ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0361.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Transgenic rice; metacaspase; ER stress; salinity stress; programmed cell death
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:04:38 CET)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important organelle responsible as protein synthesis regulator in plant. High salinity can also lead to the activation of ER stress, caused by the accumulation of misfolded protein. This could lead to a stress response mechanism, unfolded protein response (UPR). Failure of UPR to reverse the effect of protein misfolding will activate Programmed Cell Death (PCD). Metacaspase genes regulate programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. The present study was focused on comprehensive gene analyses of the expression patterns of type II rice metacaspase (OsMC) genes in response to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and salinity stress in rice leaf and OsMC4 in callus. A strong evidence of unfolded protein response (UPR) during tolerance to both ER and salinity stress was found in the present study. Overexpression of OsMC4 in rice callus as a fusion protein with TagRFP and controlled by the CaMV35 promoter caused major changes in the expression of the stress ER-marker genes, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and Binding immunoglobulin Protein (BiP), and OsMC4 in overexpressing calli. These expression analyses of the OsMC family provide valuable information for further functional studies on the biological roles of OsMCs in PCD related to ER and salinity stress responses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0373.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Rojolele; aromatic rice; intensification system; mutation breeding; transgenic lines
Online: 25 October 2022 (03:10:49 CEST)
Rojolele is an Indonesian traditional rice variety from Klaten (Central Java) that classified as tropical japonica and low land rice which become a premium rice variety and have higher price in the market due to a delicious taste and a fragrance aroma. The agronomic characteristics of Rojolele are having high plant stature with sturdy stems and upright plant shape, thick and rough leaves, strong and deeper root systems, long panicle length, and long duration of life. Rojolele rice cultivation is facing important challenges from drought, diseases, long duration, and lodging. Thus, breeding Rojolele cultivars with resistance to drought, diseases, lodging, and short duration is the major focus for Rojolele rice improvement. Indonesian farmer have learned to successfully cultivate Rojolele by applying practical skills, leading to increase the rice productivity. Molecular breeding program, including quantitative trait loci (QTL), genome-wide association study (GWAS), genomic selection, and genome editing can be applied to improve Rojolele characteristics. In this review, important agronomic and quality traits, intensification system for irrigation and pest control, mutation breeding, transgenic lines, and also future perspectives for Rojolele research were presented. Rojolele is useful for rice breeding program in order to guarantee the food security to overcome increasing population and climate change.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0015.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: RGSV; movement proteins; gene silencing; transgenic mechanism; virus-induced small interfering RNA; RNA silencing pathway; antiviral plant defenses
Online: 2 November 2017 (03:05:04 CET)
Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) a member of Tenuivirus family, is very potent and destructive which effects rice crop in many countries, particularly China. Non coding RNAs have important functions in development and epigenetic regulation of gene expression in numerous organsisms. There is three type of small non coding RNAs have been found in eukaryotes, which are small interferring RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and piwi interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Small RNAs (sRNAs) origination is from the infecting virus which is known as virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs), has responsibility for RNA silencing in plants. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is mainly dependent on RNA silencing (RNAi). Interestingly, RNA silencing happens in plants during viral infections. RNAi technique showed significant results in Nephotettix cincticeps. RNAi technique demonstrated the gene silencing of planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. The proteins P5, pcf4, Dnj, psn5, and pn6 act as potential movement proteins and serve as silencing suppressors for RGSV. VsiRNAs originate from dsRNA molecules which require Dicer-like (DCL) proteins, RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) proteins, and Argonaute (AGO) proteins. RdRP uses ssRNA for perfect RNA amplification process and can also be used for DCL dependent secondary vsiRNA formation. VSRs interfere with the movement of signals during silencing mechanism. Moreover, intercellular movement of viruses is facilitated by virus-encoded movement protein. RNAi is found in many eukaryotes which are related to transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation by gene suppression. Transcription is bidirectional in ssDNA viruses which are originated from dsRNA molecules. In this review, we highlighted the biology of Rice grassy stunt virus and its insect vector and its silencing suppressors. This work will be helpful for plant virologists to understand the whole biogenesis mechanism for rice viruses especially RGSV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0103.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: chalcone synthase; drought stress; flavonoids; transgenic tobacco; overexpression
