REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0363.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: Photochemistry; Photophysics; Coordination Chemistry; Metal atom effect; Photodynamic Therapy; Triplet Photosensitizer; Dipyrrinato Complexes; Singlet Oxygen Generation; Triplet-triplet Annihilation; Heavy atom effect.
Online: 23 September 2022 (09:14:36 CEST)
Within this work we review the metal coordination effect on the photophysics of metal dipyrrinato complexes. Dipyrrinato complexes are promising candidates in the search for alternative transition metal photosensitizers for application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). These complexes can be activated by irradiation with light of a specific wavelength, after which cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated. The metal coordination allows for the use of the heavy atom effect, which can enhance the triplet generation necessary for generation of ROS. Additionally, the flexibility of these complexes for metal ions, substitutions and ligands allows the possibility to tune their photophysical properties. A general overview of the mechanism of photodynamic therapy and the properties of the triplet photosensitizers is given, followed by further details of dipyrrinato complexes described in the literature that show relevance as photosensitizers for PDT. In particular, the photophysical properties of Re(I), Ru(II), Ir(III), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(II), Pt(II), Zn(II), Ga(III), In(III), Al(III), Sn(II), and P dipyrrinato complexes are discussed. The potential for future development in the field of (dipyrrinato)metal complexes is addressed and several new research topics are suggested throughout this work. We propose that significant advances could be made for heteroleptic bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) and homoleptic bis(dipyrrinato)palladium(II) complexes and their application as photosensitizers for PDT.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0533.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: coding; codon; triplet; evolve; wobble
Online: 30 April 2020 (14:04:40 CEST)
The Standard Genetic Code (SGC) exists in every organism known on Earth. SGC evolution via early unique codon assignment, then later wobble, yields coding resembling the near-universal code. Below, later wobble also creates an optimal route to accurate codon assignment. This assignment time matches a previous mean time for ordered codes, exhibiting ≥ 90% of SGC order. Accurate evolution is also accessible, sufficiently frequent to appear in populations of 103 to 104 codes. SGC-like coding capacity, code order and assignments therefore arise together, in one attainable evolutionary intermediate. Examples, which plausibly resemble coding at evolutionary domain separation, are characterized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0425.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: transposon; order; triplet frequency; tRNA; clustering; taxonomy; symmetry; photosystem
Online: 27 January 2022 (17:40:07 CET)
A comprehensive presentation of a variety of biologically sounding properties of genomes is present; chloroplast genomes are used as a biological matter. Triplet frequency composition is the general issue standing behind the properties. Besides, the new alignment-free error-tolerant method of sequences comparison highly efficient for in/del mismatches is present, for transposons search. Triplet frequency dictionaries determined for a genome, or for a part of that latter were studied through various clustering techniques. The interplay between triplet composition and function reveals on tRNA genes unambiguously shows the prevalence of the function encoded in tRNA gene over the phylogeny: the genes gather into the clusters comprising the genes encoding the same amino acid; more exactly, few gene families exhibit fine cluster pattern corresponding the synonymous codons of amino acid. Previously reported symmetry in chloroplast genomes is shown for a set of gymnosperm: that is mirror symmetry, rotational symmetry, and the second Chargaff's parity rule asymmetry. A family of transposons was found in gymnosperm chloroplast genomes. This family is revealed through the novel comparison method based on convolution calculation, for a set of DNA sequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0120.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: expression recognition; expression triplet; feature optimization; AU weighting; active AU detection.
