REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: obesity; triglycerides; liver; aerobic exercise; resistance exercise
Online: 13 April 2023 (09:41:04 CEST)
Aim: To investigate how much aerobic and resisted physical exercise affects the behavior of AST and ALT proteins in the NAFLD spectrum. Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a pathology resulting from the excessive accumulation of triglycerides in the liver. The pathophysiology of the disease comes from several mechanisms, among them, metabolic, environmental, and genetic. The measurement of liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are essential to perform a differential diagnosis of NAFLD with other pathologies that affect the liver. The non-pharmacological treatment of NAFLD is based on aerobic and resisted physical exercise, and one of its aims is to reduce the inflammatory markers AST and ALT. Materials and Methods: Systematic review carried out in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Clinical trials that evaluated the effect of physical exercise on NAFLD on AST and ALT enzymes were included. Results: A total of 24 clinical trials met the inclusion criteria, with a sample size of 1141 participants, aged 20-82 years. The study protocol varied between aerobic exercise and resistance exercise with a weekly frequency between 2-6 times a week, a duration of 20-90 minutes for aerobics, and an intensity between 50-80% of peak VO2 and/or maximum HR for the resisted. Of the 24 studies included, only five showed improvements in both enzymes in the intervention group. Conclusion: Physical exercise cannot make significant changes in the behavior of AST and ALT liver parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0961.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: breast cancer; chemotherapy; lipids; triglycerides; HDL; LDL; cholesterol
Online: 14 September 2023 (07:25:14 CEST)
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Cardiovascular diseases are common complications after chemotherapy due to the effect of the drug on lipid levels. This study aimed to explore the changes in lipid profiles in patients with breast cancer under chemotherapy. Methods: In this prospective study, 50 patients with breast cancer participated. Three biochemical-lipid hematological tests were performed: total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL-C), and Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL-C) before initiation (pre-chemotherapy), at the start (1st follow-up), and at the completion (2nd follow-up) of the first cycle of chemotherapy. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Analyses were conducted using SPSS Statistical Software (version 22.0). Results: Mean TC values increased significantly at 2nd follow-up. TG values decreased significantly from 1st to 2nd follow-up. HDL-C was significantly lower at 1st follow-up compared to pre-chemotherapy and 2nd follow-up reaching similar to the initial levels. LDL-C values were significantly higher at 2nd follow-up compared to pre-chemotherapy measurement. Significantly positive correlations of BMI with pre-chemotherapy LDL-C, 1st follow-up TC, 1st follow-up LDL-C, 2nd follow-up TC, and 2nd follow-up LDL-C were found. Conclusions: There is a statistically significant increase in the levels of TC and LDL-C in breast cancer patients during chemotherapy. This study was not registered.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0516.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; diabetes; hyperglycemia; dyslipidemia; cholesterol; triglycerides
Online: 30 September 2021 (14:01:44 CEST)
Diabetes is a major risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). Diabetes increases the risk of progression from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to active pulmonary TB and TB patients with diabetes are at greater risk of more severe disease and adverse TB treatment outcomes compared to TB patients without co-morbidities. Diabetes is a complex disease characterized not only by hyperglycemia but also various forms of dyslipidemia. However, the relative contribution of these underlying metabolic factors to increased susceptibility to TB are poorly understood. This review summarizes our current knowledge on epidemiology and clinical manifestation of TB and diabetes comorbidity. We subsequently dissect the relative contribution of body mass index, hyperglycemia, elevated cholesterol and triglycerides on TB disease severity and treatment outcomes. Lastly, we discuss the impact of selected glucose and cholesterol lowering treatments frequently used in the management of diabetes on TB treatment outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0312.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: lipids; phospholipids; sphingolipids; triglycerides; FTIR; mass spectrometry; chemical contaminants