Online: 12 June 2019 (05:39:29 CEST)
Flavonoids are major secondary metabolites in plants, which play important roles in maintaining the cellular redox balance in cells. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is the key enzyme in the flavonoids biosynthesis pathway, and has been proved to monitor the changes to drought stress tolerance. In this work, we overexpressed a CHS gene in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The transgenic tobacco plants were more tolerant than the control plants to drought stress. The transcription levels of the key genes involved in the flavonoids pathway and the contents of seven flavonoids were also significantly raised in the transgenic tobacco plants. In addition, overexpression of the CHS gene lead to a lower concentration of the oxidative stress product malondialdehyde. Overall, the NtCHS gene studied in this work was considered as a candidate gene for genetic engineering to enhance drought tolerance of plants and improve response to oxidative stress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0101.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Transgenic; Cancer; Carcinogenesis; Immortality; Autonomy; cancer stem cells; senescence
Online: 9 May 2019 (11:29:34 CEST)
Modern research into carcinogenesis has undergone three phases. Surgeons and pathologists started the first phase and established autopsy and biopsy as routine pathology services, in turn establishing morphological traits for tumors and establishing immortality and autonomy as indispensable criteria for neoplasms. A century ago medical doctors and biologists initiated “experimental cancer research” as the second phase, in which they, with help from chemists, established many chemical-induced animal models of carcinogenesis. In this phase, the two-hit theory and stepwise carcinogenesis of “initiation-promotion” or “initiation-promotion-progression” were established, with an illustrious finding that outgrowths induced in animals depend on the inducers, and thus are not authentically neoplastic, until late stages. For the last 40 years, molecular biologists have gradually dominated the carcinogenesis research fraternity and have established numerous genetically-modified animal models of carcinogenesis. However, evidence has not been provided for immortality and autonomy of the lesions from most of these models. Probably, many peers had already collected the lesions from animals for analyses of “cancer” mechanisms before the lesions became autonomous. We herein review monumental work of many predecessors to reinforce that evidence for immortality and autonomy is essential for confirming a neoplastic nature. We extrapolate that immortality and autonomy are established early during sporadic human carcinogenesis, unlike the late establishment in all animal models. It is imperative to resume many forerunners’ work by determining the genetic bases for initiation, promotion and progression, the genetic bases for immortality and autonomy, and which animal models are, in fact, good for identifying such genetic bases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0367.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Transgenic organisms; 2-D DIGE; profiling techniques; maize; allergenicity assessment.
Online: 13 November 2020 (09:27:08 CET)
Profiling technologies, such as proteomics, allow the simultaneous measurement and comparison of thousands of plant components without prior knowledge of their identity. The combination of these non-targeted methods facilitates a more comprehensive approach than targeted methods and thus provides additional opportunities to identify genotypic changes resulting from genetic modification, including new allergens or toxins. The purpose of this study was to investigate unintended changes in GM Bt maize grown in South Africa. In the present study, we used bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis based on fluorescence staining, coupled with mass spectrometry in order to compare the proteome of the field-grown transgenic hybrid (MON810) and its near-isogenic counterpart. Proteomic data showed that energy metabolism and redox homeostasis were unequally modulated in GM Bt and non-GM maize variety samples. In addition, a potential allergenic protein – pathogenesis related protein -1 has been identified in our sample set. These finding highlight the suitability of unbiased profiling approaches to complement current GMO risk assessment practices worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0099.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: genetically modified insects; symbiosis; microbiome; transgenic; self-limiting; insect rearing; mutualism
Online: 7 March 2019 (14:00:12 CET)
Mass insect rearing can have a range of applications, for example in biological control of insects. Since the performance of released biological control agents determines efficacy, the competitive fitness of insects post release is a key variable. Here, we tested whether inoculation with a gut symbiont, Enterobacter cloacae, and gnotobiotic rearing of larvae could improve insect growth and male competitive fitness of a transgenic diamondback moth, which has shown variation in fitness when reared in different insectaries. All larvae were readily infected with the focal symbiont. Under gnotobiotic rearing pupal weights were reduced and there was a marginal reduction in larval survival. However, gnotobiotic rearing substantially improved the fitness of transgenic males. In addition, in gnotobiotic conditions, inoculation with the gut symbiont increased pupal weights and male fitness, increasing the proportion of transgenic progeny from 20 to 30% relative to symbiont-free insects. Gnotobiotic conditions may improve the fitness of transgenic males by excluding microbial contaminants, while symbiont inoculation could further improve fitness by providing additional protection against infections, or by normalizing insect physiology. The simple innovation of incorporating antibiotic into diet, and inoculating insects with symbiotic bacteria that are resistant to that antibiotic, could provide a readily transferable tool for other insect rearing systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0277.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Huntington’s disease; transgenic Drosophila; immune response; phenoloxidase activity; phagocytosis; reactive oxygen species
