ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0011.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: absorption chiller; thermal energy transportation; solution transportation; ammonia-water; COP; simulation
Online: 4 February 2017 (07:49:12 CET)
Utilization of wasted heat instead of fuel combustion is effective to reduce primary energy consumption for mitigating global warming problem. Because wasted heat sources are not necessarily located close to areas of heat demand, one of the difficulties is that wasted heat has to be transferred from heat source side to heat demand side, which may require heat transportation over long distance. From this point we proposed and have examined new idea of heat transportation using ammonia-water as the working fluid which system is named Solution Transportation Absorption chiller, in short STA. Our previous studies of STA were mainly the experimental investigation with STA facility which cooling power was 25RT (90kW). As a result, the COP of STA was found almost same value 0.65 with the conventional absorption chiller without depending on the transportation distances. The simulation using AspenHYSYS also examined with same experimental condition. The experimental data showed good agreement with the simulation calculation. In this study, we examined the large-scale cooling power STA on simulation. The examination cooling powers were from 90 kW(25RT) to 3517 kW(1000RT). All cooling power achieved around COP 0.64 including pump power consumptions. In addition, we performed the dynamic simulation. As the results, there was no effect of pipeline size on the cooling capacities and mass flow rates. Furthermore, the stability time of the cooling capacities and mass flow rates were almost same regardless of the pipeline size and cooling capacity. In other words, STA may be achieved the same COP even though having various complex conditions compared with the conventional absorption chiller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0289.v1
Online: 10 June 2021 (11:17:14 CEST)
Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia, which has its own problems in building transportation facilities, especially on land routes. For private vehicle users, congestion is a common thing, given the very dense number of people living in Jakarta, both natives and migrants from outside the region. And for users of public transportation services such as city transportation (angkot) and transjakarta, convenience is the main obstacle. And even though it is a public vehicle, it cannot avoid congestion because it is in one lane with private vehicles except for the transjakarta bus which has its own lane. Meanwhile, for train-based public transportation such as MRT (Mass Rapid Transit), LRT (Light rail Transit), and electric railroad (KRL), the problem is the lack of integration, namely that many stations are not yet integrated with other transportation. Various policies have been implemented to overcome these problems. This study aims to determine the level of effectiveness and efficiency of public transportation in DKI Jakarta today. The method used in this research is qualitative-descriptive through a literature review on 16 journal articles and 4 websites. The results of this study indicate that congestion is a major problem in the means of transportation in Jakarta. This is due to the increase in population due to urbanization which is also accompanied by an increase in the number of private vehicles. Therefore, to overcome this, the Jakarta Provincial Government has made improvements, reforms, and developments in public transportation. And it is hoped that people who originally used private vehicles will switch to using public transportation. But in reality, various problems in public transportation in Jakarta have not been resolved properly. Especially why traffic jams still occur?, and what are the solutions to overcome them?. It is hoped that the results of the findings of this study can be used as a reference in making or designing policies and can contribute to overcoming problems in the transportation sector, especially in the DKI Jakarta area. The limit of this research is that it only focuses on land transportation facilities in Jakarta.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0663.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: identification; manufacturing; transportation; installation
Online: 28 July 2020 (04:31:56 CEST)
Construction of Pontoons is based on multiple elements, dimensions and weight. The study has addressed about how the industry of the floating reinforcement concrete precast (pontoons) installs in the factory with the combinations of utility, electricity services, and Internet service. The pontoon bridges are successfully installed in the road for transport or sea for shops. The installation process for pontoons is successfully attempted in a balanced situation above surface of the sea to the resistant of floating precast (pontoons) to any ambient effects such as weather conditions, the movement of the waves or any others effects. The findings elaborate that it is not just a military solution. Pontoon installation can significantly serve for civil purposes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: urban transportation; public transportation; bus services; quality of services; systematic literature review
Online: 12 May 2022 (10:13:53 CEST)
Bus services play a significant role as the main public transportation, especially in urban areas throughout the years. Since bus services compete greatly with other types of public transportation, such as e-hailing service and private vehicles, they have recently attracted scholars to conduct many relevant studies. However, most past research studies in the Asian region were not focused on engineering, social science, and Internet of Things (IOT). This present study concentrated on the service quality of bus services in Asia by using systematic literature review of articles. This study conducted a review based on previous studies, specifically on the service quality of performance. Several previous studies were selected by using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRIMSA) approach. SCOPUS and Science Direct were chosen as the main journal database. By using this method, 41 articles were selected for further analysis. This study was merely focused on three primary themes, such as study approach, stakeholder, and service quality attributes. Advanced analysis on these primary themes was used to formulate another 18 sub-themes. All themes and sub-themes which reflected the significant impacts of service quality towards bus services were discussed in detail. This study had addressed several qualities of bus services of bus performance towards improvement of urban transportation polices. Lastly, several recommendations that could provide necessary knowledge and information for future research were presented.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0428.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Underground mines; Rail transportation; Underground transportation; Monitoring and control system; Mining industry.
Online: 16 April 2021 (09:40:25 CEST)
With the continuous development of the mining industry, the world's major mines have gradually entered the intelligent stage. In the intelligent underground mine, the operation road of the underground transportation equipment is very complicated, and the monitoring and control of the underground traffic has become a problem to be solved in the intelligent underground mine. Therefore, on the basis of solving the practical problems of underground mines, the concept paper discusses the possibility of the rail transit monitoring system being applied to underground mines through the summary and induction of the related literature and propose the design for the CBTC system to solve the problems in the underground mine rail transportation. As the mining engineers, we put forward the concept of this design for the CBTC system in this concept paper, but we need to continue to work hard for the future development of the underground mines. And the concept paper serves as a guide to the Tossing out a brick to get a jade gem, has implications for the development and the future of the underground mine transportation.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: cognitive internet of vehicles; automotive; transportation; industrial revolution 4.0; security; intelligent transportation system
Online: 29 November 2019 (06:50:28 CET)
Over the past few years, we have experienced great technological advancements in the information and communication field, which has significantly contributed to reshaping the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) concept. Evolving from the platform of a collection of sensors aiming to collect data, the data exchanged paradigm among vehicles is shifted from the local network to the cloud. With the introduction of cloud and edge computing along with ubiquitous 5G mobile network, it is expected to see the role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in data processing and smart decision imminent. So as to fully understand the future automobile scenario in this verge of industrial revolution 4.0, it is necessary first of all to get a clear understanding of the cutting-edge technologies that going to take place in the automotive ecosystem so that the cyber-physical impact on transportation system can be measured. CIoV, which is abbreviated from Cognitive Internet of Vehicle, is one of the recently proposed architectures of the technological evolution in transportation, and it has amassed great attention. It introduces cloud-based artificial intelligence and machine learning into transportation system. What are the future expectations of CIoV? To fully contemplate this architecture’s future potentials, and milestones set to achieve, it is crucial to understand all the technologies that leaned into it. Also, the security issues to meet the security requirements of its practical implementation. Aiming to that, this paper presents the evolution of CIoV along with the layer abstractions to outline the distinctive functional parts of the proposed architecture. It also gives an investigation of the prime security and privacy issues associated with technological evolution to take measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0018.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: project logistics; transportation; simulation; autoclave
Online: 2 November 2017 (13:31:51 CET)
Project logistics is one of the specific logistics operations. Compared to other logistics operations, it needs more efficient planning and engineering applications in each operational process. On the other hand, each project logistics operation can be defined as tailor-made operations, since it has no similarity with other operations. Consequently, each project logistics operation should be planned and carried out according to its own conditions and parameters. This study focuses on the simulation of project logistics operations under the light of computerized applications from start to finish of the logistics operation. In this study, transportation operations of 600 tons of autoclave from the Petkim port to the Gördes building site were selected as a case study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0668.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: sustainable management of cargo transportation; multi-componential services; vehicular communication networks; changing transportation topology
Online: 30 August 2020 (14:31:25 CEST)
The aim of this research is forwarded for assessment of provision possibilities of the multi-componential and heterogeneous services in the fast-changing topology of cargo transportation processes. The mobile intelligent services in nowadays transport means require the development of complex infrastructure for multi-compositional service support. Our objectives are related to the investigation in data-transfer capabilities for heterogeneous service support, by offering some improvements for developing the infrastructure of transportation of vehicles by helping in the administration of transport processes. This research aims to develop an approach for assessment of infrastructure for sustainable management of cargo transportation processes by roads. Such assessment is multi-layered by including the management possibilities of cargo transportation logistic processes and electronic (smart, mobile) services by implementing of nowadays innovative software and hardware of information communication technologies (ICT). Special attention is paid for road safety, more environment cleanable, and paperless management by assessing the integration of potentials and prospects of wireless, vehicle Ad-hoc communication networks (VANET), and other communication possibilities. Some requirements are revealed for such type of infrastructure for the provision of heterogeneous services. The results of the development of infrastructure demonstrate the capacities of the potential of wireless networks for the provision of high-level of multi-component, heterogeneous services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0573.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Mean; Mean of Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers; Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers; Transportation Problem; and Fuzzy Transportation Problem
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:17:57 CEST)
In this paper, improved matrix Reduction Method is proposed for the solution of fuzzy transportation problem in which all inputs are taken as fuzzy numbers. Since ranking fuzzy number is important tool in decision making, Fuzzy trapezoidal number is converting in to crisp set by using Mean techniques and solved by proposed method for fuzzy transportation problem. We give suitable numerical example for unbalanced and compare the optimal value with other techniques. The Result shows that the optimum profit of transportation problem using proposed technique under robust ranking method is better than the other method. Novelty: The numerical illustration demonstrates that the new projected method for managing the transportation problems on fuzzy algorithms.