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:03:24 CEST)
Despite the increasing popularity of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based lipidomics, there is a lack of accepted and validated method for lipid extract quality and quantity assessment prior to LC-MS. Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) has been reported for quantification of pure lipids, however, the sample complexity and purity complex lipid extract quantification in lipidomics experiments could be impact quantification accuracy. Here, we report comprehensive assessment of the sample matrix on the accuracy of lipid quantification using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Pure lipids are characterized by CH-and C=O-stretching vibrations on FTIR, with quantitative range of 40–3000 ng and a limit of detection of 12 ng. Sample extraction method and local baseline subtraction during FTIR spectral processing significantly impact lipid quantification by CH-stretching. To facilitate sample quality screening, we developed the Lipid Quality (LiQ) score from a spectral library of common contaminants, using a ratio of peak heights between CH-stretching vibrations maxima and the collective vibrations from amide/amine, CH-stretching minima and sugar moieties. We evaluated LiQ score as a rapid sample quality control method by comparing to total LC-MS intensity of targeted lipidomics of 107 human plasma lipid extracts. Exclusion of poor-quality samples based on LiQ score improved the correlation between FTIR and LC-MS quantification. Finally, the uncertainty of absolute quantification by FTIR was estimated using a 795 ng SPLASH LipidoMix standard to be <10%. In summary, this study identified key parameters for accurate FTIR-based quantification of complex lipid mixture, and developed a rapid workflow requiring only 1 µL of MS-ready sample and < 5 minutes for routine lipidomics sample quality and quantity assessment.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Angelica gigas Nakai; triglycerides; VLDL-C; TG/HDL-C; atherogenic index
Online: 22 December 2019 (13:56:42 CET)
Background: Angelica gigas Nakai, Korean dang-gui, has long been widely used in traditional treatment methods. There have been a number of studies of the health effects of A. gigas and related compounds, but studies addressing effects on blood triglycerides (TG) are lacking. To investigate the effects of A. gigas Nakai extract (AGNE) on TG in Korean subjects, we carried out a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods: Subjects who met the inclusion criterion (130 mg/dL ≤ fasting blood TG ≤ 200 mg/dL) were recruited for this study. One hundred subjects were assigned to the AGNE group (n=50) or the placebo group (n=50), who were given 1g/day of AGNE (as a gigas Nakai extract 200mg/d) in capsules, and the control group for 12 weeks. Outcomes were efficacy TG, lipid profiles, atherogenic index, and safety parameters were assessed initially for a baseline measurement and after 12 weeks. Results: After 12 weeks of supplementation, TG and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) concentration and TG/HDL-C ratio in the AGNE group were significantly reduced compared to the placebo group (p <0.05). No significant changes in any safety parameter were observed. Conclusions: These results suggest that ingestion of AGNE may improve TG and be useful to manage or prevent hypertriglyceridemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0167.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: vegetable oils; emulsifiers; triglycerides; FAME; epoxidized fatty acids; glycerol; polyglycerol; PGPR; renewable raw materials
Online: 25 December 2017 (07:32:07 CET)
Oligo- and polyesters of polyglycerol and polyricinoleic acid are widely used as emulsifiers in various industries. Based on the condensation of glycerol and its oligomers with epoxidized derivatives of vegetable oils, new promising emulsifiers for oil-water systems were obtained. Complex structural and functional spectral analysis of synthesized substances showed that the main reactions leading to the formation of the desired products were the opening of epoxide cycles, the transesterification of esters and the condensation of fatty acid derivatives. The new combination of renewable raw materials is of undoubted interest for deeper vegetable oils chemical processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea; Metabolomics; Triglycerides; Phosphocholines; Ceramides; Apnea Hypopnea Index; Polysomnography; Lipid metabolism; Multilevel Sleep Surgery
Online: 15 July 2020 (09:19:05 CEST)