Online: 16 September 2021 (11:05:34 CEST)
Huntington’s disease (HD) is a late-onset; progressive, dominantly inherited neurological disorder marked by an abnormal expansion of polyglutamine (poly Q) repeats in Huntingtin (HTT) protein. The pathological effects of mutant Huntingtin (mHTT) are not restricted to the nervous system but systemic abnormalities including immune dysregulation have been evidenced in clinical and experimental settings of HD. Indeed, mutant huntingtin (mHTT) is ubiquitously expressed and could induce cellular toxicity by directly acting on immune cells. However, it is still unclear if selective expression ofmHTT exon1 in neurons could induce immune responses and hemocyte function. In the present study, we intended to monitor perturbations in the hemocytes population and their physiological functions in Drosophila, caused by pan-neuronal expression of mHTT protein. We found that pan-neuronal expression of mHtt significantly alters crystal cells and plasmatocyte count in larvae and adults with disease progression. Interestingly, plasmatocytes isolated from diseased conditions exhibit a gradual decline in phagocytic activity ex vivo at progressive stages of the disease as compared to age-matched control groups. We also observed an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plasmatocytes at advanced stages of the disease. In addition, diseased flies displayed elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in circulating plasmatocytes at the larval stage and in sessile plasmatocytes of hematopoietic pockets at of disease. All the parameters were monitored progressively, targeting the circulation at larvae stage and hematopoietic pockets in adults at different disease stages, and many alterations were documented in the early stage itself. These findings strongly implicate that neuronal expression of mHtt alone is sufficient to induce non-cell-autonomous immune dysregulation in vivo. Based on these findings, we propose that further insight into the mechanisms through which neuronal expression of mHtt might be inflicting the innate immune responses would facilitate therapeutic inventions aimed at amelioration of HD pathology and improving the quality of life of the patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0603.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Clock genes; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Ki67; Radiotherapy; Transgenic Per2::luc mice; γ-H2AX
Online: 29 January 2021 (08:15:35 CET)
This study investigates whether a chronotherapeutic treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may improve treatment efficacy and mitigate side effects on healthy liver (HL). HCC was induced in Per2::luc mice which were irradiated at four time points of the day. Proliferation and DNA-double strand breaks were investigated in irradiated and non-irradiated organotypic slice culture (OSC) and ex vivo samples by detection of Ki67 and γ-H2AX. OSC proved useful to determine dose-dependent effects on proliferation and DNA damage but appeared unsuited to test the chronotherapeutic approach. Irradiation of ex vivo samples was most effective at the proliferation peaks in HCC at ZT02 (early inactivity phase) and ZT20 (late activity phase). Irradiation effects on HL were minimal at ZT20. Ex vivo samples revealed disruption in daily variation and down-regulation of all investigated clock genes except Per1 in non-irradiated HCC as compared with HL. Irradiation affected rhythmic clock gene expression in HL and HCC at all ZTs except at ZT20. Irradiation at ZT20 had no effect on total leukocyte numbers. Our results indicate ZT20 as the optimal time point for irradiation of HCC in mice. Translational studies are now needed to evaluate whether the late activity phase is the optimal time point for irradiation of HCC in man.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0023.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: spinal cord injury; X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein; neuroprotection; apoptosis; transgenic mice
Online: 1 December 2022 (09:59:17 CET)
Trauma to the spinal cord causes extensive neuronal death contributing to the loss of sensory-motor and autonomic functions below the injury level. Apoptosis affects neurons after spinal cord injury (SCI) and is associated with increased caspase activity. Cleavage of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) after SCI may contribute to this rise of caspase activity. Accordingly, we have shown that the elevation of XIAP resulted in increased neuronal survival after SCI and improved functional recovery. Therefore, we hypothesize that neuronal overexpression of XIAP can be neuroprotective after SCI with improved functional recovery. In line with this, studies of a transgenic mouse with overexpression of XIAP in neurons revealed that higher levels of XIAP after spinal cord trauma favours neuronal survival, tissue preservation, and motor recovery after the spinal cord trauma. Using the human SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing XIAP we show further that XIAP reduced caspase activity and apoptotic cell death after pro-apoptotic stimuli. In conclusion, this study shows that the levels of XIAP expression are an important factor for the outcome after spinal cord trauma and identifies XIAP as an important therapeutic target for alleviating the deleterious effects of SCI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0053.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: myocilin; myoc; zebrafish; transgenic myoc; anterior segment alterations; retinal dysplasia; matri-cellular protein