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: part transportation; Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control; carrier aircraft; transportation time; stochastic demand; cross rule group
Online: 15 April 2021 (15:00:28 CEST)
The part transportation efficiency is a main factor of aircraft sortie generation rate. Part transportation is used to transport spare part from base to carrier. Transportation strategy depends on both demand on carrier and inventory in transportation base. The transportation time and stochastic demand will induce fluctuations of cost and inventory. Thus, a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system of dynamic part transportation is established considering transportation time and stochastic demand. And a novel Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy robust control is designed for dynamic part transportation, which will keep transportation cost and part inventory stable. First of all, a fuzzy model with stochastic demand and transportation time is proposed. Then, a novel robust control with cross rule groups is conducted according to production and transportation strategy, which will reduce fluctuations induced by strategies switch. Moreover, robust stability is guaranteed and part can be supplied in time under a low cost. Finally, simulation illustrates usefulness and quickness of the novel Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy robust control. Besides, the proposed method will be useful in other transportation electrification systems with delay time and uncertainty.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0095.v1
Online: 6 July 2022 (10:12:39 CEST)
The rapid development of transportation infrastructure in Malaysia had changed the mobility landscape of the country. While it would be a welcome advancement for many, older adults might find it difficult to keep up with their transportation uses and remain active. This study reviewed published articles on the travel behavior of older adults and its associated transportation determinants to explore how sustainable the transportation system is for this vulnerable cohort. Four databases were searched: PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and EBSCOhost. Inclusion criteria were older respondents, living in a community in Malaysia, addressing any travel behavior characteristics and written in English language. Review paper, letters, book citations, comments, editorials, and experimental and animal studies were excluded from this study. All in all, this review included seven studies extending from the year 2007 to 2020. The result showed that transportation use of older adults had shifted from relying on public transports to driving their own vehicle to move around. According to the finding of this study, besides personal and health factors, transport use of older adults was affected mainly by cost, public transport availability, road traffic and safety, the complexity of the transportation system, distance to public transit, availability of parking space, road condition and signage. It is concluded that an effective strategy to improve the transportation system is lauded to prevent unmet travel needs among the older adults in Malaysia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0137.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Government; Hospitalization; Pandemics; Public policy; Transportation.
Online: 9 February 2022 (11:04:11 CET)
To effectively combat the COVID-19 pandemic, the state government of Bahia, Brazil, has distributed intensive and non-intensive care units along the nine regions that divide the state of Bahia, such that COVID-19 patients could be easily hospitalized in health care units located at the same regions where they live. However, the observed hospitalizations networks for COVID-19 patients shows that a considerable number of COVID-19 patients had to travel beyond their region of residence to be hospitalized. Hence, this study indicates that the current distribution of health care units in Bahia, Brazil, is not sufficient to effectively reduce the distances traveled by COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization. We believe that such unnecessary travels to distant hospitals may put the sick patients as well as healthy people involved in the transportation process in risk, further delaying the stabilization of the COVID-19 pandemic in each region of the state of Bahia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0063.v1
Online: 5 February 2020 (11:33:39 CET)
Since the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) at the hardest-hit city of Wuhan, the fast-moving spread has killed over three hundred people and infected more than ten thousands in China1. There are more than one hundred cases outside of China, affecting a dozen of countries globally2. The genome sequence of 2019-nCoV has been reported and fast diagnostic kits, effective treatment as well as preventive vaccines are rapidly being developed3. Initial fast-growing confirmed cases triggered lock-down of Wuhan as well as nearby cities in Hubei Province. Mathematical models have been proposed by scientists around the world to project the numbers of infected cases in the coming days 4,5. However, major factors such as transportation and cultural customs have not been weighed enough. Our model is not set out for precise prediction of the number of infected cases, rather, it is meant for a glance of the dynamics under a public epidemic emergency situation and of different contributing factors. We hope that our model and simulation would provide more insights and perspective information to public health authorities around the globe for better informed prevention and containment solution.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0585.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Driverless Transport Vehicle; ZigBee Networks; Communication-based train control (CBTC) system; Underground transportation; Trackless transportation; Mining industry
Online: 14 April 2021 (14:05:48 CEST)
With the continuous development of Artificial Intelligence technology and Internet of Things engineering, more and more driver-less vehicles have been developed and put into the industrial production. The birth of driver-less vehicles undoubtedly brings new vitality to a large amount of industries, particularly in transportation. For the mining industry, transportation is undoubtedly an extremely important link in the whole production process. If the driver-less vehicles can be applied to the underground mines, it can not only improve the production and transportation capacity of the whole mine, but also can reduce the occurrence of many mine safety accidents. ZigBee WSN technology can play a greater role in the narrow environment like underground mines according to the relevant literature, this concept paper just like a engineering project plan mainly tries to integrate the ZigBee WSN technology and the communication-based train control (CBTC) system to explore the possibility of the driver-less vehicles to be used in the underground mines, which aims to solve practical engineering problems for the engineering projects. As the mining engineers, we put forward the concept of this integrated system in this concept paper, but we need to continue to work hard for the future of the underground mines. This concept paper serves just as a guide to the Tossing out a brick to get a jade gem, has a few implications for the development of underground mine transportation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: V2X; Connected Vehicles; Communication; Environmental; Safety; Transportation
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:08:32 CET)
With the rapid development of communication technology, connected vehicles (CV) have the potential, through the sharing of data, to enhance vehicle safety and reduce vehicle energy consumption and emissions. Numerous research efforts have been conducted to quantify the impacts of CV applications, assuming instant and accurate communication among vehicles, devices, pedestrians, infrastructure, the network, the cloud, and the grid, collectively known as V2X (vehicle-to-everything). The use of cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X), to share data is emerging as an efficient means to achieve this objective. C-V2X releases 14 and 15 utilize the 4G LTE technology and release 16 utilizes the new 5G new radio (NR) technology. C-V2X can function without network infrastructure coverage and has a better communication range, improved latency, and greater data rates compared to older technologies. Such highly efficient interchange of information among all participating parts in a CV environment will not only provide timely data to enhance the capacity of the transportation system but can also be used to develop applications that enhance vehicle safety and minimize negative environmental impacts. However, before the full benefits of CV can be achieved, there is a need to thoroughly investigate the effectiveness, strengths, and weaknesses of different CV applications, the communication protocols, the varied results with different CV market penetration rates (MPRs), the interaction of CVs and human driven vehicles, the integration of multiple applications, and the errors and latencies associated with data communication. This paper reviews existing literature on the environmental, mobility and safety impacts of CV applications, identifies the gaps in our current research of CVs and recommends future research directions. The results of this paper will help shape the future research direction for CV applications to realize their full potential benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0085.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: antimicrobial coating; photodynamic inactivation; public transportation; AMC
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:26:24 CET)
Millions of people use public transportation daily worldwide and frequently touch surfaces, thereby producing a reservoir of microorganisms on surfaces increasing the risk of transmission. Constant occupation makes sufficient cleaning difficult to achieve. Thus, an autonomous, perma-nent antimicrobial coating (AMC) could keep down the microbial burden on such surfaces. A photodynamic AMC was applied to frequently touched surfaces in buses. The microbial burden (colony forming units, cfu) was determined weekly and compared to equivalent surfaces in buses without AMC (references). The microbial burden ranged from 0 – 209 cfu/cm² on references and from 0 – 54 cfu/cm² on AMC. The means were 13.4 ± 29.6 cfu/cm² on references and 4.5 ± 8.4 cfu/cm² on AMC (p<0.001). The difference of microbial burden on AMC and references was al-most constant throughout the study. Considering a hygiene benchmark of 5 cfu/cm², the data yield an absolute risk reduction of 22.6 % and a relative risk reduction of 50.7 %. In conclusion, photo-dynamic AMC kept down the microbial burden, reducing the risk of transmission of microor-ganisms. AMC permanently and autonomously contributes to hygienic conditions on surfaces in public transportation. Photodynamic AMC therefore are suitable for reducing the microbial load and closing hygiene gaps in public transportation.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0027.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: landslide; rockfall; risk; stochastic; uncertainty; transportation corridors
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:17:48 CET)
Based on a previous risk calculation study along a road corridor, risk is recalculated using stochastic simulation by introducing variability for most of the parameters in the risk equation. This leads to an exceedance curve comparable to that of catastrophe models. This approach introduces uncertainty into the risk calculation in a simple way, which can be used for poorly documented cases to fulfil lack of data. This approach seems to tend to minimize risk or to question risk calculations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; greement; Intelligent Transportation Systems
Online: 22 January 2018 (13:53:58 CET)
The era of Internet of Things (IoT) has begun to evolve and with this the devices around us are getting more and more connected. Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANETs) is one of the applications of IoT. VANET allow vehicles within these networks to communicate effectively with each another. VANETs can provide an extensive range of applications that support and enhance passenger safety and comfort. It is important that VANETs are applied within a safe and reliable network topology; however, the challenging nature of reaching reliable and trustworthy agreement in such distributed systems is one of the most important issues in designing a fault-tolerant system. Therefore, protocols are required so that systems can still be correctly executed, reaching agreement on the same values in a distributed system, even if certain components in the system fail. In this study, the agreement problem is revisited in a VANET with multiple damages. The proposed protocol allows all fault-free nodes (vehicles) to reach agreement with minimal rounds of message exchanges, and tolerates the maximal number of allowable faulty components in the VANET.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0090.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: transportation data; data interlinking; automatic schema matching
Online: 20 January 2017 (03:38:06 CET)
Multimodality requires integration of heterogeneous transportation data to construct a broad view of the transportation network. Many new transportation services are emerging with being isolated from previously existing networks. This lead them to publish their data sources to the web -- according to Linked Data Principles -- in order to gain visibility. Our interest is to use these data to construct an extended transportation network that links these new services to existing ones. The main problems we tackle in this article fall in the categories of automatic schema matching and data interlinking. We propose an approach that uses web services as mediators to help in automatically detect geospatial properties and map them between two different schemas. On the other hand, we propose a new interlinking approach that enables user to define rich semantic links between datasets in a flexible and customizable way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0182.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: transportation integration; service industry agglomeration; Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration; urban agglomeration transportation integration index system; knowledge spillover effect.