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is caused by partial or complete obstruction of the upper airways. Corrective surgeries aim at removing obstructions in the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx. OSA is associated with increased risk of various metabolic diseases. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of surgery on the plasma metabolome. Methods: This study included 39 OSA patients who underwent Multilevel Sleep Surgery (MLS). Clinical and anthropometric measures were taken at baseline and 5 months after surgery. Results: The mean Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) significantly dropped from 22.0 ± 18.5 events/hour to 8.97 ± 9.57 events/hour (p-Value <0.001). The Epworth’s sleepiness Score (ESS) dropped from 12.8 ± 6.23 to 2.95 ± 2.40 (p-Value <0.001) indicating success of the surgery in treating OSA. Plasma levels of metabolites, phosphocholines (PC) PC.41.5, PC.42.3, ceremide (Cer) Cer.44.0, and triglyceride (TG) TG.53.6, TG.55.6 and TG.56.8 were decreased (p-Value<0.05) whereas lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) 20.0 and PC.39.3 were increased (p-Value<0.05) after surgery. Conclusion: This study highlights the success of MLS in treating OSA. Treatment of OSA resulted in improvement in metabolic status that was characterized by decreased TG, PCs and Cer metabolites post-surgery indicating that the success of the surgery positively impacted the metabolic status of these patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0024.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: extra-virgin olive oil adulteration; vegetables oils; triglycerides; fatty acids; linear discriminant analysis; principal component analysis
Online: 3 December 2018 (13:38:58 CET)
Nowadays, the fingerprinting methodologies of olive oils are dominated. They consider the entire analytical signal, which is acquired and recorded by the analytical instrument, directly from olive oil or isoleted fraction, i,e chromatogram. The shape and intensity of the recorded signal the instrumental fingerprint from the whole olive oil adulteration. Therefore, the methodolygy is based on the chemical composition (Fatty acids and Triglycerides compositions). However, Fatty acids composition as an indicator of purity suggests that linolenic acid content could be used as a parameter for the detection of extra virgin olive oil fraud with 5% of soybean oil. The adulteration could also be detected by the increase of the trans-fatty acid contents with 3% of soybean oil, 2% of corn oil and 4% of sunflower oil. The use of the ∆ECN42 proved to be effective in the Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration even at low levels: 1% of sunflower oil, 3% of soybean oil and 3% of corn oil. Therefore, compared to classical methods PCA and new approach of using LDA application could represent an alternative and innovative tool for faster and cheaper evaluation of extra-virgin olive oil adulteration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0726.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, intrauterine growth restriction, liver, metabolism, triglycerides, oxidative stress, mitochondria, miR-203a-3p, miR-29a/b/c
Online: 30 June 2021 (09:50:15 CEST)
Rates of gestational cannabis use have increased despite limited evidence for its safety in fetal life. Recent animal studies demonstrate that prenatal exposure to 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC, the psychoactive component of cannabis) promotes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), culminating in postnatal metabolic deficits. Given IUGR is associated with impaired hepatic function, we hypothesized that 9-THC offspring would exhibit hepatic dyslipidemia. Pregnant Wistar rat dams received daily injections of vehicular control or 3 mg/kg 9-THC i.p. from embryonic day (E) 6.5 through E22. Exposure to 9-THC decreased the liver to body weight ratio at birth, followed by catch-up growth by three weeks of age. At six months, 9-THC-exposed male offspring exhibited increased visceral adiposity and higher hepatic triglycerides. This was instigated by augmented expression of enzymes involved in triglyceride synthesis (ACC, SCD, FABP1, and DGAT2) at three weeks. Furthermore, the expression of hepatic DGAT1/DGAT2 was sustained at six months, concomitant with mitochondrial dysfunction (i.e., elevated p66shc) and oxidative stress. Interestingly, decreases in miR-203a-3p and miR-29a/b/c, both implicated in dyslipidemia, was also observed in these 9-THC-exposed offspring. Collectively, these findings indicate that prenatal 9-THC exposure results in long-term dyslipidemia associated with enhanced hepatic lipogenesis. This is attributed by mitochondrial dysfunction and epigenetic mechanisms.