Online: 2 August 2022 (09:18:31 CEST)
Myocilin is an enigmatic glaucoma-associated glycoprotein whose biological role remains incompletely understood. To gain novel insight into its normal function, we used transposon-mediated transgenesis to generate the first zebrafish line stably overexpressing myocilin [Tg(actb1:myoc-2A-mCherry)]. qPCR showed an approximately four-fold increased myocilin expression in transgenic zebrafish embryos (144 hpf). Adult (13 months old) transgenic animals displayed variable and age-dependent ocular anterior segment alterations. Almost 60% of two-years old male, but not female, transgenic zebrafish developed enlarged eyes with severe asymmetrical and variable abnormalities in the anterior segment, characterized by corneal limbus hypertrophy, and thickening of the cornea, iris, annular ligament and lens capsule. The most severe phenotype presented small or absent ocular anterior chamber and pupils, due to iris overgrowth along with dysplastic retinal growth and optic nerve hypertrophy. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased presence of myocilin in most altered ocular tissues of adult transgenic animals, as well as signs of retinal gliosis, and expanded ganglion cells and nerve fibers. The preliminary results indicate that these cells contributed to retinal dysplasia. Visual impairment was demonstrated in all old male transgenic zebrafish. Transcriptomic analysis of the abnormal transgenic eyes identified disrupted expression of genes involved in lens, muscular and extracellular matrix activities, among other processes. In summary, the developed transgenic zebrafish provides a new tool to investigate this puzzling protein and provides evidence for the role of zebrafish myocilin in ocular anterior segment and retinal biology, through the influence of extracellular matrix organization and cellular proliferation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0639.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Plants; polyamines; abiotic stresses; biotic stresses; transgenic plants; Plant-pathogen interaction; Plants-fungal interaction
Online: 30 October 2020 (13:10:51 CET)
The biotic and abiotic stresses are the main causes of the loss of agricultural crops productivity, their normal growth and development in the environment. It has been calculated that two-thirds of the major crops are frequently lost due to adverse environmental conditions. The productivity of crops under unfavorable environmental stresses is apparently the main challenge to the breeders and farmers where polyamines (PAs) play diverse roles in environmental stimuli. PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are low molecular weight positively charge compounds have the active potential power to negative charge molecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) is widely distributed in all living organisms. Evidence showed that PAs contribute a lot of different physiological and biological functions, such as cell growth and development, controlling the cell cycle, involve in gene expression, cell signaling, replication, transcription, translation, and membrane stabilization. Naturally occurring polyamines activity acuminated to their involvement with different biotic and abiotic stresses and contribute to the survival of the plant in the environment. Here, we have described the potential mechanisms, synthesis, and various roles of PAs during stresses tolerant and disease resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0212.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: TDP-43; Jun; REST; ERK; mitochondria; cell stress; aggregation; transcription factors; transgenic mice; subcellular fractionation
Online: 9 July 2021 (10:14:47 CEST)
Previous evidence links the formation of extranuclear inclusions of transcription factors, such as ERK, Jun, TDP-43, and REST with oxidative, endoplasmic-reticulum, proteasomal, and osmotic stress. To further characterize its extranuclear location, we performed a high-content screening based on confocal microscopy and automatized image analyses of an epithelial cell culture treated with hydrogen peroxide, thapsigargin, epoxomicin, or sorbitol at different concentrations and times to recreate the stresses mentioned above. We also performed subcellular fractionation of the brain from transgenic mice overexpressing the Q331K mutated TARDBP, and we analyzed REST-regulated mRNAs. The results show that these nuclear proteins exhibit a mitochondrial location, together with significant nuclear/extranuclear ratio changes, in a protein and stress-specific manner. The presence of these proteins in enriched mitochondrial fractions in vivo confirmed the results of image analyses. TDP-43 aggregation was associated with alteration in mRNA levels of REST target genes involved in calcium homeostasis, apoptosis, and metabolism. In conclusion, cell stress increased mitochondrial translocation of nuclear proteins, increasing the chance of proteostasis alterations. Further, TDP-43 aggregation impacts REST target genes, disclosing an exciting interaction between these two transcription factors in neurodegenerative processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Peroxiredoxin (PRDX) 4, chronic inflammatory disease, metabolic syndrome, human PRDX4 transgenic mice (Tg), animal model.