Online: 13 September 2022 (16:02:29 CEST)
This study selected the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration as the research area, combining it with the current situation of the transportation development of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration to construct the urban agglomeration transportation integration index system and evaluate the development status of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration transportation integration. The study examined the influence mechanism of transportation infrastructure on service industry agglomeration. The results are as follows: (1) From 2011–2020, the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration’s transportation integration index showed a clear upward trend. (2)The development of transport integration in urban agglomerations has heterogeneous effects on local service agglomeration. The development of the integration level of local transportation has a certain inhibitory effect on the agglomeration of local service industry. The transportation integration of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration plays an important role in promoting the agglomeration of local wholesale and retail industry, transportation, storage and postal services. (3) The transportation integration of urban agglomeration can affect the agglomeration of service industry through the knowledge spillover brought by the free flow of various factors. The knowledge spillover effect caused by local transportation integration can promote the agglomeration of local service industry to a certain extent. The Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration needs to accelerate the construction of trans-provincial and trans-municipal transportation infrastructure, and further improve the connectivity level of the urban agglomeration, so as to promote the integrated development of high-quality transportation in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0408.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Public transportation; Automated vehicles; economic viability; business model
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:37:23 CEST)
During the past few years many projects and initiatives were undertaken deploying and testing automated vehicles for public transportation and logistics. However in spite of their ambition, all of these deployments stayed on the level of elaborated experimentation deploying no more than 4 maximum 5 AVs in rather small sites (few Kms of roads) and never really reached the level of large scale “commercial” deployment of transport services. The reasons for this are many, but the most important being the lack of economically viability and commercially realistic models, the lack of scalability of the business and operating models, and the lack of inclusive citizen/user centric services required for the large end-user acceptation and adoption of the solutions. In this paper, based on the experience gained in the H2020 AVENUE project, we present the missing pieces of the puzzle, ad which will be addressed in the Horizon Europe project ULTIMO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0002.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: econometrics; road transportation; telematics; survey data; fuel consumption
Online: 1 April 2021 (09:46:03 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the acceptance and the utilization of GPS/GPRS-based telematics technology in road transport companies registered in Poland. Telematics technologies are essential for management of energy saving and emissions reduction in road transport. It is in line with the European Union policy of sustainable transportation. The evaluation is based on a survey designed and carried out in 2020. The issues concerning the scope of telematics systems utilization as well as the internal and external factors affecting their use are analysed. The methodology is based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The results are checked for robustness. Based on the results, it can be reasoned that as a result of the COVID19 pandemic, the companies started to use telematics systems more widely than they did before. Furthermore, the companies employing more people recognize the higher usefulness of telematics systems and are motivated to have the systems more than smaller enterprises; however, TAMs estimated separately for small and medium-sized enterprises did not reveal any significant differences in the parameter estimates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0191.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: CODAS; Pythagorean Fuzzy Sets; Public Transportation; COVID-Criteria
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:53:01 CET)
The purpose of this research article is to provide a comprehensive method that allows the evaluation of the public transportation in their different transport lines that offer in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. This study presents a description of the public transport system as part of the literature review that describes an appropriate model based on the more outstanding publications about urban mobility and public transportation for passengers’ as well as success cases published which serves as a starting point to check the actual state of the public transportation system based on the Pythagorean Fuzzy CODAS to analyze and evaluate the alternatives through criteria that defines the general performance. The integration of these methods provides an adequate methodology for decision-making concerning urban planning and mobility to detect and improve the performance of criteria not considered within sustainable urban mobility plans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: freight transportation; future scenarios; intuitive logic; logistics; digitalization
Online: 7 December 2020 (13:00:14 CET)
Road freight transportation is a key function of modern societies. At the same time, road freight transportation accounts for significant emissions. To reach the UN sustainability goals, sustainable road freight transportation is key. Digitalization, including automation, digitized information, and AI provide opportunities to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and increase service levels in road freight transportation. Digitalization may also radically change the business ecosystem in the sector. In this paper, the question “How will digitalization change the road freight transportation landscape?” is addressed by developing four different future scenarios, using Sweden as a case study. For each of the four scenarios the impacts on the road freight transportation sector are investigated, and opportunities and barriers to reach a sustainable transportation system in each of the scenarios are discussed. In all scenarios an increase in vehicle kilometers travelled is predicted, and in three of the four scenarios significant increases of recycling and urban freight flows are predicted. The scenario development process highlighted how there are important uncertainties in the development of the society that will be highly important for the development of the digitized freight transportation landscape. One example is the sustainability paradigm, which was identified as a strategic uncertainty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Air transportation; Brazilian Amazon; Demand; Elasticity; Isolated cities
Online: 5 July 2020 (10:26:01 CEST)
The literature, aimed at understanding the income-price elasticity of air passenger demand, bases its analysis on airport movement. The diversity of studies regarding the casualty between air transportation and economic growth are examples. Some studies covering this link, estimate the income-price relationship with the demand considering international traffic. Considering a domestic setting, where this traffic is significant in Brazil, studies related to remote regions are scarce, and the existing ones focus on governmental policies and subsidies. In addition, empirical studies on the theme consenter themselves in developed regions, such as Europe, North America, and Australia. For Brazil, where we find the Amazon region, there are no empirical researches. This paper analyses the price-income elasticity of the demand regarding domestic passengers in air links from remote cities of the Brazilian Amazon. This study uses panel data regression analysis method on a database of domestic scheduled flights of Brazil´s National Civil Aviation Agency. The results show that air passengers involving remote region flights present a lower sensitiveness regarding local income and airline´s price variations than those in flights among capitals. The higher difference is in income-elasticity of the remote city of origin, which is lower than that of the air traffic among capitals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0483.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: System Dynamics; Land Use; Transportation Systems; Access Management
Online: 31 May 2018 (17:15:58 CEST)
The coordination planning between land use and transportation system is an important premise of solving urban transportation problems and realizing land use integration. This study investigates the interactive and feedback relationship between land use and transportation system from the perspective of access management. By integrating the land use and traffic data from Las Vegas Metropolitan area with the system dynamics model, the causal relationship and causal loop diagrams (CLDs) are introduced to analyze the cause-and-effect relationship and quantitative relationship between the factors of the combined system of land use and transportation, and then sub-models partition and system simulation are performed. The systems dynamics model is established by analyzing the relationship between a series of access management techniques, traffic characteristics, and land use features. The results show that system dynamics model can be used as an effective alternative to model the symbiosis relationship of land use and transportation system for urban planning and construction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0396.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: air transportation; machine learning; anomaly detection; ADS-B; clustering
Online: 17 February 2021 (14:05:25 CET)
As air traffic demand grows, robust, data-driven anomaly detection methods are required to ensure that aviation systems become safer and more efficient. The terminal airspace is identified as the most critical airspace for both individual flight-level and system-level safety and efficiency. As such, developing data-driven anomaly detection methods to analyze terminal airspace operations is paramount. With the expansion of ADS-B technology, open-source flight tracking data has become more readily available to enable larger-scale analyses of aircraft operations. This paper makes a distinction between spatial metrics in ADS-B trajectory data and energy metrics derived from ADS-B trajectory data. Motivated by the limited number of approaches that simultaneously consider both spatial and energy metrics, this paper introduces the concepts of spatial anomalies and energy anomalies. In particular, it proposes a novel, unified framework for detection of spatial and energy anomalies in ADS-B trajectory data (and associated derived metrics). The framework consists of three main parts - a data processing procedure, a spatial anomaly detection method, and an energy anomaly detection method. The framework is demonstrated utilizing four months of ADS-B trajectory data associated with arrivals at San Francisco International Airport, and the relationship between the spatial and energy anomalies in this terminal airspace is explored. The results that stem from the implementation of this framework indicate that if an aircraft is spatially not conforming to an identified set of air traffic flows representing standard spatial operations, then this aircraft is more likely to experience non-conformance to standard operations in its energy metrics. Aviation operators, such as air traffic controllers, may benefit from this observation, as it may factor into decision-making in instances where there is the potential to instruct an aircraft to spatially deviate from standard operations. Additionally, this research revealed underlying differences between trajectories that are spatially nominal yet energy-anomalous and those trajectories that are spatially anomalous and energy-anomalous. Focusing solely on energy anomaly detection does not provide insight into potential spatial-related decisions that may have been made to result in off-nominal energy behavior.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0627.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: pathfinding; algorithms; multi-criteria; multi-modal; multi-network; transportation
Online: 28 August 2020 (09:09:37 CEST)
In daily travel and activities, pathfinding is a significant process. They are often used in transportation routes calculation. They have now evolved to be able to solve most situations of the pathfinding and its related problems. This review describes previous and recent studies on the pathfinding algorithms. It reviews the development of pathfinding algorithms in a classification base on their usage. The aim is to summarize the application of the pathfinding algorithms for the readers interested in the subject that can be used as a supplement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0225.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: pipeline; transportation; trailing oil; CFD; dead-leg; modified formula;
Online: 18 December 2018 (16:21:13 CET)
Trailing oil is the tail section of contamination. There are two main reasons for the formation of trailing oil, one is the effect of laminar flow boundary layer, the other is the outflow of the preceding batch remained in the dead-legs. In the batch transportation of refined oil, under the action of viscous force, the preceding batch forms laminar boundary layer near the pipe wall and stays on the pipe wall, resulting in the phenomenon of contamination trailing and formation of trailing oil. When oil passes through the valve chamber of the oil transportation station, dead-leg will be formed. Due to gravity and convection diffusion, preceding batch flowing from dead-legs will form trailing oil in the pipeline. The phenomenon of trailing oil exists in the process of batch transportation, which will have an effect on the quality of oil. In this paper, Reynolds time-averaged method is used to simulate turbulence.Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) software is used to simulate different flow rates and bypass lengths to obtain contamination-related experimental data.Matlab software is used to perform multi-nonlinear regression for the oil substitution time, the length of the bypass and the flow rate. The formula for calculating the length of the trailing oil produced by the dead-leg is obtained. The modified formula for calculating the length of the contamination is obtained by combining the existing formula for calculating the length of the contamination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0513.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: project based learning; human powered vehicles; sustainable transportation design
