ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0379.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: exchange rate misalignment; real effective exchange rate; undervaluation; overvaluation; growth; autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach; Trinidad and Tobago
Online: 25 June 2018 (10:46:41 CEST)
Conventional economic theory outlines that developing countries experience economic growth through an undervalued exchange rate and that exchange rate overvaluations has negative long term effects on economic growth. This paper examined the impact of exchange rate movements as well as exchange rate misalignments on economic growth for the Trinidad and Tobago economy over the period 1960 to 2016. We find statistically significant evidence that both exchange rate appreciation and misalignments impact negatively on economic growth in the T&T economy. Drilling deeper we find interestingly that there exist no non-linear effects of exchange rate misalignments on growth. Specifically we find statistically significant evidence that both overvaluations and undervaluations hamper economic growth in the Trinidad and Tobago economy. We attribute this to T&T’s small and underdeveloped manufacturing sector that tends to be overlooked on account of its energy resources, in addition to the fact that its manufacturing sector is highly import oriented. A major policy recommendation would be for the critical reassessment of the rules governing the HSF, as government expenditure was allowed to follow energy revenues due to its current limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0427.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: City Marathons; financial stability; corporate sponsors; the Bank of America Chicago Marathon; Marathon Valencia Trinidad Alfonso
Online: 28 July 2022 (03:14:14 CEST)
City marathons have evolved and grown exponentially in type and popularity, managerial complexity, for their financial impact on their host cities and for the attraction of corporate sponsors. Much research has focused on evaluating the broad economic, urban, tourist, social, sporting, and symbolic effects of city marathons on host cities. Research have not examined the importance of the contribution of sponsors to the financial stability and its implications to the overall management and further success of marathons. This article focuses on the cases of the Bank of America Chicago Marathon and the Marathon Valencia Trinidad Alfonso and examines how effective has been the contribution of their sponsors to the financial stability and its implications for the management and success of both races over time. Results show that the international success of both events –in terms of sporting participation, performance and economic impact– is closely related to the design and management of the event; the synergies between the political, business and sporting spheres that the organizational leadership of the event has made it possible to implement and, as a consequence, the support received from sponsors, which has not only provided both races with financial stability, but also has contributed to improve the management of the race.