Online: 26 April 2017 (17:57:38 CEST)
The peroxiredoxin (PRDX) family, a new family of proteins with a pivotal antioxidative function, is ubiquitously synthesized and abundantly identified in various organisms. In contrast to the intracellular localization of other family members (PRDX1/2/3/5/6), PRDX4 is the only known secretory form and protects against oxidative damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species in both the intracellular (especially the endoplasmic reticulum) compartments and the extracellular space. Recently, we generated unique human PRDX4 (hPRDX4) transgenic (Tg) mice on a C57BL/6J background and investigated the critical and diverse protective roles of PRDX4 against diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as evaluated its role in the intestinal function in various animal models. Our published data have shown that PRDX4 helps prevent the progression of metabolic syndrome by reducing local and systemic oxidative stress and synergistically suppressing steatosis, inflammatory reactions, and/or apoptotic activity. These observations suggest that Tg mice may be a useful animal model for studying the relevance of oxidative stress on inflammation and the dysregulation of lipid/bile acid/glucose metabolism upon the progression of human metabolic syndrome, and that specific accelerators of PRDX4 may be useful as therapeutic agents for ameliorating various chronic inflammatory diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: animal models; experimental models; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; rhesus macaque; monkey; hamster; ferrets; transgenic mice
Online: 5 July 2020 (15:07:53 CEST)
Background: The use of animal models for biomedical research provides us with a convenient and feasible route to establish causal relationships by recapitulating the temporal sequence of events in a controlled environment with a potential to manipulate the variables at multiple levels including genetic, protein, physiological or environmental. Objectives: The current review was conducted to gain insights into various animal models for the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Material and Methods: A literature review (PUBMED, PUBMED Central, PMC, Google Scholar, Google search engine) following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines performed in early April 2020 revealed 9 articles of interest. Search terms included covid 19, covid-19, novel corona virus, SARS-CoV-2, animal models, experimental models, laboratory models & covid 19 animal models. Two independent reviewers extracted the data; the third reviewer was involved in case of discrepancy. Results: SARS-CoV-2 shares an identical receptor binding domain with the SARS-CoV virus and has a superior binding affinity to the host ACE2. Based on this, the role of rhesus macaques, golden Syrian hamsters, transgenic hACE2 mice and ferrets as animal models have been studied. All four animals are susceptible to infection with SARS-CoV-2 with variable clinical presentation but universal recovery. The respiratory tract is primarily involved in all four models. Involvement of intestines was also seen in at least one study in each animal. Transfer to naïve animals in close contact has been documented in case of hamsters and ferrets. Seroconversion was documented in all although the role of convalescent sera was tested in hamsters only, with positive results though. Air-borne transmission was documented in ferrets and the possibility of feco-oral transmission was suggested for hamsters. The possibilities of recurrence and re-infection were ruled out by experiments upon the rhesus macaques. The fulfilment of Koch’s postulates has been highlighted. Discussion: The various studies available on animal models have been able to establish models of infection and transmission that recapitulate different aspects of disease in humans. However, the response between different animals and the same animal in different experiments is not completely coherent. Some of them do not manifest the disease clinically while others behave differently at molecular and immunological levels. Moreover, the physiology of these animals is not identical to human beings and the findings may not be extrapolated to human beings in an ‘as-is’ manner. Conclusions: The review acknowledges the achievements made by these experiments in a short span of time and highlighted the urgent need for a deeper dive in search of a quintessential animal model which can be studied for efficacy and safety of newer drugs and vaccines before a make-shift from the petri-dish to the human body can be contemplated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0232.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Brassica yellows virus (BrYV); Myzus persicae; transgenic plants with BrYV full length genome; frozen BrYV infected plants; acquisition and transmission