Online: 23 October 2018 (03:42:42 CEST)
In this work, the decennial experience of Policumbent student team at Politecnico di Torino is summarized by focusing on the acquired knowledge in design of Human Powered Vehicles (HPVs) and on soft skills developed by both students and staff. Policumbent was funded by the authors at the end of 2008 in order to gather engineering students interested in design and construction of HPVs. In the last decade, the team has grown from 10 up to 50 students enrolled per year, exploring a range of HPV design for sports and mobility. Even when focusing on sport vehicles and extreme HPVs for speed record, such kind of projects allows students to familiarize with important concepts related to sustainable mobility: the amount of resistive forces and dissipated power, the role of vehicle weight and the impact of acceleration on the overall energetic balance as far as fundamental concepts about energy consumption, efficiency and emissions of the ``human engine'' in comparison with other kind of engines. By touching with hands such topics in the framework of a ``human-centred'' design project, the students have opportunity to develop awareness about the impact of design choices on sustainability of any kind of vehicle for transportation. Also, the paper retraces the team evolution path by focusing on a thorough analysis of what factors contributed to the success of this project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0452.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: transportation; carbon emission; carbon intensity; panel data analysis; China
Online: 30 May 2018 (16:16:35 CEST)
China’s transportation industry has made rapid progress, which has led to a mass of carbon emissions. However, it is still unclear how the carbon emission from transport sector is punctuated by shifts in underlying drivers. This paper aims to examine the process of China’s carbon emissions from transport sector as well as its major driving forces during the period of 2000 to 2015 at the provincial level. We firstly estimate the carbon emissions from transport sector at the provincial level based on the fuel and electricity consumption using a top-down method. We find that the carbon emission per capita is steadily increasing across the nation, especially in the provinces of Chongqing and Inner Mongolia. However, the carbon emission intensity is decreasing in most provinces of China, except in Yunnan, Qinghai, Chongqing, Zhejiang, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Henan and Anhui. We then quantify the effect of socio-economic factors and their regional variations on the carbon emissions using panel data model. The results show that the development of secondary industry is the most significant variable in both the entire nation level and the regional level, while the effects of the other variables vary across regions. Among these factors, population density is the main motivator of the increasing carbon emissions per capita from transport sector for both the whole nation and the western region, whereas the consumption level per capita of residents and the development of tertiary industry are the primary drivers of per capita carbon emissions for the eastern and central region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0383.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: machine learning; forecast; regression models; Liquified Natural Gas; maritime transportation
Online: 26 July 2022 (03:50:12 CEST)
Recent maritime legislations demand the transformation of the sector to greener and more energy efficient transportation. Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) seems a promising alternative fuel solution that could replace the conventional fuel sources. Various studies have been focused on the prediction of LNG price, however, no previous work has been made on the forecast of spot charter rate of LNG carrier ships. An important knowledge for the maritime industries and companies when it comes to decision-making. Therefore, this study is focused on the development of a machine learning pipeline to address the aforementioned problem by: (i) forming a dataset with variables relevant to LNG; (ii) identifying the variables that impact on the freight price of LNG carrier; (iii) developing and evaluating regression models for short and mid-term forecast. The results showed that the General Regression Neural Network presented a stable overall performance for 2, 4 and 6 months forecast.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0351.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Air transportation; air traffic control; airspace capacity; cell transmission model
Online: 25 October 2021 (12:54:49 CEST)
Air traffic congestion is caused by the unbalance between increasing traffic demand and saturating capacity. Flight delay not only causes huge economical lost, but also has very negative environmental impact in the whole air transportation system. In order to identify the impact of extended TMA on airport capacity, an airspace capacity assessment method based on augmented cell transmission model was proposed. Firstly, the airspace structure was modeled with points, segments, layers, and cells. Secondly, mixed integer linear programming model was built up with maximum throughput or capacity as the objective function. Finally, genetic algorithm was used to find the optimal result, and the results were validated by comparing with the fast-time simulation results generated by total airspace and airport modeler (TAAM) software. It is found that the proposed method could achieve a relatively accurate result in a much affordable and fast way. The numerical results could be very helpful for air traffic controllers to analyze the dynamic traffic flow entering and exiting TMA, so as to make decisions via reasonable analysis and do planning in advance by referring to the airport capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0254.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: compaction; environmental impacts; life cycle assessment; municipal solid waste; transportation
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:34:29 CEST)
Municipal solid waste management is a major concern for developing countries all over the world. The collection and transportation accounts for major portion of expenditure in developing country like India. The compaction of waste is being practiced in some major cities of India as they provide economical benefit but the environmental benefits of compaction are not very clear. The preset study evaluates the environmental impacts due to transportation of non-compacted and compacted waste from the transfer station to the landfill site using life cycle assessment approach. The study compared transportation of non-compacted waste with the waste compacted by the truck mounted refuse compactor and portable stationary compactor. The functional unit defined was the amount of waste generated per day in the study area taken as Patna city and GaBi 10.5 used for impact assessment. The study found that the transportation of waste compacted by truck mounted refuse compactor had the least environmental impacts on all impact categories. The study recommends the compaction of waste by the truck mounted refuse compactor and then proceed for transportation. Also, the compaction of waste is recommended as it improve the overall environment performance of municipal solid waste management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0194.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: container terminal; simulation; simulation-based optimisation; meta-heuristic; horizontal transportation
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:59:50 CET)
At container terminals, many cargo handling processes are interconnected and take place in parallel. Within short time windows, many operational decisions need to be taken considering both time and equipment efficiency. During operation, many sources for disturbance exist. These are the reason why perfectly coordinated processes are possibly unraveled. An approach that considers disturbance factors while optimizing a given objective is simulation-based optimization. This study analyses simulation-based optimization as a procedure to simultaneously scale the number of utilized equipment and to adjust the choice and tuning of operational policies. The four meta-heuristics Tree-structured Parzen Estimator, Bayesian Optimization, Simulated Annealing, and Random Search guide the simulation-based optimization process. The results show that simulation-based optimization is suitable to identify the amount of required equipment and well-performing policies. Thereby, there is no clear ranking which of the meta-heuristics finds the best approximation of the optimum. The approximated optima suggest that pooling terminal trucks as well as a yard block assignment close to the quay crane is preferable. With an increasing number of quay cranes, the number of optimal terminal trucks for each quay crane decreases as well as the range of truck utilization within one experiment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: railway transportation; time-space network; dynamic bottleneck; car flow organization
Online: 15 April 2019 (11:44:10 CEST)
In this paper, the physical station of space network was extended in time dimension by combining the train diagram information and station technical operation standard time. At the same time, the topology of railway space-time network which considered the secondary operation process of train was constructed and an improved A* algorithm based on car flow routing was proposed to generate feasible path sets. On this basis, a dynamic car flow organization optimization model was built to simulate the railway car flow organization process under abnormal conditions, and the results of solving the model could be used to obtain the real-time quantity of cars at each station.This paper can identify the dynamic bottleneck by comparing the real-time quantity of cars with the maximum quantity of cars at the station. Finally, the feasibility of this method was analyzed and verified by a case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0179.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: energy discharge; bubbles burst; bubbles transportation; crystal growth rates; undercooling
Online: 3 January 2019 (09:51:52 CET)
Bio-based glass-forming materials are now considered for thermal energy storage in building applications. Among them, Xylitol appears as a biosourced seasonal thermal energy storage material with high potential. It has a high energy density, a high and stable undercooling allowing storing solar energy at ambient temperature thus, reducing thermal losses and the risk of spontaneous nucleation (i.e., the risk of losing the stored energy). Generally when the energy is needed, the discharge triggering of the storage system is very difficult as well as reaching a sufficient power delivery. Both are indeed the mains locks for the use of pure Xylitol in seasonal energy storage. Different techniques have been hence considered to crystallize highly undercooled Xylitol. Nucleation triggering of highly undercooled pure Xylitol by using an air lift reactor has been proven here. This method should allow reaching performances matching with building applications (i.e., at medium temperatures, below 100 °C). The advantages of this technique compared to other existing techniques to activate the crystallization are discussed. The mechanisms triggering the nucleation are investigated. The air bubble generation, transportation of nucleation sites and subsequent crystallization are discussed to improve the air injection operating conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0307.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Road safety; Safety management; Road transportation; GMDH; GOA-SVM; Machine learning
Online: 20 December 2021 (10:37:05 CET)
Evaluation of road safety is a critical issue having to be conducted for successful safety management in road transport systems, whereas safety management is considered in road transportation systems as a challenging task according to the dynamic of this issue and the presence of a large number of effective parameters on road safety. Therefore, evaluation and analysis of important contributing factors affecting the number of crashes play a key role in increasing the efficiency of road safety. For this purpose, in this research work, two machine learning algorithms including the group method of data handling (GMDH)-type neural network and a combination of support vector machine (SVM) and the grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA) are employed for evaluating the number of vehicles involved in the accident based on the seven factors affecting transport safety including the Daylight (DL), Weekday (W), Type of accident (TA), Location (L), Speed limit (SL), Average speed (AS) and Annual average daily traffic (AADT) of rural roads of Cosenza in southern Italy. In this study, 564 data sets of rural areas were investigated and relevant effective parameters were measured. In the next stage, several models were developed to investigate the parameters affecting the safety management of road transportation for rural areas. The results obtained demonstrated that "Average speed" has the highest level and "Weekday" has the lowest level of importance in the investigated rural area. Finally, although the results of both algorithms were the same, the GOA-SVM model showed a better degree of accuracy and robustness than the GMDH model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0145.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: Highway Beautification; Transplant Shock; Transportation; Tree Health; Tree Establishment; Urban Forestry