Online: 26 January 2017 (08:52:52 CET)
Facial expression has lots of applications in human-computer interaction. Although feature extraction and selection have been well studied, the specificity of each expression variation is not fully explored in state-of-the-art works. In this work, the problem of multiclass expression recognition is converted into triplet-wise expression recognition. For each expression triplet, a new feature optimization model based on Action Unit (AU) weighting and patch weight optimization is proposed to represent the specificity of the expression triplet. Sparse representation based approach is then proposed to detect the active AUs of testing sample for better generalization. The algorithm achieved competitive accuracies of 89.67% and 94.09% for Jaffe and CK+ databases, respectively. Better cross-database performance has also been observed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0597.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: superconductivity; Josephson effect; hybrid heterostructures; mesa-structure; magnetic proximity effect; triplet pairing; spin-orbit interaction
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:16:47 CEST)
We summarize the results on electron transport in hybrid superconducting S/B/S' mesa-structure consisted of the oxide epitaxial S/B heterostructures, where S is the cuprate YBa2Cu3O 7-x superconductor, B – an interlayer with the spin dependent characteristics, and S’ is the Nb top superconductor. Josephson effect was observed manifested in appearance of oscillating Shapiro steps amplitudes with microwave signal power due to synchronization of junction self-generation of electromagnetic radiation and the external microwave probe signal. Triplet component of superconducting correlations emerged when the interlayer comprised two magnetic materials SrRuO3 and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 with non-collinear magnetizations as well in the case of antiferromagnetic insulator Sr2IrO4 characterized by strong spin-orbit interaction. Thickness of the interlayer in the both cases considerably exceeded the coherence length of the magnetic spin active interlayer hinting on appearance of long-range proximity effect and spin-triplet superconducting current. Magnetic field dependences measured at dc, and the existence of the second harmonic in superconducting current–phase relation revealed by measurements at microwave frequencies will be discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0109.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: photoinduced electron transfer; triplet state formation; charge recombination; charge separation; intersystem crossing; SOCT-ISC; SOCME; electronic coupling
Online: 16 December 2021 (14:21:43 CET)
The conformational dependence of the matrix element for spin-orbit coupling and of the electronic coupling for charge separation are determined for an electron donor-acceptor system containing a pyrene acceptor and a dimethylaniline donor. Different kinetic and energetic aspects that play a role in the spin-orbit charge transfer intersystem crossing (SOCT-ISC) mechanism are discussed. This includes parameters related to initial charge separation and the charge recombination pathways using the (Semi-Classical) Marcus Theory for electron transfer. The spin-orbit coupling, which plays a significant role in charge recombination to the triplet state can be probed by (TD-)DFT, using the latter as a tool to understand and predict the SOCT-ISC mechanism. The matrix elements for spin-orbit coupling for acetone and 4-thio-thymine are used for benchmarking. (Time Dependent-) Density Functional Theory (DFT and TD-DFT) calculations are applied using the quantum chemical program Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0294.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Dimeric copper(I) complexes; PN phosphine ligands; X-ray structures; Combined thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) and phosphorescence; Combined singlet and triplet harvesting; High emission quantum yields; Tunability of photophysical properties; Zero-field splitting (ZFS), Spin-lattice relaxation (SLR); Triplet substate decay components.
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:41:01 CEST)
We present an overview over eight brightly luminescent Cu(I) dimers of the type Cu2X2(PN)3 with X = Cl, Br, I and P^N = 2-diphenylphosphino-pyridine (Ph2Ppy), 2-diphenylphosphino-pyrimidine (Ph2Ppym), 1-diphenylphosphino-isoquinoline (Ph2Piqn) including three new crystal structures (Cu2Br2(Ph2Ppy)3, 1-Br, Cu2I2(Ph2Ppym)3, 2-I, and Cu2I2(Ph2Piqn)3, 3-I). However, we mainly focus on their photo-luminescence properties. All compounds exhibit combined thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) and phosphorescence at ambient temperature. Emission color, decay time, and quantum yield varies over large ranges. For deeper characterization, we select Cu2I2(Ph2Ppy)3, 1-I, showing a quantum yield of 81 %. DFT and SOC-TDDFT calculations provide insight into the electronic structures of the singlet S1 and triplet T1 states. Both stem from metal+iodide-to-ligand charge transfer transitions. Evaluation of the emission decay dynamics, measured from 1.2 ≤ T ≤ 300 K, gives ∆E(S1-T1) = 380 cm-1 (47 meV), a transition rate of k(S1→S0) = 2.25×106 s-1 (445 ns), T1 zero-field splittings, transition rates from the triplet substates, and spin-lattice relaxation times. We also discuss the interplay of S1-TADF and T1-phosphorescence. The combined emission paths shorten the overall decay time. For OLED applications, utilization of both singlet and triplet harvesting can be highly favorable for improvement of the device performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0226.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: unreinforced masonry; quasi-brittle material; in-plane behavior; shear-compression; triplet test; dilatancy; bond behavior; confinement; finite element model; macro-model
Online: 16 February 2020 (16:06:10 CET)
Rubble stone masonry walls are widely diffused in most of the cultural and architectural heritage of historical cities. The mechanical response of such material is rather complicated to predict due to their composite nature. Vertical compression tests, diagonal compression tests, and shear-compression tests are usually adopted to experimentally investigate the mechanical properties of stone masonries. However, further tests are needed for the safety assessment of these ancient structures. Since the relation between normal and shear stresses plays a major role in the shear behavior of masonry joints, governing the failure mode, triplet test configuration was here investigated. First, the experimental tests carried out at the laboratory (LPMS) of the University of L'Aquila on stone masonry specimens were presented. Then, the triplet test was simulated by using the Total Strain Crack Model, which reflects all the ultimate states of quasi-brittle material such as cracking, crushing and shear failure. The goal of the numerical investigation was to evaluate the shear mechanical parameters of the masonry sample, including strength, dilatancy, normal and shear deformations. Furthermore, the effect of (i) confinement pressure and (ii) bond behavior at the sample-plates interfaces were investigated, showing that they can strongly influence the mechanical response of the walls.