Online: 10 August 2020 (03:34:00 CEST)
Brassica yellows virus (BrYV) is a tentative species of the genus Polerovirus, which occurs widely and mostly damage Brassicaceae plants in East Asia. Since BrYV could not be transmitted mechanically, an insect transmission method is required for further virus research. Here, a reliable and unrestricted method was described, in which non-viruliferous aphids (Myzus persicae) acquired BrYV from transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with virus full length genome germinated from seeds and frozen infected leaves were used to transmit the virus to healthy plants, and there was no significant difference in acquisition rate though transmission rate from frozen infected leaves was somehow lower compared to fresh infected leaves. This novel simple method could be applied to preservation of virus inocula, evaluation of variety resistance to BrYV, biological research on interaction among BrYV, aphid and host, which also provide a new idea on establishing a basic method using virus genomic transgenic plants or frozen infected leaves for other poleroviruses research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0795.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: T cells; chimeric antigen receptor; transgenic T-cell receptor; tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes; exhaustion; terminal differentiation; senescence; apoptosis; adoptive cell transfer; immunotherapy
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:16:55 CET)
Over the last decades, cellular immunotherapy has revealed its curative potential. However, the inherent physiological characteristics of immune cells can limit the potency of this approach. Best defined in T cells, dysfunction associated with terminal differentiation, exhaustion, senescence, and activation-induced cell death undermine adoptive cell therapies. In this review, we concentrate on how the multiple mechanisms that articulate the various forms of immune dysfunction impact cellular therapies primarily involving conventional T cells, but also other lymphoid subtypes, in addition to the various strategies put in place to circumvent these effects. The repercussions of immune cell dysfunction across the full life cycle of cell therapy, from the source material, during manufacturing, and after adoptive transfer are discussed. Applicable to cellular products prepared from native and unmodified immune cells, as well as genetically engineered therapeutics, the understanding and potential modulation of dysfunctional features is key to the development of improved cellular immunotherapies.
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: new plant engineering techniques (NPETs); new breeding techniques (NBTs); GMO; transgenic; genome editing; gene editing; cisgenic; CRISPR; RNAi; willingness to pay (WTP)
Online: 2 September 2021 (12:46:50 CEST)
We review the emerging international body of evidence on attitudes and willingness to pay (WTP) for novel foods produced with New Plant Engineering Techniques (NPETs). NPETs include genome/gene editing, cisgenesis, intragenesis, RNA interference and others. These novel foods are often beneficial for the environment and human health and more sustainable under increasingly prevalent climate extremes. These techniques can also improve animal welfare and disease resistance when applied to animals. Despite these promising attributes, evidence suggests that many, but not all consumers, discount these novel foods relative to conventional ones. Our systematic review sorts out findings to identify conditioning factors which can increase the acceptance of and WTP for these novel foods in a significant segment of consumers. International patterns of acceptance are identified. We also analyze how information and knowledge interact with consumer acceptance of these novel foods and technologies. Heterogeneity of consumers across cultures and borders, and in attitudes towards science and innovation emerges as key determinants of acceptance and WTP. Acceptance and WTP tend to increase when beneficial attributes—as opposed to producer-oriented cost-saving attributes—are generated by NPETs. NPETs improved foods are systematically less discounted than transgenic foods. Most of the valuation elicitations are based on hypothetical experiments and surveys and await validation through revealed preferences in actual purchases in food retailing environments.