Online: 6 November 2018 (14:22:48 CET)
Urban tree planting initiatives can experience high levels of mortality during establishment years. Mortality tied to the stresses of transplanting can be partially negated or exacerbated depending on the species selected, nursery materials used, site conditions present, and management practices employed. Past research has quantified post-planting survival, health, and growth. However, varying climates, species, land use types, and management practices warrant additional region-specific research. The purpose of this study is to assess the success of plantings along Florida highways and identify species, site, and management factors related to tree and palm health and establishment. Results show high annual establishment survival (98.5%) across 21 planting projects ranging from 9 to 58 months after installation, (n = 2711). For transplanted palms, the presence of on-site irrigation significantly improved establishment from 96.2% to 99.4%. No establishment differences were detected with regard to irrigation treatment for small-stature trees, shade trees, and conifers. Additionally, there were significant differences in tree health response among tree groups given species, management, and site factors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0218.v2
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: driverless buses, autonomous vehicles, intelligent transportation, legal issues of autonomous driving
Online: 1 August 2018 (13:45:25 CEST)
Urban transportation in the next few decades will shift worldwide towards electrification and automation, with the final aim of increasing energy efficiency and safety for passengers. Such a big change requires strong collaboration and efforts among public administration, research and stakeholders in developing, testing and promoting these technologies in the public transportation. Working in this direction, in the present work the impact of the introduction of driverless electric minibuses, for the first and last mile transportation, in the public service is studied. More specifically, this paper covers a state of the art in terms of technological background for automation, energy efficiency via electrification, and the current state of the legal framework in Europe with focus on the Baltic Sea Region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0326.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: air pollution; transportation policy; vehicle fleet projections; electric vehicles; exponential smoothing; Greece
Online: 21 December 2021 (12:26:52 CET)
This study provides a thorough review and analysis of the evolution of the Greek vehicle fleet over the last ~30 years, which is next used for the generation of high granularity fleet projections and for the estimation of relevant environmental benefits by 2030. The integrated methodology developed takes also into account vehicle clustering and the Brown’s Double Simple Exponential Smoothing technique that together with the adoption of COPERT based emission factors allow for the estimation of the anticipated emissions in 2030. Expected 2030 emissions levels suggest a reduction across all pollutants in comparison to 2018, ranging from 3.7% for PM10 to 54.5% for NMVOC (and 46% for CO, 14% for SO2, 28% for NOX and 21% for CO2). We find that Greece is on track with national goals concerning the reduction of air pollution from the transportation sector, stressing the positive contribution of EVs and new, "greener" vehicles, and setting new challenges for the further improvement of the sector beyond the 2030 outlook.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0317.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Plasma keyhole arc welding; X-ray observation; Heat transportation; Eddy; Convective pattern
Online: 20 March 2020 (13:03:13 CET)
This investigation aims to discuss the formation process of eddies and the heat transportation in plasma keyhole arc welding. In order to clarify this issue, the measurement of the convection inside the weld pool, the convection on the weld pool surface, also the temperature distribution on the weld pool surface were carried out. The results showed that two eddies were found in the weld pool, which is controlled mainly through the shear force by the plasma flow acting on the weld pool surface. The magnitude, extent and direction of the shear force are thought to be determined primarily by the variation of keyhole profile. The relative shape and strength of each eddy is largely changed depending on the change of the keyhole profile when nozzle diameter changed. These relative strengths of each eddy are considered to decisively govern the heat transport in the weld pool coinciding with the direction of eddies. A larger eddy near the lower part of the keyhole inside the weld pool was found out in the case of 1.6 mm, meanwhile a upward larger eddy was found out near the upper part of the keyhole inside the weld pool in the case of 2.4 mm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: electric vehicles; fuel cell vehicles; sustainable mobility; mobility habits; sustainable urban transportation
Online: 11 April 2018 (05:29:14 CEST)
As the emission regulations get more and more stringent in the different fields of energy and environmental systems, the electric and fuel cell vehicles (FCV) have attracted growing attention by automakers, governments, and customers. Research and development efforts have been focused on devising novel concepts, low-cost systems, and reliable electric/fuel cell powertrain. In fact, electric and fuel cell vehicles coupled with low-carbon electricity sources offer the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and exposure to tailpipe emissions from personal transportation. In particular, Pedal Assisted Bicycles (PAB) popularity is rising in urban areas due to their low energy consumption and environmental impact. In fact, when electrically moved, they are zero emission vehicles with very low noise emissions, as well. These positive characteristics could be even improved by coupling a PAB with a fuel cell based power generation system, thus increasing the vehicle autonomy without influencing their emissions and consumption performances. In this paper, four types of vehicles are compared from an environmental and accessibility point of view: conventional car, bus, electric PAB and hydrogen fuel cell PAB; for such vehicles, the respective utilization stages are accounted for, i.e. without considering the manufacturing process. The analysis has been carried out comparing different vehicles performance along different routes of an Italian middle-size city, Viterbo, which represents a very good pilot case as its Municipality is adopting many solutions suggested by European Union (EU) through the planning tool called Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP). The comparison is based on an ad-hoc developed mathematical procedure, which includes environmental (greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions), health (pollutants toxicity levels) and accessibility time (waiting times) indicators. According to this analysis, electric and fuel cell PAB exhibit interesting advantages over the other vehicles. However, the global economic efficiency of electric or fuel cell apparatus depends substantially on the exploited source of electrical energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: urban public transportation infrastructure; utilization benefits; coupling coordination degree model; Gini coefficient
Online: 1 March 2017 (10:31:45 CET)
The economic, social and environmental benefits generated by the use of urban public transportation infrastructure constitute a complex dynamic urban public transportation infrastructure utilization benefit system. This paper evaluates the coupling coordination among these three benefits taking four Chinese autonomous municipalities as an example. These four cities have large-scale urban public transportation infrastructures but their utilization has many serious problems. The basic function of urban public transportation infrastructure has not been fully played in these cities. Whether the different benefits of urban public transportation infrastructure have been developed in harmony or not is unclear. We analyzed the coordinated development among three benefits by constructing coupling coordination degree model and used Gini coefficient to study the difference of coordinated development among three benefits of four cities. The result shows that the levels of coordinated development among three benefits of urban public transportation infrastructure were lower in these four cities and have positive correlation with it of urban public transportation infrastructure utilization benefit. Raising the level of urban public transportation infrastructure utilization benefit is the most crucial solution of promoting the coordinated development among three benefits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0435.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electric Vehicles; Greenhouse Gas; Climate Change; Transportation; Energy; Renewables; Lifecycle Assessment; Electricity Grid
Online: 17 December 2020 (15:52:28 CET)
An indisputable fact about our planet is that its atmospheric temperature has risen dramatically during the past century. Combustion of fossil fuels and their subsequent greenhouse gas emissions are thought to be the main contributors to recent changes within the Earth’s ecosystem. The transportation sector and electricity generating power plants are each responsible for approximately one-third of these emissions. Shifting towards a cleaner and renewable resources to generate electricity is believed to omit a big portion of polluting substances. Improvements in vehicles’ fuel efficiency and the introduction of alternative fuels besides strategic plans to control travel demand are among the most promising approaches to alleviate emissions from the transportation sector. Recent technology advancements, however, drew much attention to the production and manufacturing of alternative fuel vehicles, electric vehicles in particular. Since these vehicles use electricity as part of or all their powertrain, assessing the amount of emissions they produce is closely tied to the cleanliness of the electricity source. In order for a valid comparison to be made between internal combustion and electric vehicles, hence, a life cycle assessment procedure needs to be followed from production stages to terminal life of vehicles. Involvement of numerous affecting factors during the lifetime of a vehicle on one hand, and the ambiguity in the exact source of electricity used to charge electric vehicles on the other hand bring about more complexities. The latter case is more commonly known as the marginal grid problem, which deals with how a combination of sources used to generate electricity can influence the life cycle emissions. There are also other concerns regarding the growth in fuel-efficient and electric vehicles. Transportation planners argue that new developments in the vehicle industry may attract more people to owning and driving cars. This phenomenon which is better known as a rebound effect not only will result in increased traffic congestion, but it can also outpace the environmental benefits from utilizing electric vehicles. Moreover, since fuel taxes comprise the majority of Highway Trust Funds, alternative ways to compensate for state and federal revenues should be devised. This paper is an attempt to review the existing literature to better elaborate on the role of the transportation sector in controlling climate change threats. More specifically, issues around the use of electric vehicles and how they can contribute to more environmentally friendly communities are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0725.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: traffic monitoring; intelligent transportation systems; traffic queues; vehicle counts; artificial intelligence; deep learning
Online: 30 September 2020 (08:08:38 CEST)
Manual traffic surveillance can be a daunting task as Traffic Management Centers operate a myriad of cameras installed over a network. Injecting some level of automation could help lighten the workload of human operators performing manual surveillance and facilitate making proactive decisions which would reduce the impact of incidents and recurring congestion on roadways. This article presents a novel approach to automatically monitor real time traffic footage using deep convolutional neural networks and a stand-alone graphical user interface. The authors describe the results of research received in the process of developing models that serve as an integrated framework for an artificial intelligence enabled traffic monitoring system. The proposed system deploys several state-of-the-art deep learning algorithms to automate different traffic monitoring needs. Taking advantage of a large database of annotated video surveillance data, deep learning-based models are trained to detect queues, track stationary vehicles, and tabulate vehicle counts. A pixel-level segmentation approach is applied to detect traffic queues and predict severity. Real-time object detection algorithms coupled with different tracking systems are deployed to automatically detect stranded vehicles as well as perform vehicular counts. At each stages of development, interesting experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system. Overall, the results demonstrate that the proposed framework performs satisfactorily under varied conditions without being immensely impacted by environmental hazards such as blurry camera views, low illumination, rain, or snow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0566.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: transportation mode classification; vulnerable road users; recurrence plots; computer vision; image classification system
Online: 24 September 2020 (04:41:32 CEST)
