ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0120.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Transgender, non-binary gender identity, adolescence, health, well-being, gender nonconforming
Online: 6 September 2018 (15:31:10 CEST)
Purpose: Young transgender and non-binary are exposed to situations of discrimination and have a greater risk of violence. The purpose of this study is to analyze which protective, violence and health and well-being factors have more influence on transgender and non-binary people compared to cisgender people. Method: The sample comprised 856 people between 14 and 25 years old. A survey including questions about sociodemographic information and protective, violence and health and well-being factors was designed ad hoc for this study. Results: The results show non-binary group received the least support from family and friends, higher risk of suffering cyberbullying and a higher feel isolated and unhappy. Non-binary and transgender have suffered more verbal attacks both inside and outside their school and physical attacks at school than cisgender young. Conclusions: These results are important and may contribute to promote public policies and clinical interventions to favor the integration of non-binary and transgender people in our society.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0330.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Brain; Neuroimaging; Transgender; Transsexual; Gender Identity; Homosexual; Heterosexual
Online: 8 April 2021 (10:14:11 CEST)
This review systematically explored structural, functional, and metabolic features of the cisgender brain compared with the transgender brain before hormonal treatment and the heterosexual brain compared to the homosexual brain from the analysis of the neuroimaging literature up to 2018, and identified and discussed subsequent studies published up to March 2021. Our main aim was to help identifying neuroradiological brain features that have been related to human sexuality to contribute to the understanding of the biological elements involved in gender identity and sexual orientation. We analyze 39 studies on gender identity and 24 on sexual orientation. Our results suggest that some neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and neurometabolic features in transgender individuals resemble those of their experienced gender despite the majority resembling those from their natal sex. In homosexual individuals the majority resemble those of their same sex heterosexual population rather than their opposite sex heterosexual population. However, it is always difficult to interpret findings with non-invasive neuroimaging. Given the gross nature of these measures, it is possible that more differences too subtle to measure with available tools yet contributing to gender identity and sexual orientation could be found. Conflicting results contributed to the difficulty of identifying specific brain features which consistently differ between cisgender and transgender or between heterosexual and homosexual groups. The small number of studies, the small-to-moderate sample size of each study, and the heterogeneity of the investigations made it impossible to meta-analyze all the data extracted. Further studies are necessary to increase the understanding of the neurological substrates of human sexuality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0524.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: transgender; fertility preservation; decision making preferences
Online: 22 July 2021 (17:37:03 CEST)
Little is known about fertility preservation within the TGD community. Few receive adequate counseling placing them at risk for decision regret. The goal of this project was to develop, and pilot test the Transgender Fertility Preservation Knowledge Scale (TFPKS) to support the development and evaluation of health education resources. A community engaged; cross sectional retrospective design was used. Participants (n=189) provided information describing demographics, healthcare decision-making preferences, experiences/knowledge of fertility preservation, and treatment decision regret. The sample included 189 TGD adults. Most were white and aged 26-35 (33.3%) and not offered a consultation (73.0%). Many (41.2%) report they would have participated if offered. Knowledge regarding fertility preservation to support this desire was low. Most participants identified a patient-centered (69.4%) decision making preference. Much remains to address the healthcare inequities within the TGD population regarding fertility preservation. Overall participants had low levels of knowledge to support decision making. Further, healthcare system and individual barriers to fertility preservation remain prevalent. A foundational step towards addressing these disparities, is the identification of a valid and reliable instrument to measure TGD knowledge of fertility preservation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: androgens; athletic performance; cross-hormone therapy; gender dysphoria; muscle; sex hormones; sporting policies; strength; transgender men; transgender women
Online: 13 May 2020 (11:25:23 CEST)
