguity and then the smoothing proce-dure needs to be restarted in the presence of cycle-slips. As the Doppler shift is instantaneous ob-servation and immune to cycle-slips, Doppler-aided smoothing code (DSC) algorithm would be more promising in challenged environment. Based on the Hatch-filter, an optimal DSC approach is proposed with the principle of minimum variance. Meanwhile, to inhibit the effect of integral cumulative error of Doppler, a balance factor is adopted to adjust the contributions of raw code and DSC. The noise level of code observable is not only affected by thermal noise, but also limited by systematic bias. Satellite code bias (SCB) has been identified in the raw code observable on each frequency for each BDS-2 satellite. By minimizing the sum of absolute value of residuals, polyno-mial segment fitting algorithm as a function of elevation-angles is applied to establish the SCB cor-rection model based on epoch-differenced Multipath (MP) deviations. Finally, numerical experi-ments demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the refined DSC filter with SCB corrections on each available frequency for BDS-2 un-GEO satellites.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0908.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: load shifting 1; controllable appliance 2; un-controllable appliance 3; HEMS 4; systematicity and transparency review 5; DSM; CITIES 6; PEDs 7
Online: 13 October 2023 (14:13:31 CEST)
Load shifting is one of the demand side management (DSM) strategies to support the efficiency in the electricity grid during the peak hours demand. Load shifting at the appliance level is interesting to review since the appliance usage is one of the main inputs in the load profile analysis. More review studies in load shifting at the appliance level are required as it is a specific issue of load profile research body, and still limited studies are available at this moment. It is also essential to focus on the appliance usage patterns to better understand the impacts and characteristics of the individual appliance. The existing studies in load shifting have applied common structured literature reviews, and our study addresses the transparency of each stage and sub-stage of the selection of the final list studies. The finding shows that efficiency has been achieved in the installed capacity reduction, cost including emission reductions, and peak consumption reduction. The most applied method in the load shifting at the appliance level is by developing the load shifting optimisation algorithms. This work contributes to provide a transparent process of applying a systematicity literature review, where it becomes a source of knowledge and grounded theory. It contributes to a limited and specific research of load shifting at the appliance level by highlighting and discussing the key findings for the readers. In specific, it contributes to improve energy efficiency by presenting the load shifting methods at the appliance level and identifying the controllable and uncontrollable appliances. This detail review study at the appliance level can make valuable contributions to support decision and policy-making by illuminating new dynamic system in load shifting area in specific, and demand side management in general for energy efficiency.