As the Autonomous Vehicle (AV) industry is rapidly advancing, classification of non-motorized (vulnerable) road users (VRUs) becomes essential to ensure their safety and to smooth operation of road applications. The typical practice of non-motorized road users’ classification usually takes numerous training time and ignores the temporal evolution and behavior of the signal. In this research effort, we attempt to detect VRUs with high accuracy be proposing a novel framework that includes using Deep Transfer Learning, which saves training time and cost, to classify images constructed from Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) that reflect the temporal dynamics and behavior of the signal. Recurrence Plots (RPs) were constructed from low-power smartphone sensors without using GPS data. The resulted RPs were used as inputs for different pre-trained Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifiers including constructing 227×227 images to be used for AlexNet and SqueezeNet; and constructing 224×224 images to be used for VGG16 and VGG19. Results show that the classification accuracy of Convolutional Neural Network Transfer Learning (CNN-TL) reaches 98.70%, 98.62%, 98.71%, and 98.71% for AlexNet, SqueezeNet, VGG16, and VGG19, respectively. The results of the proposed framework outperform other results in the literature (to the best of our knowledge) and show that using CNN-TL is promising for VRUs classification. Because of its relative straightforwardness, ability to be generalized and transferred, and potential high accuracy, we anticipate that this framework might be able to solve various problems related to signal classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0389.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: human mobility; residential mobility; smart card; public transportation; opportunity cost of travel time
Online: 26 September 2018 (05:46:51 CEST)
This study attempts to investigate a method for creating an index from mobility data that not only correlates with the number of people who relocate to a place but also has causal influence on the number of such individuals. By creating an index based on human mobility data, it becomes possible to predict the influence of urban development on future residential movements. In this paper, we propose a method called the travel cost method for multiple places (TCM4MP) by extending the conventional travel cost method (TCM). We assume that the opportunity cost of travel time on non-working days reflects the convenience and amenities of a neighborhood. However, conventional TCM does not assume that the opportunity cost of travel time varies according to the departure place. In this paper, TCM4MP is proposed to estimate the opportunity cost of travel time with respect to the departure place. We consider such estimation to be possible due to the use of massive mobility data. We assume that the opportunity cost of travel time on non-working days reflects the convenience and amenities of the neighborhood. Therefore, we consider that the opportunity cost of travel time has a causal influence on future residential mobility. In this paper, the validity of the proposed method is tested using the smart card data of public transportation in Western Japan. Our proposed method is beneficial for urban planners in estimating the effects of urban development and detecting the shrinkage and growth of a population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0421.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: CCS; CO2 pipeline design; pressure drop; pipeline diameter models; CO2 transportation; diameter equation
Online: 26 June 2018 (13:00:01 CEST)
There is need to accurately design pipelines to transport the expected increase of CO2 captured from industrial processes after the signing of the Paris Climate Agreement in 2016. This paper reviews several aspects of CO2 pipeline design with emphasis on pressure drop and models for the calculation of pipeline diameter. Two categories of pipeline equations were identified. The first category is independent of pipeline length and has two different equations. This category is used to specify adequate pipeline diameter for the volume of fluid transported. The optimum economic pipe diameter equation (Eq. 17) with nearly uniform resultant velocity values at different flow rates performed better than the standard velocity flow equation (Eq. 20). The second category has four different equations and is used to calculate pipeline pressure drop or pipeline distance for the installation of booster stations after specifying minimum and maximum pipeline pressures. The hydraulic equation is preferred because it gave better resultant velocity values and the closest diameter value obtained using Aspen HYSYS (V.10) simulation. The effect of impurities on the pressure behaviour and optimal pipeline diameter and pressure loss due to acceleration were ignored in the development of the models. Further work is ongoing to incorporate these effects into the models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: community-based transportation; para-transit; school going children; social security; participa-tory rural appraisal
Online: 28 February 2022 (02:57:13 CET)
Social safety, security, and comfort of school-going children during the travel time to school becomes a subject of anxiety to the parents and is a crucial issue in recent times. In this regard, community-based transport can be a significant way to address social security issues in travel at a reasonable cost and reduce the burden on private mode. In Dhaka city, school van service already exists but due to some sort of problems the service has not been proved an efficient and formal mode of transport for solving mobility problems. This study seeks to identify the existing problems and prospects of the school van service and provide a unique, healthy, safe, and reliable transport mode for children. Applying different tools of the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method, the problems and solutions have been drawn from the community. The recommendations of this study will help the school van services (a community-managed para-transit system) to be more functional in playing a vital role in solving the problems of short-distance travel. This service has great potentialities to be adopted in other trips such as trips to and from offices which will lessen the road congestion at the peak periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0112.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Road-network matching; matching precision; matching recall; network Voronoi area diagram; intelligent transportation systems.
Online: 7 December 2021 (23:44:09 CET)
A road network represents road objects in a given geographic area and their interconnections, and is an essential component of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) enabling emerging new applications such as dynamic route guidance, driving assistance systems, and autonomous driving. As the digitization of geospatial information becomes prevalent, a number of road networks with a wide variety of characteristics coexist. In this paper, we present an area partitioning approach to the conflation of two road networks with a large difference in level of details. Our approach first partitions the geographic area by the Network Voronoi Area Diagram (NVAD) of low-detailed road network. Next, a subgraph of high-detailed road network corresponding to a complex intersection is extracted and then aggregated into a supernode so that a high matching precision can be achieved via 1:1 node matching. To improve the matching recall, we also present a few schemes that address the problem of missing corresponding object and representation dissimilarity between these road networks. Numerical results at Yeouido, Korea's autonomous vehicle testing site, show that our area partitioning approach can significantly improve the performance of road network matching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0340.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Axial canal; reef-building coral; high resolution micro-computed tomography; Acropora muricata; calcareous transportation
Online: 14 June 2021 (09:21:47 CEST)
In Acropora, the complex canals in a coral colony connect all polyps into a holistic network to collaborate in performing biological processes, while axial canal is the largest canal amongst the network and distributes at the center of a coral branch. However, previous studies indicated that, in the non-radial symmetry transport system of Acropora, axial canal do not play a major role in the transport of hydroplasm, and the action of axial canal in coral growth is still obscure. In this study, we reconstructed six Acropora muricata samples by high resolution micro-computed tomography to investigate the growth patterns of axial canals during the processes of new branch forming and truncated branch rebuilding. We found that the axial canal of a new branch is transformed from a calice and the polyps in the new branch are budded from the polyp in the axial canal. Meanwhile, the axial canal can transport the calcareous skeletons to rebuild the tip of a truncated branch, which represents as the change in the diameter of axial canal and calcareous deposition/reduction in it. This work indicate the regulation of axial canal in the growth processes including budding, branching, and mineralising of an Acropora colony.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0013.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transportation infrastructure; concrete bridges; structural health monitoring; bridge condition index; analytical hierarchy process; prioritizing
Online: 1 April 2021 (11:14:27 CEST)
This paper proposes a method for monitoring the structural health of concrete bridges in Iran. In this method, the bridge condition index (BCI) of bridges is determined by the analytical hierarchy process. BCI constitutes eight indices that are scored based on the experts' views, including structural, hydrology and climate, safety, load impact, geotechnical and seismicity, strategic importance, facilities, and traffic and pavement. Experts' views were analyzed by Expert Choice software, and the relative importance (weight) of indices were determined using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Then, the gave scores of experts were assigned to indices for various conditions. Bridge inspectors can examine the bridge, determine the scores of indices, and compute BCI. Higher values of BCI indicate better conditions. Therefore, bridges with lower BCI take priority in maintenance activities. Five bridges in Iran, Semnan province, were selected as the case studies, and BCI calculation of these bridges was conducted.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: ADAS simulation; scenario generation; automated driving; Testing; innovation in mobility; self-driving cars; transportation
Online: 7 December 2020 (11:24:16 CET)
The increasingly used approach of combining different simulation software in testing of automated driving systems (ADS) increases the need for potential and convenient software designs. Recently developed co-simulation platforms (CSP) provide the possibility to cover the high demand on testing kilometers for ADS by combining vehicle simulation software (VSS) with traffic flow simulation software (TFSS) environments. The emphasis on the demand of testing kilometers is not enough to choose a suitable CSP. The complexity level of the used vehicle, object, sensors and environment models is essential for valid and representative simulation results. Choosing a suitable CSP raises the question of how the test procedures should be defined and constructed and what the relevant test scenarios are. Parameters of the ADS, the environments, objects, sensors in VSS as well as traffic parameters in TFSS can be used to define and generate test scenarios. In order to generate a large number of scenarios in a systematic and automated way, suitable and appropriate software designs are required. In this paper we present a software design for CSP based on the Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern and implementation of a complex CSP for virtual testing of ADS. Based on this design, an implementation of a CSP is presented using the VSS from IPG Automotive called CarMaker and the TFSS from PTV Group called Vissim. The results have shown that the presented CSP design and the implementation of the co-simulation can be used to generate relevant scenarios for testing of ADS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0601.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: support vector machine; travelling time; intelligent transportation system; artificial fish swarm algorithm; big data
Online: 25 October 2018 (10:48:45 CEST)
Freeway travelling time is affected by many factors including traffic volume, adverse weather, accident, traffic control and so on. We employ the multiple source data-mining method to analyze freeway travelling time. We collected toll data, weather data, traffic accident disposal logs and other historical data of freeway G5513 in Hunan province, China. Using Support Vector Machine (SVM), we proposed the travelling time model based on these databases. The new SVM model can simulate the nonlinear relationship between travelling time and those factors. In order to improve the precision of the SVM model, we applied Artificial Fish Swarm algorithm to optimize the SVM model parameters, which include the kernel parameter σ, non-sensitive loss function parameter ε, and penalty parameter C. We compared the new optimized SVM model with Back Propagation (BP) neural network and common SVM model, using the historical data collected from freeway G5513. The results show that the accuracy of the optimized SVM model is 17.27% and 16.44% higher than those of the BP neural network model and the common SVM model respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0145.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Rényi entropy; entropy power inequalities; transportation arguments; normal distributions; escort distributions; log-concave distributions
Online: 23 August 2018 (04:24:58 CEST)
Following a recent proof of Shannon's entropy power inequality (EPI), a comprehensive framework for deriving various EPIs for the Rényi entropy is presented that uses transport arguments from normal densities and a change of variable by rotation. Simple arguments are given to recover the previously known Rényi EPIs and derive new ones, by unifying a multiplicative form with constant c and a modification with exponent α of previous works. In particular, for log-concave densities, we obtain a simple transportation proof of a sharp varentropy bound.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: smart system; context aware services; wireless sensor networks (WSNs); information communication technologies (ICTs); cargo transportation.