Sex dimorphism starts during early embryogenesis and is further manifested in response to hormones during puberty. As this leads to physical divergence that is measurably different between sexes, males enjoy physical performance advantages over females within competitive sport. While this advantage is the underlying basis of the segregation into male and female sporting categories, these sex-based categories do not account for transgender persons who experience incongruence between their biological sex and their experienced gender identity. Accordingly, the International Olympic Committee determined criteria by which a transgender woman may be eligible to compete in the female category, requiring total serum testosterone levels to be suppressed below 10 nmol/L for at least 12 months prior to and during competition. Whether this regulation removes the male performance advantage has not been collectively scrutinized. Here, we aim to review how differences in biological characteristics between biological males and females affect sporting performance and assess whether evidence exists to support the assumption that testosterone suppression in transgender women removes the male performance advantage. In this review, we report that the performance gap between males and females amounts to 10-50% depending on sport. The performance gap is more pronounced in sporting activities relying on muscle mass and strength, particularly in the upper body. Longitudinal studies examining the effects of testosterone suppression on muscle mass and strength in transgender women consistently show very modest changes, where the loss of lean body mass, muscle area and strength typically amounts to approximately 5% after 1 year of treatment. Thus, current evidence shows that the biological advantage enjoyed by transgender women is only minimally reduced when testosterone is suppressed. Sports organizations may therefore be compelled to reassess current policies regarding participation of transgender women in the female category of sport.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0099.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: transgender; nonbinary; transsexual; queer; gender diversity; gender identity disorder; bibliometrics; science mapping
Online: 5 July 2021 (12:48:02 CEST)
Gender and identity issues permeate society as a whole. Therefore, the matters involving transgender individuals should be analised in order to understand the difficulties experienced by this population and the social practices implemented. In this sense, the objective of this study was to investigate the strategic themes and their evolution in relation to the theme. For this, a bibliometric performance and network analysis (BPNA) was carried out with the existing data in the Web of Science database between 1954 and march 2021. Twenty-three thousand and four hundred and seventy-one (23,471) articles were identified, which were included in the SciMAT software to perform a bibliometric analysis, resulting in the graph of the thematic evolution structure and the strategic diagram, in which 8 motor themes and a cross-cutting theme of great magnitude are highlighted, which are discussed in depth. The results show the relation between the transgender theme and gender, identity, sexual orientation, hormone therapy and gender-affirming surgery. It is concluded that, despite the large number of associated researches, some areas of study are still incipient, such as the inclusion of transgender people in the formal labor market and in the prison context, thus opening field for further studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0175.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: sexually transmitted infection (STI); HIV; viral hepatitis; transgender persons; in-depth interviews (IDIs); formative research
Online: 12 October 2022 (14:57:14 CEST)
Background: Sexualized substance use (SSU) is the practice of psychotropic substance usage, before or during sexual intercourse in order to increase sexual pleasure and arousal. It has a strong association with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The present study aimed to assess the knowledge gaps regarding SSUs among the community health mobilizers by interviewing them regarding their knowledge, attitudes, and practices through qualitative approach. Methodology: In-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with a total of nineteen community health mobilizers engaged in counselling of sexualized substance users. A semi-structured open-ended questionnaire with socio-demographic information and probes related to SSU was administered. Informed consent was taken from each participant prior to data collection. Results: Gender-wise distribution indicated that 47% of the community mobilizers are men, followed by transgender persons (32%), and women (21%). Responses of participants highlighted that alcohol consumption was the most observed form of SSU. The findings indicated that drug administration through injection was most common, followed by sniffing and swallowing. Sources of drug pro-curement enlisted by participants included peddlers, peer groups, sexual parties, medical and liquor stores. Only 63% of participants had fair knowledge about STIs such as HIV, viral hepatitis, syphilis, and gonorrhoea. All were familiar with the administration of naloxone injections and the locations of nearby hospitals where patients could be transported in the event of an overdose. Conclusions: The in-depth interviews among the study participants reflected substantial know-ledge gaps related to various areas associated with SSU, which highlights the need for periodic workshops and training for upgradation of existing knowledge and practices among community health mobilizers. This will help to broaden their knowledge of different types of SSUs, the latest substances of abuse, the diseases caused by high-risk sexual practices, and additional health and psychological issues associated with SSUs, which would ultimately help in better counseling and management of sexualized substance users. It may also play a crucial role in the strengthening of capacity-building systems and engagements at the community level. This study may be used as formative research by researchers and policy makers to develop study protocols for multi-centric community-based studies among community health mobilizers and sexualized substance users across the country for further validation and exploration.