Online: 25 June 2021 (11:38:30 CEST)
The issues concerning the development of the smart systems for the management of freight transport are related to many factors which are influencing by properties of such a complex processes and ICT development. We are concerned with the recognition of a wide spectrum of services and provision specifics under conditions of wireless communication networks. Also, we are investigated for the adequate provision of context data with problematic of a definition of such context data and with possibilities to apply formalized artificial intelligence methods for recognition of this context information needs for transportation. In this stage of application of the smart system, we are solving the problem of priority of provision of possible providing services, ensuring of quite optimal quality of data supply channels and restriction of flooding of wireless communication channels. The proposed methodology is based on methods of indication of con-text-aware situations and integration of such data into the situation recognition algorithms. The constructions of smart service provision system are developed for more safety management of transportation. The experimental results are demonstrated on analysis of heterogeneity of smart services, construction of schemas for service provision priorities, and extension of potential of intelligent transport with intellectual recognition possibilities of context-aware information in the transportation process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0411.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transportation infrastructure; flexible pavement; structural number prediction; Gaussian process regression; m5p model tree; random forest
Online: 9 June 2020 (11:35:32 CEST)
The most common index for representing structural condition of the pavement is the structural number. The current procedure for determining structural numbers involves utilizing falling weight deflectometer and ground-penetrating radar tests, recording pavement surface deflections, and analyzing recorded deflections by back-calculation manners. This procedure has two drawbacks: 1. falling weight deflectometer and ground-penetrating radar are expensive tests, 2. back-calculation ways has some inherent shortcomings compared to exact methods as they adopt a trial and error approach. In this study, three machine learning methods entitled Gaussian process regression, m5p model tree, and random forest used for the prediction of structural numbers in flexible pavements. Dataset of this paper is related to 759 flexible pavement sections at Semnan and Khuzestan provinces in Iran and includes “structural number” as output and “surface deflections and surface temperature” as inputs. The accuracy of results was examined based on three criteria of R, MAE, and RMSE. Among the methods employed in this paper, random forest is the most accurate as it yields the best values for above criteria (R=0.841, MAE=0.592, and RMSE=0.760). The proposed method does not require to use ground penetrating radar test, which in turn reduce costs and work difficulty. Using machine learning methods instead of back-calculation improves the calculation process quality and accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0420.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transportation infrastructure; bridge management system; concrete bridges; bridge condition index; analytical hierarchy process; expert system
Online: 29 March 2020 (04:55:22 CEST)
This paper proposes a method for determining the bridge condition index (BCI) in concrete bridges, which is based on the views of bridge experts. First, eight indices were defined for a concrete bridge including structure, hydrology, safety, load impact, geotechnical and seismicity, strategic importance, facilities, and finally traffic and pavement. Each index consists of several sub-indices. Next, a series of questionnaires about the relative importance of indices and their sub-indices were prepared and distributed among bridge experts. Experts’ views were analyzed by Expert Choice software and the relative importance (weight) of each index and each sub-index was determined using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Then, based on experts’ views, an average score was assigned to each sub-index for any condition. Now the bridge inspectors can examine the bridge and determine the scores of sub-indices. Each index’s score is the sum of the weighted score assigned to its’ sub-indices and BCI is the sum of weighted scores assigned to indices. Higher values of BCI indicate a better condition. Therefore, bridges with lower BCI take priority in maintenance activities. To apply the proposed method, five bridges were selected in Semnan province, Iran, and BCI calculation of these bridges were conducted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0335.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: active transportation; health impact assessment; physical activity; air pollution; traffic safety; carbon emissions; monetization; online tool
Online: 15 September 2020 (08:40:57 CEST)
The World Health Organization’s Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) for walking and cycling is a user-friendly web-based tool to assess health impacts of active travel. HEAT, developed over 10 years ago, has been used by researchers, planners and policymakers alike in appraisals of walking and cycling policies of both national and more local scales. HEAT has undergone regular upgrades adopting the latest scientific evidence. This article presents the most recent upgrades of the tool. Health impacts of walking and/or cycling in a specified population are quantified in terms of premature deaths avoided (or caused). In addition to the calculation of benefits from physical activity, HEAT was recently expanded to include assessments of the burden associated with air pollution exposure and crash risks while walking or cycling. Further, impacts on carbon emissions from mode shift to active travel modes can now be assessed. Monetization of impacts using Value of Statistical Life and Social Costs of Carbon now uses country-specific values. As active travel inherently results in often substantial health benefits as well as not always negligible risks, assessments of active travel behaviour or policies are incomplete without considering health implications. The recent developments of HEAT make it easier than ever to obtain ballpark estimates of health impacts and carbon emissions related to walking and cycling.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric vehicles charging navigation system; charging path; road transportation network; distribution network; real-time electricity price
Online: 30 November 2019 (09:39:27 CET)
Aiming at the current optimization problem of electric vehicle charging path planning, a charging path optimization strategy for electric vehicles under the "Traffic-Price-Distribution" mode is proposed. This strategy builds an electric vehicle charging and navigation system based on road traffic network model, real-time electricity price model and distribution network model. Based on Dijkstra shortest path algorithm and Monte Carlo time-space prediction method, the goal is to minimize the charging cost of electric vehicles. Optimal charging path. The simulation results of MATLAB and MATPOWER show that the electric vehicle charging path optimization strategy can better solve the local traffic congestion problem and improve the safety and stability of the distribution network on the basic of fully considering the convenience of electric vehicle charging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: traffic management; transportation sustainability; real time traffic signal settings; traffic simulation; cooperative ITS; ITS; traffic flow
Online: 6 November 2018 (13:55:18 CET)
New technologies such as "connected" and "autonomous" vehicles are going to change the future of traffic signal control and management and possibly will introduce new traffic signal systems that will be based on floating car data (FCD). The use of floating car data to regulate, in real-time, traffic signal systems has the potential for an increased sustainability of transportation in terms of energy efficiency, traffic safety and environmental issues. However, research has never explored how not "connected" vehicles would benefit by the implementation of such systems. This paper explores the use of floating car data to regulate in real-time traffic signal systems in terms of cooperative-competitive paradigm between "connected" vehicles and conventional vehicles. In a dedicated laboratory, developed for testing regulation algorithms, results show that "invisible vehicles" for the system (which are not "connected") in most simulated cases also benefit when real time traffic signal settings based on floating car data are introduced. Moreover, the study estimates the energy and air quality impacts of signal regulation by evaluating fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. Specifically, the study demonstrates that significant improvements in air quality are possible with the introduction of FCD regulated traffic signals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0245.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Natural language processing (NLP); topic modelling; BERT; transportation; newspaper; magazine; academic research; journalism; deep learning; smart cities
Online: 17 March 2022 (07:58:15 CET)
We live in a complex world characterised by complex people, complex times, and complex social, technological, and ecological environments. There is clear evidence that governments are failing at most public matters. The recent COVID-19 pandemic is a high example of global governance failure both at preventing such pandemics and managing the COVID-19 pandemic. It is time that all of us take responsibility and look into ways of collaboratively improving the governance of public matters, our matters. While there are many reasons for government failures, we believe the lack of information availability is a fundamental reason that limits the government’s ability to act smartly and allows the lack of transparency to creep into policy and action leading to corruption and failure. To this end, this paper introduces the concept of deep journalism, a data-driven deep learning-based approach for discovering multi-perspective parameters related to a topic of interest. We build three datasets (a newspaper, a technology magazine, and a Web of Science dataset) and discover the academic, industrial, public, governance, and political parameters for the transportation sector as a case study to introduce deep journalism and our tool DeepJournal (Version 1.0) that implements our proposed approach. We elaborate on 89 transportation parameters and hundreds of dimensions reviewing 400 technical, academic, and news articles. The findings related to the multi-perspective view of transportation reported in this paper show that there are many important problems seen by the public that industry and academia seem to not place their focus on. On the other hand, academia produces much broader and deeper knowledge on the subject such as a wide range of pollutions affecting the people and planet do not get to reach the public eye. Our deep journalism approach could find the gaps and highlight them to the public and other stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0673.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: life cycle assessment; agent-based traffic simulation; battery electric vehicles; sustainability; urban transportation; urban mobility; environmental engineering
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:13:30 CEST)
The transport sector in Germany causes one-quarter of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. One potential solution to reduce these emissions is the use of battery electric vehicles. Although a number of life cycle assessments have been conducted for these vehicles, the influence of a transport system wide transition has not been researched sufficiently. Therefore, we developed a method which combines life cycle assessment with an agent-based transport simulation and synthetic electric, diesel and gasoline powered vehicle models. We use the transport simulation to obtain the number of vehicles, their lifetime mileage and road-specific consumption. Subsequently we analyze the product systems’ vehicle production, use phase and End-of-Life. The results are scaled depending on the covered distance, the vehicle weight and the consumption for the whole life cycle. The results indicate that the sole transition of drive trains is insufficient to significantly lower the greenhouse gas emissions. However, sensitivity analyses demonstrate that there is a considerable potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with higher shares of renewable energies, a different vehicle distribution and a higher lifetime mileage. The method facilitates the assessment of the ecological impacts of the complete car based transportation in urban agglomerations and is able to analyze different transport sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0343.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: unmanned aircraft (UAV); sensing; intelligent transportation; image fusion; signal alignment; runway detection; image registration; wavelet transform; Hough transform
Online: 16 October 2018 (08:49:55 CEST)
UAV network operation enables gathering and fusion from disparate information sources for flight control in both manned and unmanned platforms. In this investigation, a novel procedure for detecting runways and horizons as well as enhancing surrounding terrain is introduced based on fusion of enhanced vision system (EVS) and synthetic vision system (SVS) images. EVS and SVS image fusion has yet to be implemented real-world situations due to signal misalignment. We address this through a registration step to align the EVS and SVS images. Four fusion rules combining discrete wavelet transform (DWT) sub-bands are formulated, implemented and evaluated. The resulting procedure is tested on real EVS-SVS image pairs and pairs containing simulated turbulence. Evaluations reveal that runways and horizons can be detected accurately even in poor visibility. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that different aspects of the EVS and SVS images can be emphasized by using different DWT fusion rules. The procedure is autonomous throughout landing, irrespective of weather. We believe the fusion architecture developed holds promise for incorporation into head-up displays (HUDs) and UAV remote displays to assist pilots landing aircraft in poor lighting and varying weather. The algorithm also provided a basis rule selection in other signal fusion applications.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: harmony search; meta-heuristic; parameter optimization; software defect prediction; just-in-time prediction; software quality assurance; maintenance; maritime transportation
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:27:46 CET)
Software is playing the most important role in recent vehicle innovation, and consequently the amount of software has been rapidly growing last decades. Safety-critical nature of ships, one sort of vehicles, makes Software Quality Assurance (SQA) has gotten to be a fundamental prerequisite. Just-In-Time Software Defect Prediction (JIT-SDP) aims to conduct software defect prediction (SDP) on commit-level code changes to achieve effective SQA resource allocation. The first case study of SDP in maritime domain reported feasible prediction performance. However, we still consider that the prediction model has still rooms for improvement since the parameters of the model are not optimized yet. Harmony Search (HS) is a widely used music-inspired meta-heuristic optimization algorithm. In this article, we demonstrated that JIT-SDP can produce the better performance of prediction by applying HS-based parameter optimization with balanced fitness value. Using two real-world datasets from the maritime software project, we obtained an optimized model that meets the performance criterion beyond baseline of previous case study throughout various defect to non-defect class imbalance ratio of datasets. Experiments with open source software also showed better recall for all datasets despite we considered balance as performance index. HS-based parameter optimized JIT-SDP can be applied to the maritime domain software with high class imbalance ratio. Finally, we expect that our research can be extended to improve performance of JIT-SDP not only in maritime domain software but also in open source software.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0022.v1
Subject: Keywords: North Wales; slate mining industry; slate aggregate; secondary aggregate; transportation cost; low quality waste material; physical and chemical properties
Online: 2 October 2019 (06:28:03 CEST)
The slate aggregate has long been perceived as a substandard, low quality waste material with its physical and chemical properties not being competitive with those of the primary aggregates. It is assumed that the slate aggregate particles are not strong, that is not durable and will not compact. This research aims to address those claims and review the available literature on the performance of the slate aggregate. The review inaugurates by analysing the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of slate, before expanding into a literature review of laboratory testing’s on the effect of moisture content on density, compaction and layer thickness of slate aggregate.The paper reviews case studies of construction projects in North Wales, where the slate aggregate has been used for general fill and road building for many years. Some of the case studies include the A55 coastal road and duelling of the A5 in Anglesey (WRAP, 2004), where slate aggregate was successfully used as sub-base. The paper also investigates why many civil engineers are reluctant to use the slate aggregate and regard the material as sub-standard, flaky aggregate. The research paper reviews the potential usages and various products the slate aggregate is suitable for and satisfies the requested standards. The final topic reviewed is the cost of transporting slate aggregate compared with the cost of transport for primary aggregate and the introduction of the Primary Aggregates Tax (Parliament of the United Kingdom, 2011). The last topic includes a critical analyses of the claims that the slate aggregate a commercially viable construction material despite its remote location (Woodward et al, 2004). The transportation cost and the supply chain complexities must be evaluated prior to considering the long-term sustainability of the product (Radanliev et al1-6, 2014, 2015, 2016).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0038.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Public bus transportation; Battery-swapping e-bus; Battery charging; Construction costs; Particle swarm optimization (PSO); PSO-genetic algorithm (GA)
Online: 6 June 2017 (17:52:24 CEST)
The greenhouse gases and air pollution generated by extensive energy use have exacerbated climate change. An electric-bus (e-bus) transportation system favors reducing pollution and carbon emissions. This study analyzed the minimization of construction costs for an all battery-swapping public e-bus transportation system. A simulation was conducted according to existing timetables and routes. Daytime charging was incorporated during the hours of operation; the two parameters of the daytime charging scheme were the residual battery capacity and battery-charging energy during various intervals of daytime peak electricity hours. The parameters were optimized using three algorithms: particle swarm optimization (PSO), a genetic algorithm (GA), and a PSO–GA. This study observed the effects of optimization on cost changes (e.g., number of e-buses, on-board battery capacity, number of extra batteries, charging facilities, and energy consumption) and compared the plug-in and battery-swapping e-bus systems. The results revealed that daytime charging can reduce the construction costs of both systems. In contrast to the other two algorithms, the PSO–GA yielded the most favorable optimization results for the charging scheme. Finally, according to the cases investigated and the parameters of this study, the construction cost of the plug-in e-bus system was lower than that of the battery-swapping e-bus system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0141.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transportation engineering; flexible pavement; pavement condition index prediction; falling weight deflectometer; mlp neural network; rbf neural network; intelligent machine system committee
Online: 12 October 2019 (06:08:32 CEST)
The conventional method used for calculating pavement condition index (PCI) has two major drawbacks: safety problems during pavement inspection, and human error. This paper proposes a method for removing these problems. The proposed method uses surface deflection data in falling weight Deflectometer test to estimate PCI. The data used in this study were derived from 236 pavement segments taken from Tehran-Qom freeway in Iran. The data set was analyzed using multi layers perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks. These neural networks were optimized by levenberg-marquardt (MLP-LM), scaled conjugate gradient (MLP-SCG), imperialist competitive (RBF-ICA), and genetic (RBF-GA) algorithms. After initial modeling with four neural networks mentioned, the committee machine intelligent systems (CMIS) method was adopted to combine the results and improve the accuracy of the modeling. The results of analysis have been verified by the four criteria of average percent relative error (APRE), average absolute percent relative error (AAPRE), root mean square error (RMSE) and standard error (SD). The best reported results belonged to CMIS, including APRE=2.3303, AAPRE=11.6768, RMSE=12.0056, and SD=0.0210.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0001.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Integrated Periodic Timetable (IPT); periodic freight train path (PFTP); train path symmetry; ac-tive overtaking; power-to-mass ratio (PMR); sustainable transportation
Online: 1 June 2021 (08:02:19 CEST)
The article is focused on detailed framework process for hierarchized construction of periodic freight train paths (PFTPs) – allocation of pre-arranged railway capacity to freight rail operators. The framework process considers fluctuations in demand for capacity from freight rail opera-tors, so the quality of a freight train path is related with its construction priority. Introduced framework process aims to offer freight rail operators attractive train paths, with low number of scheduled stops, and this way enhance competitiveness and decrease energy consumption of freight railway as a factor for sustainable development. The proposed generic process is in-tended for all time horizons of capacity allocation. Correctness of the framework process is tested on the example of mainline Prague – Dresden, in the context of prospective (denser) mod-el passenger timetable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0227.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: transportation; mobility; prediction model; pavement management; pavement condition index; falling weight deflectometer; multilayer perceptron; radial basis function; artificial neural network; intelligent machine system committee
Online: 20 January 2020 (11:08:32 CET)
Prediction models in mobility and transportation maintenance systems have been dramatically improved through using machine learning methods. This paper proposes novel machine learning models for an intelligent road inspection. The traditional road inspection systems based on the pavement condition index (PCI) are often associated with the critical safety, energy and cost issues. Alternatively, the proposed models utilize surface deflection data from falling weight deflectometer (FWD) tests to predict the PCI. Machine learning methods are the single multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks as well their hybrids, i.e., Levenberg-Marquardt (MLP-LM), scaled conjugate gradient (MLP-SCG), imperialist competitive (RBF-ICA), and genetic algorithms (RBF-GA). Furthermore, the committee machine intelligent systems (CMIS) method was adopted to combine the results and improve the accuracy of the modeling. The results of the analysis have been verified through using four criteria of average percent relative error (APRE), average absolute percent relative error (AAPRE), root mean square error (RMSE), and standard error (SD). The CMIS model outperforms other models with the promising results of APRE=2.3303, AAPRE=11.6768, RMSE=12.0056, and SD=0.0210.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Urban mobility, urban train lines, modeling, soil mass-structure, soil-structure interaction, PLAXIS, computational mechanics, simulation, smart cities, urban sustainable devel-opment, urban rail transportation
Online: 14 August 2019 (09:27:56 CEST)
Design and advancement of the durable urban train infrastructures are of utmost importance for reliable mobility in the smart cities of the future. Given the importance of urban train lines, tunnels, and subway stations, these structures should be meticulously analyzed. In this research, two-dimensional modeling and analysis of the soil-structure mass of the Alan Dasht station of Mashhad Urban Train are studied. The two-dimensional modeling was conducted using Hashash’s method and displacement interaction. After calculating the free-field resonance and side distortion of the soil mass, this resonance was entered into PLAXIS finite element program, and finally, stress and displacement contours together with the bending moment, shear force and axial force curves of the structure were obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0238.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: hybrid machine learning model; transportation infrastructure; flexible pavement; remaining service life prediction; pavement condition index; support vector regression; fruit fly optimization algorithm (foa); gene expression programming (gep); svr-foa
Online: 20 October 2019 (17:11:10 CEST)
Remaining service life (RSL) of pavement, as a sign of future pavement performance, has always received growing attention from pavement engineers. The RSL describes the time from the moment of pavement inspection until such a time when a major repair or reconstruction is required. The conventional approach to determining RSL involves using non-destructive tests. These tests, in addition to being costly, interfere with traffic flow and compromise users' safety. In this paper, surface distresses of pavement have been used to estimate the pavement’s RSL in order to eliminate the aforementioned problems and challenges. To implement the proposed theory, 105 flexible pavement segments were taken from Shahrood-Damghan Highway (Highway 44) in Iran. For each pavement segment, the type, severity, and extent of surface damage and pavement condition index (PCI) were determined. The pavement RSL was then estimated using non-destructive tests include Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). After completing the dataset, the modeling was conducted to predict RSL using three techniques include Support Vector Regression (SVR), Support Vector Regression Optimized by Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm (SVR-FOA), and Gene Expression Programming (GEP). All three techniques estimated the RSL of the pavement by selecting the PCI as input. The Correlation Coefficient (CC), Nash-Sutcliffe efﬁciency (NSE), Scattered Index (SI), and Willmott’s Index of agreement (WI) criteria were used to examine the performance of the three techniques adopted in this study. In the end, it was found that GEP with values of 0.874, 0.598, 0.601, and 0.807 for CC, SI, NSE, and WI criteria, respectively, had the highest accuracy in predicting the RSL of pavement.